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- Volume 3, Issue 2, 2005
Journal of Engineering Design and Technology - Volume 3, Issue 2, 2005
Volume 3, Issue 2, 2005
Author Theo C. HauptSource: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... EDITORIAL The issues covered in this current issue range from the effects of feedback on risk taking in construction to architectural practices and information technology. Other topics included are discussions about the strength of cement stabilized clay, harnessing of the energy of sanitary landfill, and critical success factors of construction project management. Feedback in the workplace can bring about significant positive changes in the behavior of workers. Tretheway argues in his paper that feedback if properly initiated contributes to improved occupational health and safety performance. He reports on the findings of a study in Australia to assess the feedback ..
Author R.W. TrethewaySource: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3, pp 109 –115 (2005)More Less
Feedback in the workplace is identified as an important subset of changing workers' behaviour and providing effective reinforcement through informative and motivational properties. When properly initiated, feedback can bring about significant positive changes in compliance with safety procedures and is a key component of superior occupational health and safety (OHS) performance. In contrast, little evidence exists to suggest that disciplinary measures eliminate or suppress unsafe employee behaviour and risk taking. <br>Research and quantifiable measurement in the effects of feedback is scant for industries such as construction, which are dominated by contracted labour. This paper reports on research undertaken to assess the effects of feedback on risk taking by contractors undertaking work in the Australian construction industry. The research was conducted over a period of one year and involved 350 participants, ten construction sites and the implementation of on-site safety interventions including a performance measurement and feedback tool.
Source: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3, pp 116 –126 (2005)More Less
This paper describes the effect of factors on the strength characteristics of cement treated clay from laboratory tests performed on cement mixed clay specimens. It is considered that several factors such as soil type, sample preparing method, quantity of binder, curing time, etc. can have an effect on strength characteristics of cement stabilized clay. A series of unconfined compression tests have been performed on samples prepared with different conditions. The results indicated that soil type, mixing method, curing time, dry weight ratio of cement to clay (A<sub>w</sub>), and water-clay to cement (wc/c) ratio were main factors which can have an influence on unconfined compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and failure strain of cement stabilized clay. Unconfined compressive strength of soil-cement samples prepared from dry mixing method was higher than those prepared from wet mixing method.
Source: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3, pp 127 –139 (2005)More Less
This paper reviews the potential uses of sanitary landfill biogas, and the possibility of harnessing biogas from the Bellville South Municipal Landfill (within the City of Cape Town, South Africa), as primary energy. This paper will focus on a specific landfill site as a case study. The theoretical research involves investigating aspects on the gas extraction and application possibilities for the site. Thereafter, two industrial gas usage scenarios located within the study area are examined in order to quantify the potential energy production and carbon emissions benefits. The gross energy production from the landfill's biogas is estimated to be 520 x 10<sup>6</sup> MJ annually, whilst 262 x 10<sup>6</sup> and 527 x10<sup>9</sup> litres of carbon savings for two different industrial applications are theoretically achievable. On the basis of this analysis, conclusions are drawn regarding the potential for harnessing of the gas in relation to the case study and elsewhere.
Source: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3, pp 140 –154 (2005)More Less
The purpose of this paper is to model the critical success factors of construction project management (CPM). Despite the emergence of construction project management as an academic discipline, existing instrument found in literature were for measuring the importance of Construction Managers and Project Managers skills or attributes yet the combined dual role of Construction Project Management as a discipline or profession remains under researched. After collecting 58 empirical observations from within the South African construction related organisations, the paper tests the theoretical relationships by using the structural equation modelling (SEM) technique. The research identifies six factors which are critical for the effectiveness of CPM. The study also highlights the benefits of modelling the factors using tradition methods such as bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis techniques to extract factors of CPM. The results indicate that correlation between the "hard" and "soft" skills is necessary for the effective implementation of Construction Project Management. The proposed theoretical model not only has the potential to enhance competitive success but can act as a valuable diagnostic tool in addressing the effectiveness of construction project management.
Source: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3, pp 155 –163 (2005)More Less
This paper reports on the use of Information Technologies (IT) in the South African building industry. It offers an insight into the architecture profession, a profession that plays a major role in the construction sector. The analysis is based on the results of a survey conducted in the Western Cape Province during the year 2000. In an attempt to uncover the similarities and differences between the local context and the international one, this paper outlines a few elements of IT for comparison. After a brief introduction to the IT map of South Africa, the analysis concentrates on the following four issues: Response and Respondents, General IT usage, Use of Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) and Use of Networks. Each of these issues is framed in both the local and the international contexts. Despite the shortcomings of using different questions with different emphasis when referring to other surveys, it is still believed that reporting on local practices is not extremely meaningful in isolation. It is hoped that this type of analysis will serve to unravel the particulars of the construction industry in South Africa providing its counterparts with a new perspective.
Author Stephen EmmittSource: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3, pp 164 –179 (2005)More Less
This paper seeks to investigate the theoretical and practical links between teaching and research in a teaching led university in the UK. Focus is on the new architectural technology undergraduate programmes that, in theory at least, provide an opportunity to integrate activities. An extensive literature review demonstrated the benefit to both students and academic staff of incorporating research into the curriculum. The research used was centered on an innovative Level 3 undergraduate module, which was monitored for 48 months. The module was designed with the aim of encouraging architectural technology students to approach architectural detailing from first principles within an environmentally responsible framework. The philosophy behind the module was to incorporate lecturers' research into the module, both to enhance the student experience and to narrow the gap between research and teaching. The module also sought to form a subject integrating role, bringing together management, technology and design via project work. A brief overview of the development of the module and the teaching and learning strategy is provided before looking at delivery and evolution of the module. The students' evaluation of the module, via a questionnaire survey, is then reviewed and issues for further consideration highlighted. A number of observations are made relating to the integration of knowledge, which have implications for all contributors to construction education.
Source: Journal of Engineering Design and Technology 3, pp 180 –189 (2005)More Less
The cooperative education model adopted by Universities of Technology in South Africa embodies the notion that both education and training are equally essential. It incorporates productive work into the curriculum as a regular and integral element of a higher education course. The present model involves three cooperative partners namely, the university, student and employer. It should, therefore, be evident that cooperative education has two main components, namely an academic component and an experiential learning component, both of which are integral to its success. To enable students to understand the relationship between academic subjects and the world of work, cooperative education involves restructuring the educational experience. For some time, industry employer representatives have suggested that education and training offered at Universities of Technology do not always address the needs of industry. They argue that graduates lack the necessary theoretical skills, training and managerial understanding to ensure immediate meaningful employment. These inadequacies contribute to unemployment and the lack of advancement opportunity within their chosen careers. In addition, there is a need to examine the perceptions of students regarding course content before they go into industry. This was the motivation for this research. The aims of the research project are twofold. Firstly, to examine the course content offered within the civil engineering diploma programme, and secondly to measure the levels of subject satisfaction. Using an exploratory approach through a survey of 123 students, this study explores the course content and satisfaction levels based on study areas in the first year program. The results indicate that students generally perceive the subject Communication Skills to be least satisfying whereas Mathematics is considered to be the most satisfying subject. This paper concludes by presenting the subject satisfaction index tool which contributes to the range of intervention strategies as envisaged by the CIDB. This further contributes towards the improvement of the overall quality of University of Technology civil engineering academic programs and also the subsequent productive employability of its graduates.