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- Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies
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- Volume 2, Issue 1, 2009
Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies - Volume 2, Issue 1, 2009
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2009
Author Gideon Van RietSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2 (2009)More Less
When O'Keefe, Wisner and Westgate (1976) in their now seminal article wanted to "take the naturalness out of natural disasters" the response from the broader academic and development communities was not very positive. How could you prevent something that was inevitable or an act of God? In essence these three authors argued that "natural" disasters had more to do with socio-economic factors than with nature. Upon brief perusal of more recent disasters literature it should be quite clear that this line of thinking has indeed become the dominant perspective on disasters. In the light of increased losses to events, brought on by a variety of different complex factors such as increases in poverty, population movements and global changes in the environment, researchers and practitioners have paid a significant amount of attention to disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness.
Author Dewald Van NiekerkSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2 (2009)More Less
The African Centre for Disaster Studies (ACDS) has come a long way since its inception in 2002. Not only has the Centre found a new home within the Research Focus Area: Sustainable Social Development, but its staff component has grown from three to nine members. The research focus of the ACDS has increased and we have been fortunate to be involved in a number of national, provincial and local projects.
Author Mmaphaka TauSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2 (2009)More Less
The conditions prevailing in the world, where fast growing populations are coupled with rapidly expanding urbanization and a general increase in poverty levels, are greatly aggravating the disaster risks and vulnerabilities of a large part of the world's populations. This is further compounded by the effects of global warming as experienced worldwide manifesting themselves through irregular weather patterns often with destructive effects.
Author Per BeckerSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2, pp 1 –13 (2009)More Less
This article stresses the significance of recognising interdependencies between factors determining disaster risk in any attempts to integrate disaster risk reduction in international development cooperation. It bases its arguments on the case studies of four past projects in Sri Lanka and Tajikistan, which are scrutinised using a theoretical framework based on systems approaches. It appears that the results of ignoring interdependencies may (1) cause sub-optimisation problems where the desired outcome is not reached as the factor focused on and/or the desired outcome are dependent on other factors, and (2) make it difficult or impossible to monitor and evaluate the actual effects of international development cooperation projects in disaster risk reduction.
Author Gerrit Van Der WaldtSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2, pp 14 –27 (2009)More Less
This article investigates the interdisciplinary nature of Disaster Risk Reduction as an emerging field of study. The development of this field of study is interpreted within the context of the evolution of Public Management as an academic discipline. The author argues that the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of both Public Management and Disaster Risk Reduction share commonalities. Thus, the foundational and functional aspects of Public Management did, and should continue to, inform and enrich the study of Disaster Risk Reduction.
The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas : the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaAuthor Benedict F. MaleleSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2, pp 28 –53 (2009)More Less
This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of "coping" responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.
Geographic information systems based demarcation of risk zones : the case of the Limbe Sub-Division - CameroonAuthor Buh Wung GastonSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2, pp 54 –70 (2009)More Less
In the Limbe Subdivision of Cameroon, landslides and flooding are frequent threats. The worst recorded event occurred in June 2001, when floods and landslides took the lives of some 30 persons, left over 2000 people homeless, and destroyed property and social amenities including roads and telephone lines worth hundred of thousands of US Dollars. The objective of this project was to assist local administrative officers, other decision makers and planners to understand which areas to concentrate their efforts on in order to develop mitigation actions to protect the lives of the population in these zones that are affected by flooding and associated landslides. To meet this objective the project made extensive use of geospatial tools and existing digital spatial datasets. Series of field data collection exercises constituted an integral part of the project. The project focused on the Limbe subdivision in the south-western part of Cameroon. Areas with high (greater than 60%) probability of sliding to occur, occupy 23% while areas with medium (greater than 40% and less than 60%) probability of sliding to occur occupy 44% and areas with low (less than 40%) probability of sliding occupy 33%. Settlements along the Atlantic coast all lie less than ~50m above sea level. These settlements (villages) are susceptible to flooding. Again settlements in the town of Llimbe along the Djenguele river, i.e., Animal Farms, Cassava Farms, Lumpsum areas, Church Street, New Town and Down Beach, are more susceptible to inundation during raining periods and therefore have experienced persistent flooding over the years.
Author Patrick GwimbiSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2, pp 71 –79 (2009)More Less
The increasing occurrence of disastrous flooding events and the mounting losses in both life and property values in Zimbabwe have drawn attention to the flooding situation in the country, especially the rural areas. This article explores the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to flood risks associated within increasingly frequent and severe events linked to climate change. Starting by reviewing the current literature on rural livelihoods, resilience and vulnerability research, the paper argues for a coordinated teamwork approach in flood risk mitigation in rural areas. The paper concludes with several recommendations for enhanced resilience to flood hazards.