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- Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation
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- Volume 2, Issue 1, 2012
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation - Volume 2, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2012
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2 (2012)More Less
Estimating cost contingency for construction projects : the challenge of systemic and project specific riskSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2, pp 166 –189 (2012)More Less
The challenge of poor scope definition resulting in scope creep is recognized as the major driver for construction project and cost overruns. All construction projects are associated with both systemic uncertainty and project specific uncertainty. The epistemic ambiguity in risk estimation could be considered as an opportunity or threat, a gain or loss, positive or negative; while project specific risk are in relation to project cost which makes its estimation untoward. Out of 204 questionnaires distributed to the Built Environment Professionals to determine the impact of systemic and project specific risk factors on the estimation of cost contingency, 118 were retrieved representing 57.8%. Data analysis using FMEA as a qualitative risk tool and univariate statistical analysis as a quantitative risk tool revealed that systemic risk accounted for approximately 64% of the cost drivers related of the construction cost uncertainty whilst projects specific risk accounted for 36% of the risk impact. Scope changes, incomplete scope definition, design status and changes in specification were revealed as high-impact systemic risk which has a high propensity of cost overrun effect on cost contingency. The impact of systemic risks can be managed through a design management effort by confirming the certainty of owner related issues during project definition and planning stage through historical based models relying on organizational process asset. The research revealed that the effect of project specific risk including natural and force majeure conditions and economic indicators are beyond the prediction and stochasticity effort of the project team. Project specific risk can be managed only through collaborative communicative effort of the project team with simulation to enable the right construction technologies to be selected and risk impact to be curtailed.
Author Adetokunbo O. IlesanmiSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2, pp 190 –207 (2012)More Less
Studies which confirmed the huge urban housing and infrastructure deficits in Lagos, Nigeria have often considered urban housing in isolation from its infrastructure. This paper analysed the link between infrastructure development and sustainable housing through the comparative case-studies of three housing sectors in Lagos megacity. The study stressed the importance of infrastructure to human and economic development, with the objective of determining the sustainability of urban housing development in the context of neighbourhood infrastructure provision in the study area. It analysed the state of physical and social infrastructure especially as they relate to urban housing, distinguishing between public, organized private and popular housing sectors. Primary data were obtained from an on-going research project on the Lagos megacity, complemented by secondary data from related literature. The paper identified the associative factors for the housing deficit and those implicating deficiencies in infrastructure development, to include: one-off and ad-hoc approaches to housing problems; inappropriate implementation of housing and urban policies; inaccessibility and high costs of lands; under-investment in infrastructural expansion; poor maintenance and upgrading culture; systemic failures in mortgage schemes for home-ownership; and problems related to urban governance. The paper offered recommendations of options to consider in addressing the issues of housing and infrastructure deficits. It concluded on the need for housing developments that enhance mixed neighbourhoods, cost-efficient infrastructure management, and an integrated approach to resolving the deficit challenges in the built environment.
A conceptual system dynamic model to describe the impacts of critical weather conditions in megaproject constructionSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2, pp 208 –224 (2012)More Less
In Africa, critical weather conditions (CWCs) such as snow, heat waves, harmattan and storms are increasing in frequency and severity. The ability of players in the construction industry to plan against such CWCs and cope with their immediate impact on construction activities is critical to the contractor, client and the community that is affected. As part of a funded research scheme by the Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, UK and the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (ECOST), this paper aims to introduce a system dynamic (SD) model to describe the impacts of critical weather conditions in megaproject construction for more accurate construction planning against project delays and cost overrun at the strategic level of megaproject management. The SD methods have been used extensively over the last 35 years on complex projects and have proven track records of project management performance in project lifecycle. The SD approach to megaprojects construction planning is first based on extensive literature review into current research practice in mega construction projects in Africa in incorporation with authors' experience related to megaproject management and research across the world. An experimental SD model is then illustrated for the OR Tambo International Airport (ORTIA) project in South Africa. The paper further discusses the use of such a SD model for better understanding of the impacts of critical weather conditions and to improve accuracy of construction planning in megaprojects management in Africa.
Practical application of risk management techniques in infrastructural delivery : a case study of Ghanaian construction industrySource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2, pp 225 –244 (2012)More Less
Risk is seen as the chance of something happening that will have an impact on the achievement of the objectives of an organization or a project. Risk management is a key project management knowledge area and a tool applicable in management of project uncertainties. Project professional acquire knowledge through education or experience through practice. In their daily decision making process, practitioners rely on their expert judgment, past experience, intuition, acquired and accumulated knowledge and gut feelings to make decisions, the absence of risk management which possess a great level of uncertainty. The paper discusses some theories related to risk management, the risk management process and unveils the extent of application of risk management techniques by professionals in the infrastructural and development industry to achieve project success. The research is based on the mixed method: qualitative and quantitative approach. Analysis of structured questionnaire distributed to professionals in the built environment indicates that some 71% of built environment professionals have no knowledge about risk management theories and techniques with only 6.2% of respondents have applied a risk management tool before in their professional practice. The paper concludes by recommending that some key project management knowledge areas be included in curricula of built environment programmes to enhance professional responsibility through rather than relying on experience alone. Thus if the deficit in infrastructural development is to be closed, the key agents of infrastructural development must be abreast with effective technological know-how through varying risk techniques.
Assessment of the role of private property developers in the provision of infrastructures in Karu, Keffi and Nasarawa in Nasarawa State, NigeriaSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2, pp 245 –258 (2012)More Less
Infrastructure crisis in Nigeria has left private sector with no other option than to provide alternative infrastructure to enhance the well-being and quality of life of the people. This current empirical study assesses the participation of private property developers in the provision of alternative infrastructures to their properties and residential environment in Karu, Keffi and Nasarawa council headquarters of Nasarawa State. A total number of 270 (two hundred and seventy) private property developers were selected using the simple random sampling technique and questionnaires were administered to the number out of which 216 (two hundred and sixteen) of the questionnaires were returned for analysis. Descriptive Statistical Method (Percentile and the Weighted Mean Score) were used in the analysis. Findings show that there are dearth of and non-functional public infrastructures in the study locations. The result also show that well and borehole ranked high among the alternative infrastructures provided by private developers in Karu, Keffi and Nasarawa respectively while very few of them provided generator sets and private security guard in their premises. On the other hand provision of major infrastructures such as roads, culverts among others is practically beyond the scope of private developers in the study areas due to cost implications and even when they strive to provide them through joint efforts, the result had being failures and frustration because of uncooperative attitude of other developers. It is therefore recommended that joint efforts should be fostered with little support from government to enable private developers provide alternative infrastructures that are capital intensive in the study areas in particular and Nigeria in general.
Author Romanus D. DinyeSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2, pp 259 –284 (2012)More Less
Railways combine speed, carriage space and weight at less expense over long distances than any other mode of land transport. In Ghana, however, the railway subsector holds less than two percent of freight movement alongside with a less than one percent of passenger carriage in the transport economy. Provided that, rehabilitation and maintenance of existing stock, construction of new lines, efficiency and reliability services are enhanced, the railway system will play a vital role in the movement of more goods and people, thus spurring trade and increased commodity production. It will open up the investments frontiers for raw material extraction, commercial agriculture, competitive industrialisation and high quality services' delivery for the country's development. The Government of Ghana has plans to upgrade the existing system and construct new lines to expand it and link it with the railway infrastructure in the Economic Community of West African States and eventually the rest of Africa. This paper examines the current state of the railway system in Ghana, highlighting its socioeconomic contribution and prospects to national development albeit inherent problems. The prospects and issues associated with its development as a significant and an inevitable infrastructural component in the country's socio-economic development. Data for the paper are drawn through goggle documentary investigation and subjected to contingent content analysis and evaluation. A private-public partnership approach to the development and management of the railway system is proposed within the context of the liberalization policy in Ghana's national development framework.
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 2, pp 285 –313 (2012)More Less
Urban planning in Ghana in the last few decades has been constrained by the rapid pace of urbanisation. Despite the prospects of urbanisation in economic growth and socio-political advancement, it has the tendency to generate unprecedented cultural, political, social and environmental challenges which limit the effectiveness of urban planning. Evidence the world over reveals that though there is no rigid blue-print for urban planning, the traditional planning practices have been renounced to contain the current trends in urban spread and development. In Ghana however, the traditional planning practices are still in use manifesting in poor coordination among urban planners and the use of obsolete city bylaws, which results in creating further urban problems such as slums development. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that poor coordination among city authorities and inflexible city bylaws and regulations could lead to the formation of slums. Quantitative and qualitative data on access to basic infrastructure and utilities were gathered from households, enterprise owners and community leaders at Old Fadama in Accra, Amui Dzor in Ashaiman and Akwatia Line in Kumasi, using semi-structured questionnaires and interview guides, respectively. Key informant interviews were also held with utility providers to understand how they work together as a team. The findings show that traditional bureaucratic cultures contributed to the development of informal settlements in Ghana. Electricity Company of Ghana, the Ghana Water Company Limited and the Town and Country Planning Department has not been working closely with slum dwellers that also form part of the urban milieu. Thus, access to basic life-sustaining utilities is limited and unplanned resulting in losses to the utility companies due to illegal tapping of such services. The paper concludes that where coordination among the city authorities is weak and regulations are inflexible, the development of slums is very fast and at an unprecedented rate, as is observed in the three informal settlements studied.