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- Volume 3, Issue 1, 2013
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation - Volume 3, Issue 1, 2013
Volume 3, Issue 1, 2013
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3 (2013)More Less
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 464 –481 (2013)More Less
The purpose of this study is to identify from the literature the effect of human capital development on growth, profitability and competitive success of organisations and to argue that the development of the Ghanaian construction industry, its capacity to remain pivotal to the nation's economic growth and the ability to become globally competitive are directly linked to investment in the development of its human capital. This theoretical paper reviewed the literature to identify empirical evidences of the correlation between human capital development and organisational success and profitability. The findings reveal that investment in education has positive correlation with high performance of other industry categories. The research has also revealed some criticisms of the theory of human capital development and provided insights into the barriers to human capital development within the construction industry in developing countries such as Ghana. The paper presents empirical evidence of the benefits that accrue to organisations that invest in human capital development and provides a training and development model that could serve as a framework for training and developing employees within the Ghanaian construction industry.
Conceptual models for assessing adversarial business relationship and improvement of engineering and design service delivery (EDSD) in GhanaSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 480 –499 (2013)More Less
Cordial, harmonious business relationship and collaborative business culture that are essential tools for improvement of construction supply chains and networks seem to have eluded Engineering and Design Service Delivery (EDSD) activities despite several years of useful interventions. The aim of this paper was to develop models: to show current EDSD business relationship problems with the view of improving the EDSD activities. The modeling development followed action oriented system theory, system thinking and rethinking. The way of dealing with construction issues in the traditional procurement system in Ghana have been revealed to be adversarial. These offered specific background to demonstrate why the action oriented system theory; system thinking and rethinking were useful in Supply Chain Relationship Management (SCRM) improvement modeling. Further, SCRM improvement modeling is to provide indicative illustration model to overcome the business relationship problems, which have impeded the improvement and continuous improvement of EDSD activities in the past. The desk based search of literature as well helped to develop the models through induction and deduction inferences. These processes were robust attempts pursued based on action oriented system theory, system thinking and rethinking, and relevant literature concepts. Also two separate models for the improvement of the EDSD activities were developed, using performance feedbacks, traditional non adversarial methods/review and innovative information exchange among EDSD practitioners and between them and contractors. One model produced three-stage improvement approach and the other comprising five maturity categorization regions for determination of nine levels of EDSD improvement assessment and continuous improvement in current procurement practice in Ghana.
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 498 –510 (2013)More Less
The minimisation and disposal of construction wastes has become one of the most construction and environmental issues in recent years. The disposal of waste can have a significant impact on the environment as total volume of available landfill is decreasing and cost associated in its disposal are quite enormous. Primary data were obtained using structured questionnaire, interviews and site visits. The questionnaire was also designed in line with the method to cover various factors that lead to wastages on construction sites, waste control measures, existence of waste management plan in contractual process and remedies to the problem. The findings indicate that waste of materials in the building industry is fairly high and that a large variability in waste incidence is found across different projects. The study established that the strategies adopted in minimising material wastes in the City of Tshwane building industry were good but evidence on site reveal to the contrary.
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 511 –529 (2013)More Less
Global estimates suggest that much of the anticipated growth in the world will occur in the developing world of which Ghana is no exception. As at 1985, it was estimated that if Kumasi could achieve a room occupancy rate of three, then its housing stock should at least double at the time. This evident inadequacy of urban space particularly for housing development and the continuous population growth in Kumasi has fuelled the proliferation of illegal appendages to residential buildings at an alarming rate. Illegal appendages, have been an aspect of the after construction process that have been ignored by many the world over. This paper examines the extent of this occurrence, its causes and effects on the health and safety (H&S) of inhabitants of the area as well as on the physical planning of the area and the value of such properties. A questionnaire survey approach coupled with physical inspection was adopted for the study. Data from the survey was largely analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study confirmed 'population growth', 'inadequate space', 'commercialisation of facilities' and 'inadequate knowledge of the Building Regulations' as the major causes of this phenomenon. Findings from the study points to 'effect on the value of such properties', 'effect on spatial planning', 'effect on indoor conditions such as lighting and ventilation' and 'structural effects' as the most significant effects of such additions to buildings. This paper provides the much needed insight into the problem and makes recommendations to include in the formulation of effective building safety policies for such urban areas.
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 530 –542 (2013)More Less
Many of the problems in construction at the local level can be traced to consultants who supervise projects on behalf of local government agencies. Consultants therefore need to be evaluated regularly to ensure that they are delivering the expected benefits to their clients. This study seeks to assess the benefits District Assemblies (DAs) in Ghana derive from their consultants who supervise projects funded through the District Assemblies' Common Fund. The study involved a postal survey of 80 DAs and identified the expected benefits the DAs would like to attain through the services of their consultants and the perceived actual benefits they had received. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p=0.05) was used to determine the significance of the differences between the expected and the actual benefits. The findings revealed that, of the documented benefits DAs would expect to receive from the professional services rendered by their consultants, increasing accuracy of project budget estimation, saving cost, minimizing risk through improved tender documents, promoting better communication with clients, and meeting clients' deadline were considered important benefits by the DAs. There were significant differences between the expected benefits and the level of benefits achieved from consultants. The actual benefits were generally lower than that expected by the DAs. The paper is of value to local government agencies wishing to obtain greater benefits from their project consultants, and consultants wishing to realize their weaknesses for continual improvement.
Understanding complexity within energy infrastructure delivery systems in developing countries : adopting a viable systems approachSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 543 –559 (2013)More Less
Infrastructure delivery systems involve high complexity. This stems from numerous factors: a diverse range of skilled professionals, diverse cultural affiliations, incomplete contracts and complex contractual relationships among stakeholders, government policies, finance and regulatory issues, and high levels of asset specificity. The degree of complexity is enhanced in projects requiring high levels of specialization. Energy infrastructure projects can be described as possessing a relatively high degree of complexity. The ability to understand and manage such complexity directly affects project performance. Previous studies into the failure of most of these projects have traced project failures to several factors such as corruption, lack of transparency in the procurement process, lack of proper regulatory frameworks, and lack of political willpower. Surprisingly, few studies have attempted to spearhead a concise understanding of the inherent complexities in delivery systems. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on project delivery process and its inherent complexities. This study proposes a viable systems model approach to understanding complexities in energy infrastructure delivery systems in developing countries. This is based upon the premise that a system must be understood properly to enable effective diagnosis. It argues that whereas the aforementioned factors adversely affect the performance of the infrastructure projects, a better understanding of the delivery process would allow for timely and appropriate solutions to be proffered. The viable systems model is premised on the concept of systems thinking and cybernetics-science of communication and control. It has proven effective in diagnosing organizations. It is hoped that this study, which forms part of an on-going PhD study, would elicit further discourse in the application of the viable systems model in diagnosing and re-designing infrastructure delivery systems within the energy sector of developing economies.
Investment methodology in planning and development of infrastructure : an unbalanced growth approachAuthor Omoleye B. OjuriSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 560 –572 (2013)More Less
The economic as well as efficient use of scarce resources is one of the challenges in developing countries. This paper aims at providing an investment methodology to infrastructure planning and development agencies. To achieve the goal, the paper specifically analyses the unbalanced growth concept in prioritizing investment in infrastructure development. It further examines in detail the investment policies in infrastructure development in Sri-Lanka. Based on that, this paper carried out an extensive survey of the literature pertaining to available social infrastructure and the social status of Nigerian Niger Delta (ND) region. In looking for broad correlations, this paper sets aside a crucial issue - given that investment capital is scarce and living standards are low, what should get priority in terms of investment between consumption and productive activities? The study employed. An adaptation of photovoice methodology is used to collect primary data on the status of infrastructure facilities in the ND. The methodology is adopted to identify scope not captured through quantitative measures. The methodology combines photography with grassroots social action through interviews. The sample size is based on purposive sampling technique because the methodology requires adults that can participate in interview survey and handle instruments to be used for data collection. Based on that, fifty seven participants were first selected and subdivided into eight groups. The findings establish that social overhead capital (SOC) investments are more beneficial than direct productive activities (DPA) during early phase of infrastructural development and thus be given priority because the provision of SOC is relevant to addressing the appalling state of living of the people of the Nigerian ND region and thus improve the region's human capacity. The paper concludes that the measure of self-reliance of poor people is a strong indicator of the long-term poverty reduction impact of infrastructure development. Policy recommendations and specific actionable targets are suggested.
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 573 –588 (2013)More Less
This paper attempts to conceptualize the liveable African City using indices of liveability as advanced by Africans. The concepts of City Liveability and the City as a living system are used as the theoretical underpinnings to the study. A purposive online questionnaire survey of 453 Africans, living both in Africa and the Diaspora was conducted to elicit their perspectives on what they consider the most important indices for a Liveable African City. The data was disaggregated on locational basis. This was done to determine whether ones location i.e. living at home or in the Diaspora contributes significantly to one's opinion on the identified issues. Issues investigated include governance, safety and security, culture and global identity, environmental indices and infrastructure. Furthermore, the inherent contradictions between western and African concepts of liveability were examined. The study revealed that 67% of all respondents consider governance to be the most important determinant of city liveability. Cultural heritage and city image were considered the least important indices of urban liveability. In determining the choice of where to live, 82.2% of respondents consider quality of life, while few differentials existed based on location, safety and security, particularly violent crime and the threat of terror were considered extremely important by respondents living in the Diaspora. The study concludes by recommending the application of broad based urban management strategies combined with good urban governance mechanisms to improve city liveability across the continent.
Author Stephen AjadiSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 3, pp 589 –607 (2013)More Less
Over the past few years there have been a number of cases of large scale urban translocation, city division, and new formations of contemporary settlements in various parts of the world. An increase in the ubiquity of civil unrest around the world and mass uprisings are typical causes of these processes. This poses a serious threat to the efficacy of classical urban and architectural design strategies, and their motive. Since this is a new development which urban and architecture hardly anticipated, it is imperative to seek new ways to curb, manage or mitigate the proliferation of extemporaneous city mutations. The effort here is to employ chiefly the idea of biomimetics in an analytical juxtaposition of natural processes like apoptosis, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis with certain city processes and systems. The aim is to establish a new environmentally friendly motive for the disintegration and integration of settlements. Aided with streamlined programmatic principles, computational and algorithmic design, city systems are studied in an African context. The biomimetic approach to the study of city mutations is tailored to provide a design and management platform that attempts to predict and/or manage unanticipated shifts of settlements within city systems at various levels of urban and architectural schemes in West Africa, especially Nigeria.