Journal of Contemporary Management - Volume 12, Issue 1, 2015
Volume 12, Issue 1, 2015
The relationship between value for money, motives and experience of tourists to the Kruger National ParkSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 426 –446 (2015)More Less
National parks play an important role in countries' quest to attract tourists to generate revenue, to uplift the community and to sustain a competitive advantage. Providing value for money for tourists could confirm this advantage. The perceptions towards value for money may be influenced by a number of factors, people and products. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the factors that influence value for money as well as the relationship between travel motives, experience and value for money at a nature-based product. Regarded as one of the most visited national parks in the world, Kruger National Park is one of South Africa's biggest drawing cards for international tourists. To achieve the goal of the study, a survey was conducted during June 2012 and December 2012. 849 usable questionnaires were obtained. The data analysis consisted of three stages, namely factor analyses, correlation tests and, finally, the effect of motives and experience on value for money was determined using structural equation modelling (SEM).The findings suggest strong correlations between these constructs. This article makes a valuable contribution to the industry in terms of literature and knowledge and would assist managers of nature-based products in establishing a competitive advantage.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 447 –472 (2015)More Less
This article sets out to examine perceptions regarding corporate citizenship behaviour within a province in Zimbabwe. A quantitative research approach was followed. A non-probability sampling technique by means of a convenience and judgemental sample of 500 respondents was drawn from the designated population. A survey was conducted by means of a self-administered structured questionnaire. A total of 419 usable questionnaires were received from respondents. Various statistical analysis techniques were used such as descriptive statistics and frequency distributions, exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha reliability testing and correlation analysis and regression analysis. Seven null-hypotheses were initially developed to test the relationship between the independent, mediating and dependent variables. The findings indicated that three independent variables were related to strategic planning issues regarding corporate citizenship (CC) behaviour, namely organisational social responsibility, personal characteristics and market orientation, while only two dependent variables were related to operational planning issues regarding CC behaviour, namely organisational social responsibility and personal characteristics. Perceptions regarding CC behaviour impacts organisational performance and organisational sustainability of organisations in Zimbabwe. This study could assist organisations to strengthen and acknowledge its role in developing society through good CC behaviour and to pressurise the government to play a significant role in developing CC programmes and to inform policy formulation.
Exploring relationship intention and the duration of customer support in the South African banking industrySource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 473 –495 (2015)More Less
Because it is generally more expensive to attract new customers rather than retain the existing ones, service providers are investing in resources to establish successful customer relationships. In identifying and targeting customers who are willing to engage in a relationship, service providers often rely on the length of time for which customers have supported them. However, relationship marketing strategies would be better directed at customers with relationship intentions, who are more receptive to relationship building. The purpose of this study was first to investigate South African banking customers' relationship intentions and then to determine whether the duration of their support influences their relationship intentions. Non-probability convenience sampling was used to gather data from 276 respondents in the greater Johannesburg metropolitan area. The results indicate that the relationship intention measurement scale was valid and reliable and that respondents with different relationship intentions viewed the five sub-constructs constituting relationship intention differently. The study also established that the duration of the respondents' support did not influence their relationship intentions. It is recommended that, instead of focusing on customers who have supported the bank for longer periods, they specifically target customers with relationship intentions when building customer relationships.
Online service attitudes, site attitudes and site involvement in the South African domestic airline industry - a gender perspectiveSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 496 –516 (2015)More Less
The airline industry experienced rapid growth and airlines are competing for new customers. The industry is experiencing a change in customer behaviour as customers are becoming less loyal and harder to satisfy. The online environment is also changing the way airline tickets are bought and it is vital for airlines to manage their online environment in order to create positive online experiences and atmospherics to satisfy and retain these customers. The aim of this study is to determine if gender differences exist with regard to online service attitudes, site attitudes and site involvement when purchasing airline tickets on the airlines' website. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents who have bought an airline ticket on a domestic airline website in South African within a six months period prior to the study being conducted. Respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling. A total of 250 questionnaires were analysed and the results indicate that significant differences exist based on gender, with females rating each construct significantly more positive than males. Findings from this research may guide airlines in improving their online service and environment and improving online airline purchases for both males and females by embracing these differences.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 517 –543 (2015)More Less
Knowledge of employees' perceptions of the performance management system will assist management to implement such a system more effectively. The purpose of the study was to determine the perceptions of employees regarding the effectiveness of the performance management system at a government department in South Africa. A quantitative research approach was employed and a questionnaire was distributed to 1 200 employees at the department under study. The response rate was 44%. A factor analysis resulted in three main factors, namely personal development, personal performance, and manager support. Descriptive statistics and the ANOVA were performed to determine the perceptions of employees on these three factors. Negativity towards personal development and manager support, and positivity towards personal performance were detected.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 544 –570 (2015)More Less
Over the decades, most authors have interpreted management control to be only limited to setting standards, measuring and comparing actual performance with expected performance, and correcting deviations. However, while using confirmatory factor analysis as a principal technique in quantitative research method, this paper proves that the effectiveness of such a three-tier framework is influenced by a combination of certain management control pillars and prerequisites such as employee empowerment, information technology and embracement of a culture of knowledge management. Although x2 statistics and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) did not indicate good model fitness, on a sample of 416 respondents drawn through multi-stage sampling from 4776 managers and primary healthcare coordinators in the entire South African public healthcare system, the modification indices, and standardised regression weights and the squared multiple correlation co-efficient (r2) confirmed the null hypothesis that the integration of such prerequisites in a healthcare management control framework predicts improvement in compliance with established healthcare standards and effective use of different control techniques. Results indicated that all these edify identification of all deviations and the determining of remedial measures that n for improving the entire performance of a public healthcare setting.
The effect of Lean on staff morale in a rural district hospital outpatient department in KwaZulu-NatalAuthor L. NaidooSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 571 –589 (2015)More Less
Ineffective operations management in health care facilities contributes to poor service delivery and a lackluster work environment. Non-value-adding activities result in job discontentment and low staff morale. This operational action-research aims to identify the effect of Lean on staff morale. The sample consisted of all service nodes and employees of a rural district hospital outpatient department in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A pre- and post-intervention assessment of staff morale was conducted. At the 95% confidence level, pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon paired signed-rank tests depending on data distribution. Bivariate analyses for proportions were carried out using Fisher's test. The implementation of Lean had a positive impact on the proportion of staff satisfied with their jobs (increased from 21.1% to 77.8%; p<0.0001) and those that felt motivated (increased from 15.8% to 77.8%; p<0.0001). The proportion of staff who felt that things were getting better in their department, increased from 21.1% to 83.3% (p<0.0001). Pre- and post-intervention scores for communication strength (p=0.0003) and staff attitude toward teamwork (p=0.002) significantly improved. The application of Lean has a positive effect on job satisfaction and staff morale. The lessons learnt from this study may be emulated for staff morale improvement across similar hospitals.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 590 –614 (2015)More Less
Growth in the number of game farms and hunting lodges (operators) in South Africa has created fierce competition among these hunting operations. In order to remain competitive, it is important to determine what hunters regard as important in order to enjoy a memorable experience. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that contribute to a memorable hunting experience. In addition, the study also determines which socio-demographic and behavioural variables influence memorability of the hunting experience. This was achieved by conducting a structured survey under biltong hunters in South Africa. Complete sampling was used. The data analysis consisted of three analyses, namely Factor analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-tests. Spearmen's correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between ranked variables. The main findings of this study are that socio-demographic and behavioural aspects do impact on the motives of hunters to hunt and enjoy a memorable hunting experience. Occupations, method of the hunt and to hunt alone or in groups, exert the greatest impact on the said motives of hunters. It is also the first time that such a study has been conducted among South African biltong hunters.
Author M.J. MalebanaSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 615 –637 (2015)More Less
This paper investigates gender differences in entrepreneurial intention and the determinants of entrepreneurial intention based on a sample of 355 final-year commerce students from two rural provinces in South Africa, namely Limpopo and the Eastern Cape. The study is based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The objectives of the study were to test whether the TPB can help explain gender differences in entrepreneurial intention and the determinants of entrepreneurial intention. The findings reveal that the TPB is a valuable tool in explaining gender differences in entrepreneurial intention. Male respondents differed significantly from their female counterparts in entrepreneurial intention and the determinants of entrepreneurial intention. Gender had a significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention, the attitude towards becoming an entrepreneur, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The originality of this study and its contribution to the body of knowledge lie in it being the first in a South African context to examine gender differences in entrepreneurial intention based on all the widely established theoretical determinants of entrepreneurial intention using the TPB.
The influence of institutional perceptions on social enterprise outcomes : a South African perspectiveAuthor B. UrbanSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 638 –663 (2015)More Less
Institutionalist theory can provide an appropriate frame of reference for entrepreneurial behaviour with its emphasis on the role of the regulatory, normative and cognitive environments. This article provides a much needed account of current thinking on social entrepreneurship by running a regression analysis to determine the influence of institutional profiles on social outcomes. The results, from a survey of 165 respondents involved in a variety of social enterprises, indicate positive perceptions of the institutional profiles and outcomes measured in terms of impact, innovativeness of the solution, expandability/replication, and sustainability. The study has important implications as social enterprises offer the promise of empowering marginalised segments of the population in BRICs and emerging economies. The main implications of this study relate to developing a country-specific mix of social enterprise institutional profiles, and recognising that the assessment of social outcomes is critical to the fitness of social enterprises.
Supply chain management as a contributing factor to local government service delivery in South AfricaSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 664 –683 (2015)More Less
In the South African news media, there is daily evidence of the breakdown of service provision, particularly in local government, health and social services, policing and judicial support. Within this context, the purpose of this article is to determine first, whether demand management contributes efficiently to service delivery implemented at local government level; second, if acquisition management processes in local government contribute to quality service delivery; and, third, whether contract management processes in local government contribute to quality service delivery. The article is exploratory by nature and primary data were gathered through seven semi-structured interviews at four metropolitan municipalities in South Africa, based on a convenient sampling technique. The article reveals challenges that negatively affect service delivery. It is recommended that cross-functional sourcing teams be formed to embark on demand management activities and that municipalities consider investing in risk management tools that can be used to evaluate possible suppliers prior to awarding tenders. The findings and recommendations of this article add to the body of knowledge of supply chain management performance in local government in South Africa and how effective supply chain performance management impacts on service delivery.
The journey of applied leadership through a structured leadership and management development programmeSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 684 –702 (2015)More Less
This paper examines whether or not delegates who successfully complete a structured leadership and management development intervention alter some of their existing leadership and management practices and/or implement some of the newly acquired knowledge and skills back in the workplace. A sample of 13 participants who successfully completed this programme between 2012 and 2013 at a large South African university provided insight into their experiences of the transfer of training regarding these practices. Conducting a thematic analysis of the narratives revealed that most delegates applied a myriad leadership practices that supported the intended outcomes of the leadership programme that they had completed. In their endeavours to apply newly acquired knowledge and skills, the study revealed many factors that hampered and/or enhanced the implementation of these leadership practices. This study found that the main motivation for the application of these new practices were self-initiated and reside only within the immediate sphere of the respondent's own influence, that is his or her colleagues and team members. It was also discovered that environmental factors, such as the line manager's involvement and the existing and predominant culture and climate of the institution, once again inhibit and/or promotes the transfer of training in the workplace.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 703 –733 (2015)More Less
The tourism industry is becoming more competitive by the day; in order to remain competitive, it is of paramount importance that competitive advantage factors be identified by tourism destinations such as national parks. The purpose of this research was to determine the said factors of South Africa's flagship national park: the Kruger National Park. To achieve this, a survey was conducted at this park in 2013 where 436 questionnaires were administered to overnight visitors at selected rest camps in its southern region. A factor analysis revealed five competitive advantage factors: Wildlife Experiences, Marketing and Branding, Accommodation and Retail, Visitor Management and Suprastructure and Amenities. The Kruger National Park's management can exploit these results to improve its current position as a competitive tourism destination. The competitive advantage factors that have been identified are distinctive for national parks, thereby contributing towards the body of knowledge on this topic. The competitive advantage factors could lead to an increase in product and service quality offered by the park and enhance the visitor's experience, therefore leading to increased visitor numbers to the park and higher income to have the park become more self-sufficient.
General employee perceptions of gender-based discrimination in a selection of South African organisationsSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 734 –756 (2015)More Less
Gender-based discrimination is prohibited in many countries, including South Africa. Despite this prohibition,employees continue to report discrimination. These perceptions affect individuals and organisations negatively.The aim of this research was to gauge the levels of perceived gender-based discrimination and to comment on gender differences in this respect. Information was gathered from 1 740 employees working for 29 organisations, using the Fair Treatment at Work Survey and the Gender-Based Discrimination Questionnaire. Percentage wise more women reported incidents of discrimination at work, gender being the primary reason for discrimination. Men also reported discrimination, but this was less often. Some women reported pro-male discrimination and other women pro-female discrimination. The same pattern applied was found with men. Each group perceiving similar levels of discrimination, both in their favour and against them, supporting social identity theory and conceptions about group-serving bias.The central finding was that both male and female employees experience the negative effects of perceived discrimination. Therefore it is recommended that interventions dealing with gender discrimination should be directed at both gender groups, as both needs to deal with the consequences of experiencing discrimination in the workplace.
Author Nico MartinsSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 757 –774 (2015)More Less
The purpose of the study was to assess the employee engagement questionnaire's degree of factorial invariance across the main business sectors in South Africa. One of the limitations highlighted in previous studies was that the validity does not focus on invariance testing among different demographical groups. Given the differences between business sectors, the focus of this study was to determine whether the questionnaire can be used with confidence in different business sectors.
A quantitative research study was conducted using a database of a research company, which is made up of 285 000 business people from various industries, sizes of business and occupying different roles, reflecting the profile of the South African working population. A total of 4125 employees completed the employee engagement questionnaire. The results confirmed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The invariance testing as determined by structural equation modelling indicated mixed results. The final analysis indicates that invariance can be assumed for all the sectors except community and manufacturing.
The employee engagement questionnaire can thus be used with confidence in most of the surveyed sectors but needs to be tested individually for validity and reliability for the community and manufacturing sectors.
Author A.J. De BruynSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 775 –794 (2015)More Less
Purpose - This article reports on a qualitative, interpretivist case study to gain a deeper understanding on purpose establishment during the implementation of effective virtual teams within the software section of the technology industry of South Africa. Virtual teams are common in the technology industry, a strategic contributor to wealth creation, sustainable organisations and competitiveness.
Design/Methodology - A purposive sample was selected, and data were collected through an electronic questionnaire and analysed by means of content analysis.
Findings - Empirical evidence suggested that, because of flexibility, traditional management practices may not be effective in virtual teams any longer. A formal pre-existing electronic management system, networking and an alternative orientation towards technology, enhance team performance, effectiveness and competitiveness werefound to be prerequisites for successful implementation of virtual teams in an organisation.
Limitations - The study is limited to the software section of the technology industry of South Africa only. The themes however may be replicated in other organisations.
Contribution - This study contributes to the emerging body of knowledge on the effective functioning of virtual teams and labour relations orientation.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 795 –814 (2015)More Less
Digital natives are increasingly using social media platforms to share information with their peers. As such, they have become an important market segment for marketing managers who want to capture and retain them through their social media activities. In this study, we examine how trust and ease of use of social media platforms amongst digital natives' virtual communities in South Africa influence information sharing with their peers. In addition, we focus on the mediating role of social media use intention in these peer-to-peer relationships. Further, we discuss the implications of this study for managers. We collected data from 150 respondents in South Africa and used Smart PLS software version 2.0 for variance-based partial least squares structured equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to analyse our data. Drawing on the Use and Gratification Theory, we demonstrate that social media ease of use is a significant antecedent and tool that influences digital natives' desire to use social media for information sharing. The insights from this study suggest that managers need to ensure that they use social media platforms that are user-friendly if they want to attract and retain digital natives. This study makes a significant contribution to the social media use in a management context by providing practical recommendations to marketing decision-makers.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 815 –837 (2015)More Less
This study explores the human resource outcome factors as antecedents to the effectiveness of commercial banks in Nigeria. Drawing insights from previous studies on HR outcomes, employee skills, attitudes and behavioural patterns were identified as factors influencing HR outcomes. non-experimental research design was adopted utilising the principle of correlational/observational approach to determine which factors play the most prominent role in HR outcomes in the banking industry. Three hundred and eighty questionnaires were distributed to different categories of employees among the selected commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sampling technique was used. The collected data were analysed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 and the IBM SPSS Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 22. The findings showed that employee attitudes to work (satisfaction with job fulfilment, empowerment and work facilitation) made the largest contributions to HR outcomes in the Nigerian banking industry.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 838 –861 (2015)More Less
Efficient fulfilment of e-customers' orders is a critical core business activity that influences effective performance of the modern e-retail enterprises. Unfortunately, ensuring smooth flow of goods from suppliers to e-customers' homes is a challenge that most of the South African e-retailers are still grappling with.
A conceptual analysis was used as a qualitative research technique in this study to identify inhibitors and strategies that can be adopted for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery systems in the contemporary South African e-retail enterprises. Critical analysis of theories on logistical management in e-retail operations was undertaken and compared with the findings of studies conducted on e-retail operations in South Africa.
Findings indicated that efficiency and effectiveness of the delivery systems of most e-retail enterprises are predicted by the warehouse operational models and delivery methods adopted by e-retail executives.Some of the South African e-retailers were found to have invested in the establishment of effective internal and external logistical management systems such as click-and-collect "locker model" and outsourcing to third party courier companies. However, findings revealed that the overall process of handling logistical flow from suppliers to e-customers' homes is still largely inhibited by poor activities' coordination between e-retailers, courier companies and suppliers. Other challenges were noted to be latent in late deliveries, unwillingness of e-customers to pay additional delivery costs, incompatibility of operational culture and poor after-sales service quality.
The study concludes with a strategic framework that can be adopted for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery systems of the modern South African e-retail enterprises.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 12, pp 862 –880 (2015)More Less
This article advocates the extension of the resource-based view by proposing a new theory to understand the creation of sustainable competitive advantage, using a services firm in the motor industry in Kenya as a case. The research question is : How has a consistently high-performing firm in the motor service industry managed to create and sustain competitive advantage over its rivals, thus achieving superior performance and gaining market leadership? A qualitative case study of a consistently high performing firm in the motor services industry in Kenya was used to answer the research question. To collect data, in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face audio-taped interviews with nine senior managers including the chairman and CEO were employed. This study's key findings include that tangible resources should possess the characteristics of rarity, valuable, in imitability and non-substitutable which create sustainable competitive advantage. The results further show how activities, through activity drivers, acted on tangible resources with unique characteristics to create sources of sustainable competitive advantage for the firm, generating consistently superior performance, thus enabling the firm to capture and retain a large market share. The empirical results show that tangible resources include state of-the-art modern showrooms, service workshops, financial resources, spare parts warehouses and human resources. This research contributes to the development of a new theory that integrates the resource- and activity-based view of management.