Journal of Contemporary Management - Volume 9, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 9, Issue 1, 2012
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 1 –23 (2012)More Less
Although South African businesses have made significant progress regarding environmental management, many businesses still do not recognise the need to become green. Green businesses adopted environmentalism across the business functions using fewer natural resources. The primary objective of this paper is to explore the effect of greening on the core business functions in the retail- and finance industries. A quantitative research approach is followed. A non-probability convenient sample of 140 businesses was surveyed in the Nelson Mandela Metropole using self-administered questionnaires. It was found that retail businesses perceive their marketing/sales and operations functions as greener than their finance and human resource functions; however finance businesses perceive their finance and human resources functions as greener. Greening the operations functions differ in retail and finance businesses as products and services offered differ considerably in these two sectors. The human resource-, marketing/sales and finance functions can utilise the same green business practices in both sectors.
The perceived contribution of the practise of strategic marketing on the performance of South African companiesSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 24 –47 (2012)More Less
Despite criticism that the marketing discipline has a diminished role and influence within academia and business, there is general agreement that strategic marketing practice could contribute to company performance. The focus of this article is on how South African companies implement key strategic marketing concepts in order to establish a pattern of organisational behaviour around strategic marketing practice. The perceived contribution of these practices on company performance is also established. The South African perspective provides new insight into the practice and compliance of marketers within the context of developing countries. Insight of 167 South African marketing executives, obtained by means of a quantitative survey, suggests that although most firms performed strategic marketing activities, they were less confident that they established a competitive advantage or customer insight from doing so. The relative importance of customer insight was demonstrated by the fact that it had a significant correlation with financial performance, whereas segment-based marketing activities did not. Merely 'ticking the boxes' and performing strategic marketing activities for the sake of it is thus not enough to improve financial performance.
Factors inhibiting the South African automotive industry from fully contributing to local economic developmentSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 48 –65 (2012)More Less
This article reports on the findings of research that investigates supply chain factors that hinder the South African automotive industry from fully contributing to local economic development. In order to identify these factors, a literature review and empirical research were undertaken. The literature study includes an overview of local economic development and supply chain management. This is followed by a report on an empirical study consisting of two phases in the form of semi-structured interviews with participants at leading automotive assembly plants and an opinion survey done among automotive component manufacturers.
The interviews revealed that automotive assembly plants have to import too many parts as there is a lack of local suppliers in the markets. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that existing local suppliers are scattered across the country. The opinion survey revealed that the financial stability of suppliers, the high cost and inefficiencies of South African ports and the availability of skills are factors that prevent the South African automotive industry from fully contributing to local economic development. These factors are mainly caused by rapid developments in supply chain management, technological advancements, globalisation, intensified competition and the recent global economic recession. If handled correctly, these factors present opportunities for local economic development.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 66 –88 (2012)More Less
South Africa's national parks are one of South Africa's major attractions. Since visitors are among the most important role players in the sustainability of these parks, and in-depth research is needed to understand them, this article analyses the push and pull factors that bring them to the parks. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect data on these factors and the socio-demographic profile of the visitors. Surveys conducted at nine National Parks produced 1300 questionnaires. The factor analysis identified two push and three pull factors underlying visitors' motives for visiting the parks. Differences in the push and pull factors for different socio-demographic subgroups were examined. It was clear that visitors are pushed to parks to relax, and pulled by nature as a product. It was also found that age, whether accompanied by children, province of residence, educational level and home language had a significant influence on the push and pull factors. With the current number of other tourism products competing for nature based tourists, this type of information can ensure that the most appropriate marketing messages are communicated to potential visitors and that the parks are sustained.
The attitudes of urban South African consumers residing in Gauteng toward advertising regulations and practicesAuthor D.J. PetzerSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 89 –112 (2012)More Less
Consumers are typically exposed to various advertising messages, but only comprehend an iota of what they are exposed to. Marketers therefore often push the boundaries of what is socially acceptable in order to break through the clutter. To combat such practices, advertising is often strictly regulated. However, little is known about consumers' attitudes towards advertising regulations and practices.
This study aims to uncover the attitudes of urban South African consumers towards advertising regulations and practices. The population studied included urban South Africans residing in Gauteng. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit responses. Fieldworkers employed a two-stage non-probability sampling procedure to collect 270 useable responses.
The findings indicate that respondents are in favour of strict government regulation of advertising and that advertising regulations should be enforced by government instead of industry. The study identified differences with regard to attitude towards advertising regulations and practices amongst respondents, based upon demographic characteristics. The findings could guide industry and government regarding their perceived role in regulating advertising and also lead marketers in creating advertising messages that urban South Africans will accept.
The influence of employee effort, perceived quality and corporate image on customer loyalty in the cellular industrySource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 113 –131 (2012)More Less
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how employee effort, perceived quality and corporate image affect customer loyalty in the cellular industry. Regression analysis was used to test the significance of the relationships that exist between the constructs. The findings indicate that perceived quality has the strongest impact on customer loyalty, followed by corporate image and then employee effort. Corporate image, in turn, is influenced by both employee effort and perceived quality, with perceived quality having a stronger impact on corporate image. Employee effort also has a significant influence on perceived quality. The findings are useful to managers because they will be able to manage what the company does internally through employees and what the company does externally through corporate image to enhance customer loyalty. The findings are also useful to researchers because this study combines the branding effort and employee effort in a model and demonstrates the impact.
Author I.M. AmbeSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 132 –149 (2012)More Less
This article provides a perspective on supply chain management in the public sector. The concept of supply chain management has evoked interest in organisations, including those in the public sector. In spite of the interest and employment of supply chain management in the public sector, little has been done compared with what has been achieved in the private sector, and the concept is not fully understood by many public sector practitioners. The article adopts a theoretical analytical approach and provides a discussion of the differences between supply chain management in the public and private sectors.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 150 –171 (2012)More Less
The objective of this research is to determine the expectations, perceptions as well as the experience the South African Police Service (SAPS) employees have regarding the Employee Assistance Services (EAS). No sampling strategy was used, with the result that all available employees (and EAS professionals as administrators) were included in the study (N=37 816). The questionnaire was designed using eight cross-cutting principles in the EAS (referred to as factors), namely (i) information; (ii) support and understanding; (iii) accessibility; (iv) availability; (v) responsiveness; (vi) confidentiality; (vii) credibility, and (viii) the proactive / empowerment approach. The measuring scale is a 5-point Likert scale. The experience was measured by isolating the responses of those employees who have used the services of the EAS in the past year. The results indicated a high overall expectation of the EAS regarding all eight principles (combined average of 4.5), followed by a slightly lower overall perception (combined average of 3.2), and a combined average of 3.5 regarding the overall experience of participants who have used the services of the EAS in the past year.
An empirical investigation into customers' attitude towards usage of cell phone banking in Gauteng, South AfricaSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 172 –189 (2012)More Less
The need to reduce operational costs and meet the increasing expectations of customers while remaining competitive has forced banks to deploy information technologies into the provision of banking services. The adoption rate of some of these electronic banking services is, however, not as good as initially hoped for. This study expanded the Technology Acceptance Model by including trust, subjective norm and demographic variables to understand the factors that influence retail banking customers' attitude towards cell phone banking services. Data was collected from retail banking customers in Gauteng, South Africa, using a self filling structured questionnaire. A total of 394 usable responses were received. Result of the analysis show that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust and subjective norm are all significantly related to attitude towards cell phone banking. Trust was, however, found to have the strongest predictive power on customers' attitude towards cell phone banking than all the other variables. Furthermore, attitude was found to contribute significantly to customers' intention to start using/continue using cell phone banking services. These findings have wider implications on efforts aimed at encouraging more customers to make use of cell phone banking and these have been highlighted in the paper.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 190 –211 (2012)More Less
Lean supply chains aim to reduce cost and waste and have to be managed accordingly. The article proposes a theoretical road map for managing lean supply chains. The road map consists of three major elements. The first element establishes whether organisations should implement a lean supply chain strategy or not. This decision is based on the supply chain determinants of market demand predictability, market winners and the position of the supply chain's decoupling point (if necessary). Once a lean supply chain strategy is suggested based on these theoretical principles, the road map advises organisations how their supply chain drivers should be managed to conform to lean supply chain principles. The road map also indicates which key performance indicators are important to measure performance within lean supply chains. The road map was tested empirically within four organisations. The article concludes that the road map can be useful for organisations to manage their lean supply chains.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 212 –233 (2012)More Less
While a 10-minute safety speech is being made, two persons will be killed and about 500 will suffer a disabling injury in the workplace. Too many lives are lost globally, not only in large enterprises but also in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Focusing on SMEs in South Africa, this article discusses the incident rate, the number of serious injuries incurred, the incident investigation processes that SMEs follow and the main reasons why incidents happen. It then offers suggestions on how to decrease the incident rate. The article has been based on an empirical study during which SME owners and managers were telephonically interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. The results showed that too many incidents still occur, and that the incident investigation process is not always followed. Human error seems to be the main reason why incidents happen. It is believed that both managers and employees need safety-related education, as well as training and assistance to establish a safety environment in the workplace and implement a safety management system.
Perceptions regarding the implementation of corporate governance practices within selected organisationsAuthor E.E. SmithSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 234 –256 (2012)More Less
This article sets out to investigate the perceptions regarding the implementation of corporate governance practices in selected organisations within the Nelson Mandela Bay region of South Africa. Research literature on corporate governance has recently attracted a lot of attention due to governance scandals in major corporations across the globe. To be able to achieve the research objectives of this research project, both a literature study and an empirical investigation were conducted. The comprehensive literature study, mainly based on journal articles, formed the theoretical framework for collecting the primary data. One hundred and seventy five self-administered questionnaires were returned from organisations in the selected population. A total of 80 null-hypotheses were formulated and tested as to investigate the relationship between the 10 dependent variables (perceptions regarding corporate governance practices) and eight independent variables (demographical data). Only six null-hypotheses indicated statistically significant relationships between these variables and are reported in this article. With the increased responsibility and accountability of organisations to its stakeholders, there is a need to develop a code of corporate governance as to guide organisations towards appropriate stakeholder relations. Practical guidelines are provided as to ensure more effective implementation of corporate governance practices in the workplace of today.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 257 –278 (2012)More Less
This paper proposes Information Security Service Management (ISSM) as an improved alternative to the present-day approach to information security management in the organisation. It first discusses the roles of information security management and the end-users in developing and maintaining the state of information security in the organisation. The paper argues that one of the serious issues of information security management, namely the non-compliance exhibited by end-users, can actually be traced back to the bureaucratic nature of present-day information security management. To provide a way out, the paper formulates the CARE principles towards a more end-user centric approach. The paper also proposes ISSM that is based on the principles of current-day service management. The paper concludes with the major components of ISSM, and provides guidance for the implementation of ISSM in the organisation.
Author E. MnkandlaSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 279 –299 (2012)More Less
Many organisations do not perform risk management in their systems development projects; hence many projects tend to be like uninsured assets. Since the massive increase in computer programs, supply and maintenance of information systems has remained a problem. The maintenance problems of these large systems were mainly due to the informal structure which was followed in the development of the applications. Systems development methodologies were therefore authored to deal with these fears or risks. It has thus been a general assumption that methodologies take care of risks in a project and generally improve the effectiveness of the products. This article presents a technique for analysing what components of a systems development methodology address what type of risks. Using this technique it is possible to determine how well a methodology addresses certain risks and therefore results in better decisions about what methodologies would be suitable for your project.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 300 –323 (2012)More Less
The ICT sector in South Africa is pivotal to economic development, and innovation as a corporate strategy is a logical response to the presence of industry related environmental conditions, in terms of competitive intensity, technological change and evolving product-market domains. Despite the importance of this sector, little in-depth research regarding corporate entrepreneurship has been undertaken in the ICT industry context. This study contributes to existing literature and extends current knowledge of corporate entrepreneurship by linking it with culture and firm performance. Based on a websurvey, 114 firms in the ICT sector were studied in terms of any evidence of an entrepreneurial orientation and culture, as well as organisational performance which was measured with various growth indicators. The empirical findings emanating from this study show that the entrepreneurship orientation and culture have a significant and positive relationship with higher company performance, adding support to all of the study hypotheses. The study provides guidance to managers and company leaders interested in undertaking intrapreneurial practices and accessing links to firm performance.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 324 –340 (2012)More Less
The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree of the expectation-disconfirmation of the employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) towards the Employment Assistance Services (EAS) from which strategies should be developed and implemented to address the issues regarding the employees' perceptions, expectations and experiences regarding the EAS. This article expands on the expectation disconfirmation model identified in previous research. All available employees were included in the study (N = 37 816), therefore no sampling strategy was used. The Employee Assistance Services professionals administered the survey instrument. The results of the study indicated that the employees of the SAPS experienced a negative disconfirmation regarding the EAS physical factors.
Author C. MarnewickSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 341 –363 (2012)More Less
Foreign direct investment is an important aspect for developing countries. The problem is that investors do not know beforehand whether these investments will provide the necessary return on investment. These investments are implemented through projects and project management principles. The question is whether project management is the vehicle to deliver these investments. This research focuses on the success rate of projects within the Southern African Development Community (SADC). A questionnaire was used to determine the success rates and project management maturity levels of projects and organisations within the SADC region. There is currently no information available regarding project success within the broader African context and specifically the SADC region as an entity. The results indicate that delivered projects are perceived as successful irrespective of the project management maturity levels. The results also indicate that project success is measured across a wide spectrum of criteria. This research adds to the current body of knowledge regarding project success and gives a much needed African perspective. In practice the implication is that investors can feel comfortable that the project management discipline will deliver the benefits.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 364 –381 (2012)More Less
Towards the end of the 1975-2002 civil war, Luanda, the capital of Angola, experienced unprecedented urban growth. The pressure to reduce the housing backlog gave rise to large scale governmental residential development initiatives such as the Nova Vida housing project. Although the project experienced minor cost and schedule overruns the key question remains as to whether or not the project met the desired quality parameters in terms of resident satisfaction. As part of overall project quality performance measurement and continuous improvement cycle procedures, a post-project evaluation was done to investigate the level of satisfaction of the Nova Vida residents with their homes. A questionnaire was distributed among the Nova Vida residents measuring four factors namely (i) house design and architecture, (ii) house functionality, (iii) accessibility, and (iv) neighbourhood and community amenities. From the results it was possible to assess that the main concerns related to design, planning and urban management of infrastructure, public services and utilities. In general dissatisfaction is significantly higher for apartment residents than for house residents. The objective of providing safe, practical and comfortable living space was achieved. The results provided insight into the experiences of the Nova Vida occupants and are valuable input towards improving the planning, design and quality of future government housing projects.
Author R.V. WeeksSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 382 –401 (2012)More Less
The implementation of the National Health Insurance (NHI) is one of the government's strategic priorities. From a services management perspective it is suggested that the project necessitates a fundamental review, analysis and in some instances adaptation of key healthcare delivery and support systems to realise the strategic objective of providing patients with quality care and cost effective health services. It is envisaged that the project will be implemented over a 14 year period and cost over R300 billion. It would seem that the project will feature as one of the most ambitious, costly, complex, and multidisciplinary systems re-engineering projects ever undertaken by the Department of Health (DOH). The dysfunctionality of healthcare service delivery and the underpinning support systems appear to be generally acknowledged and the question posed is one of what needs to now be done to address the situation from a systems management perspective. The question posed is explored by means of a multi-disciplinary, contemporary literature study in order to gain an understanding of the management issues involved. Healthcare informatics, critical skill sets and organisational culture emerge as essential factors of transformation management that need to be taken into consideration.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 9, pp 402 –420 (2012)More Less
Worldwide, tertiary institutions convey financial management information to students as future employees in financial departments. However, the question is whether the content of financial management modules at tertiary institutions is relevant in practice. This study focused on investigating the relevance of the content of the financial management module at a South African university by comparing it to national and international curricula as well as the perceptions of financial managers.
The results and recommendations can be used by tertiary institutions to adapt and update the content of their financial management modules. Relevant financial management modules may also increase the employability of students, and therefore it may be easier for businesses to find suitable and qualified employees with financial management knowledge.