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- Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies
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- Volume 6, Issue 1, 2014
Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies - Volume 6, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 6, Issue 1, 2014
Landslide susceptibility on selected slopes in Dzanani, Limpopo Province, South Africa : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –7 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.101More Less
Inherent soil properties and anthropogenic activities on slope faces are considered potential recipes for landslide occurrence. The objectives of this study were to physically characterise unconsolidated soils and identify on-going anthropogenic activities on selected slopes in Dzanani in order to appraise their role as contributory factors in enhancing landslide susceptibility. Methods employed for this study comprised mapping, description of soil profile, identification of anthropogenic activities, as well as experimental determination of soil colour, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits. Geologically, the study area comprised rocks of the Fundudzi, Sibasa and Tshifhefhe Formations, ascribed to the Soutpansberg Group. Digging of foundations for construction purposes and subsistence agriculture were identified as the main anthropogenic activities. The soils were predominantly reddish-yellow in colour, texturally variable (silty clay - clayey - silty clay loam and clay loam) and of medium plasticity. Compared to soils from other parts of the world developed on volcanic cones or associated with a landslide event, those from Dzanani were qualified as generally inactive and not prone to landslides. Although the physical attributes suggested the soils were not at a critical state, on-going anthropogenic activities may enhance deep weathering and ultimately alter current soil physical characteristics to a critical state.
Increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods as a consequence of climate change in the Himalayan region : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –7 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/2010.4102/jamba.v6i1.110More Less
The greater Himalayan Mountains host the largest snow covered area outside the polar regions and serves as the source for some of the major fluvial systems of the world. The region acts as the lifeline for approximately 10% of the world's population. The terrain is geologically active, highly susceptible to climate change processes and plays a significant role in global hydro-meteorological cycles and biodiversity. With the increasing impacts of climate change to the glaciers and ice caps during the past few decades, people living in the Himalayas have become vulnerable to a higher risk of floods, avalanches and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). This study reviewed the work carried out by earlier researchers to understand the history and science of GLOFs and their potential risk to the communities in the Himalayan belt, particularly in Pakistan.
Determinants of property damage recovery time amongst households affected by an extreme flood event in Metro Manila, Philippines : original researchAuthor Jamil Paolo FranciscoSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –10 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/2010.4102/jamba.v6i1.119More Less
This study identified the factors that influence household recovery following an extreme flood event, measured in terms of the length of time to repair, rebuild or replace damaged private property. Data was obtained through a survey of 400 households in Marikina City in Metro Manila, Philippines. Results from the empirical analysis indicated that household income, access to credit (borrowing), the use of a flood alarm system, access to safe shelter, membership in a community organisation, adoption of disaster-specific anticipatory measures and adoption of general preventive measures significantly reduced the time it took for affected households to recover from property damage. Evacuation, relief aid, type of housing, education, household size and frequency of flooding in the area did not have significant effects.
Understanding disaster governance : an anthropological Francophone contribution
Le gouvernement des catastrophes, Sandrine Revet & Julien Langumier (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor J.C. GaillardSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –2 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.130More Less
Cutting-edge books on disasters in French are seldom found. 'Le gouvernement des catastrophes' by Sandrine Revet and Julien Langumier is the exception to the rule. This edited volume indeed provides powerful reflections on how people, as well as institutional and political agencies, consider disasters, disaster risk reduction and post-disaster recovery. It grounds its approach in the traditions of anthropology in dialogue with cognate disciplines such as sociology and history.
The impact of flood disasters on child education in Muzarabani District, Zimbabwe : original researchAuthor Chipo MudavanhuSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –8 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.138More Less
The increase in flood intensity and frequency poses a threat to community infrastructure and affects the total well-being of children in regard to: access to food, health, school attendance, access to clean water and sanitation, physical and social security. Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article provided an overview of flood disasters and their potential effects on children's access to quality education in Zimbabwe. The purpose of the study was to analyse school children's specific vulnerabilities to flood disasters that need to be taken into account in policy development. Research indicated that floods cause loss of learning hours, loss of qualified personnel, outbreak of waterborne diseases, high absenteeism and low syllabus coverage leading to children's poor academic performance. Children noted a range of experiences, from food insecurity to being withdrawn from school and sometimes forced into early marriages. These challenges compromise children's rights and access to quality education. This article therefore recommended that a culture of safety be promoted through disaster education, development of good road networks and enforcement of building codes during construction of school infrastructure. Findings also supported the need for adaptation strategies to ensure that the risks specific to school children are addressed.
Perceptions on climate change and its impact on livelihoods in Hwange district, Zimbabwe : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –6 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.123More Less
This study investigated perceptions of rural communities on climate change and its impacts on livelihoods. The research was conducted in the semi-arid Hwange district in Matebeleland North province of Zimbabwe. The perceptions were compared with empirical evidence from climatic studies on trends on temperature and rainfall, and impacts on livelihoods in the country and region. The findings from the current study are generally in agreement with those of other studies that indicate changes in the climate, especially in terms of rainfall. This largely applies to short-term periods; however, for long-term periods it is difficult to accurately relate rural community perceptions to changes in rainfall over time. Despite perceived changes and impacts of climate change on local livelihood activities, mainly agriculture, there are multiple stressors that the communities face which also affect their livelihoods. Further evidence-based research is required to disentangle climate change impacts on livelihoods, including livelihood impacts arising from interactions of climate and non-climatic factors.
Livelihood vulnerability index analysis : an approach to study vulnerability in the context of Bihar : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –13 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.127More Less
Vulnerability is the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of natural disasters. Floods add to the distressed conditions of the poor and vulnerable people in Bihar. Floods have a different impact on households depending on differences in their livelihood choices. Therefore, in order to identify the variability in vulnerability of affected households, the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) of Hahn, Riederer and Foster was modified according to the context of the study area. The LVI aims to identify sources and forms of vulnerability that are specific to the context in order to design context-specific resilience measures. However, vulnerability and resilience are not interdependent but discrete entities. The study was conducted in the seven blocks of Bhagalpur district in the state of Bihar. Naugachia was found to be the least vulnerable because of better access to basic amenities and livelihood strategies, whilst Kharik was found to be highly vulnerable in respect to other blocks because of high sensitivity and less adaptive strategy. The study also revealed that better access to resources does not necessarily mean that households are adopting resilience measures because of apathetic or indifferent attitudes.
A revision of communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction : a case study of the South Durban basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –10 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.132More Less
The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting the more traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication through the print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving all stakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptive nature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis, community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use by major industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effective disaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a result of these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as an integral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implications for corporate communicators and strategic planners.
The complexity of maladaptation strategies to disasters : the case of Muzarabani, Zimbabwe : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –11 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.145More Less
Over the past decade disasters have increased both in complexity and multiplicity, worsening the plight of vulnerable communities the world over. Many communities have devised coping mechanisms to mitigate the impact, but communities such as Muzarabani in Zimbabwe remain susceptible to disasters. This article seeks to analyse whether the coping measures applied make the communities safe from or vulnerable to disasters. Information was obtained through interviews, questionnaires and observations from four villages in Chadereka in the Muzarabani district. The results of this study indicated that households, government and non-governmental organisations have come up with different mitigation strategies, such as growing crops along river beds, livestock production, raised granaries and doorsteps, flood evacuation shelters and other emergency services. Research revealed that although viable, some of the strategies increased the community's vulnerability. This article therefore recommends sustainable utilisation of resources, and collaborative efforts to address the root causes, dynamic pressures and unsafe conditions in order to reduce the vulnerability of poor communities to natural disasters.
Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding : a comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 6, pp 1 –10 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v6i1.131More Less
A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas (low-lying lands and on river banks). This situation is caused by poverty and the inability of authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urban populations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just one of them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resorted to the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of people and properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as to why this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategies to flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommending measures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections of signs of damage and deterioration), measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies, mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally, in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures through structural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptation strategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations. However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houses were compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah than in Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in the use of reinforced concrete (4.3%) for constructing a building's foundation, as well as in the use of ceramics (72.9%) to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptation strategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction of structures for adaptation, enhancing individual coping capacity, deployment of a workforce trained in disaster risk and management and enforcement of relevant urban planning and environmental management laws in managing risky areas.