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- Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation
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- Volume 5, Issue 1, 2015
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation - Volume 5, Issue 1, 2015
Volume 5, Issue 1, 2015
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 5 (2015)More Less
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 5, pp 1034 –1044 (2015)More Less
Over the years, human settlement experts have utilized a number of intervention strategies for integrating slums and informal neighbour-hoods into their larger urban context. Yet these practices are continually trailed by challenges and reactions from built-environment professionals and other stakeholders. It is therefore imperative that the quest for an acceptable approach to slum intervention is yet to abate. A literature review methodology was adopted to identify and appraise the various intervention models that were practiced in some developing nations. Although slum upgrading option was adjudged to be the current global best practice, it is still besieged by several imperfections. Some weaknesses and challenges that are applicable to developing countries, particularly Nigeria were identified in this study. The paper suggests policy measures for mitigating these challenges.
The limit of land regularisation as poverty alleviation strategy in informal settlements : empirical evidence from Lagos, NigeriaSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 5, pp 1045 –1063 (2015)More Less
Some studies have linked land titling to economic growth and poverty alleviation through access to credit facilities, housing improvement and security against eviction. However, many other studies have equally argued otherwise. It remains an ongoing debate. This paper, contributes to the ongoing debate on the nexus between land titles and poverty alleviation in informal settlements. It demonstrates that land titling, on its own, will not necessarily leads to poverty alleviation, as the intended beneficiaries are largely not interested in the programme. In addition, empirical evidence from Lagos and some other developing regions of the world suggests that land tiling has not and may not achieve many of the benefits appropriated to it by its proponents. Where it seems to have achieved some of its benefits, it has largely not been to the advantage of the poor. This paper, therefore, concludes that the policymaker must exercise caution on the issue of land titling as a solution to the endemic poverty in informal settlements. They should also explore the option of land tenure continuum. It recommends that an effective poverty alleviation strategy must incorporate the range of assets required to build a sustainable livelihood. It must also take into considerations the complexity of vulnerabilities the urban poor encounter as they pursue their livelihoods objectives.
Socioeconomic dynamics and environmental health outcomes in informal settlements of Port Harcourt, NigeriaSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 5, pp 1064 –1081 (2015)More Less
Although many studies have shown strong evidence of a direct relationship between the human environment and health, they have been too generic in nature, concentrating on community patterns and largely ignore the link between environmental health outcomes and specific socioeconomic indices manifesting at the household level. This study, therefore, seeks to understand the interface between household socioeconomic indices and the urban environment in six informal coastal settlements of Port Harcourt Nigeria. It further examined how these interactions affect environmental health. It questions the extant belief that living in a deprived neighbour-hood is bad for one's health, hence the focus on the households level. Issues examined include housing and environmental conditions like sources of water, sanitation methods, drainage conditions and quality of toilet and kitchen facilities as well as socio-economic characteristics such as age, gender, income and household size. Health seeking behaviour and recent self-reported illnesses associated with poor environmental conditions were also considered. Data collection was by mixed methods integrating simple random sampling on household heads as well as focus group discussion with community leaders in Andoni, Bundu, Captain Amangala, Emenike, Marine Base and Rex Lawson communities respectively. Data analysis was by simple descriptive statistics as well as chi square test of relationships.
Urban planning, demolition of property and citizens' deprivation in African cities : a polycentric planning perspectiveAuthor Samson AkinolaSource: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 5, pp 1082 –1099 (2015)More Less
This paper used the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework to analyse the missing links between urban managers and urban residents in Angola, Ghana and Kenya. The paper found that urban governance structures in the three countries are centralised and deviate from planning norms and people-centred governance, hence urban managers and citizens are not operating in synergy. The rapidly growing urban population makes infrastructure to be deteriorating; thus, creating slums and squatter settlements that warrant eviction and demolition by governments. Eviction and demolition generate adverse consequences on socio-economic well-being of citizens - property destroyed, while children education was affected. This paper provides case studies to demonstrate principles and practices needed to make polycentric planning and community initiatives resolve conflicts of interests on urban space. The paper argues that, for urban governance to benefit urban residents, it has to proceed from the people and be guided by them in decisions on all urban matters, including planning and modification of plans on competing urban land uses. Using Polycentric Planning and Poverty Reduction Strategy (PPPRS), this paper designs an African Polycentric Urban Environmental Governance Model (APUEGM) capable of mainstreaming citizens-centred institutions in urban areas into socio-economic and political decision making so that citizens (including the urban poor) can participate effectively in decisions on redevelopment, thus entrenching good urban governance, citizens-centred environmental planning and development in Africa.
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 5, pp 1100 –1114 (2015)More Less
The current difficulties in obtaining credit for housing, following the global economic crisis, show that private individual home-ownership is not effective enough in addressing the housing needs of the low and middle income groups. As a result of this and coupled with the limited studies in South Africa on co-operative housing at that time, the need to find an option that will solve the housing needs of the people became intense. The study developed a framework for the sustainability of housing co-operatives through the administration of 176 self-addressed structured questionnaires to housing co-operatives based on the strategies identified from literature. The data was analysed using mean score and Cronbach's Reliability Coefficient Test. Based on the findings, framework for sustainable housing co-operatives in South Africa was developed from the strategies. The strategies were categorised into the following factors : policy and legislation; support services; education, training and information; and governance. The framework developed has practical relevance to government officials in the Department of Human Settlements at the Municipal, Provincial and National level in terms of policy formulation in areas of co-operative housing sub-sector and also the various housing co-operatives in the area of governance of their members. Apart from these categories, the roles to be played by organisations such as South Africa Housing Co-operatives Association (SAHCA), Housing Development Agency, Social Housing Regulatory Agency and financial institutions were enunciated.
Source: Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation 5, pp 1115 –1130 (2015)More Less
Irrespective of significant relevance of construction industry to economic growth of developed and developing nations, labour efficiency in the construction industry remains relatively low and thus affects construction project delivery and client's satisfaction. This paper aims at exploring adverse construction related factors contributing to the shortfall of construction labour efficiency in the South African construction industry. The study adopts mixed methodological approach,administering closed ended questionnaires to construction professionals on Western Cape and Gauteng construction sites, while experienced construction site supervisors were interviewed to validate quantitative data obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Version 22) and content analysis were used respectively to analyse data obtained. Communication ability of site managers, construction skills of site supervisors and effective site planning ability of contractors were found as the predominant construction related factors affecting the efficiency of construction labour. This study is restricted to contractors, site supervisors and site managers' related factors affecting the efficiency of construction labour. Adequate application of findings presented in this study will significantly reduce the current prevalent construction time and cost overruns through an improved construction workforce performance. Enhanced construction productivity is a product of construction labour efficiency that ensures achievement of construction project objectives and heightens contribution to South African economic development.