n Journal of Educational Studies - Contestations of educational transformation : a critical analysis of how the norms and standards for funding are intended to achieve social justice and equity

Special issue 1
  • ISSN : 1680-7456



The aim of this inquiry is to understand, explain and critique the implementation of the policy for National Norms and Standards for School Funding (NNSSF) in this country. In investigating the problem articulated above, the authors made use of third-generation activity theory also known as the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to help understand, explain and critique the NNSSF policy and standards. This article focus on the contestations that have emerged in the funding of education over a specific historical period since 1994 and innovative strategies at the school level that have emerged over time to try and change the implementation of this policy. Methodologically, the authors utilized a hermeneutic approach because of their concern with the interpretation of human activities regarding the implementation of the NNSSF policy. Investigating and understating this central problem required the researchers to understand its implementation from the perspectives of the Department of Education (DoE) officials, governing bodies, principals, parents and the communities at large. One of the major findings of this study is that regardless of more funding being allocated to historically disadvantaged schools, learner performance and educational outcomes in these schools has not increased significantly.

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