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- Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies
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- Volume 8, Issue 2, 2016
Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies - Volume 8, Issue 2, 2016
Volume 8, Issue 2, 2016
Climate change, household vulnerability and smart agriculture : the case of two South African provinces : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –14 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.182More Less
The impact of climate-change disasters poses significant challenges for South Africa, especially for vulnerable rural households. In South Africa, the impact of climate change at the local level, especially in rural areas, is not well known. Rural households are generally poor and lack resources to adapt to and mitigate the impact of climate change, but the extent of their vulnerability is largely not understood. This study looked at the micro-level impact of climate change, evaluated household vulnerability and assessed alternative adaptation strategies in rural areas. The results indicate that climate change will hit crop yields hard and that households with less capital are most vulnerable. These households consist of the elderly and households headed by females. Households that receive remittances or extension services or participate in formal savings schemes in villages are less vulnerable. The results suggest that households need to move towards climate-smart agriculture, which combines adaptation, mitigation and productivity growth.
The timing of agricultural production in hazard-prone areas to prevent losses at peak-risk periods : a case of Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique : original researchAuthor Leandri KrugerSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.179More Less
Hazard-prone areas in southern Africa experience many natural hazards, which include cyclones, floods and droughts. The severe climatic conditions of southern Africa have an especially large impact on the agricultural practices of small-scale farmers. These hazards should be mitigated to ensure more resilient communities and food security. This study mainly focuses on the timing of agricultural production in hazard-prone areas to prevent losses at peak-risk periods by adapting the agricultural cycle. This study focuses on the agricultural activities of small-scale farmers in Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique. A literature review is presented, and a mixed-method research design were followed to determine the timing of production followed by these small-scale farmers and its impact on production and food security. Although this study found that the small-scale farmers generally plant with the first rains, it is recommended by literature that early planting should be practised to ensure optimal production. It is also recommended that small-scale farmers should implement water-management techniques for dry periods, and when farmers practice late planting, the use of residual-moisture retention should be utilised as a mitigation measure. This will in effect ensure that the communities are less vulnerable during peak-risk periods by improving or ensuring food security. Therefore, adapting the planting and production time in these hazard proneareas at peak-risk periods could limit losses and increase communities' resilience.
Flooding and its impacts on Nkondo community in Rundu, Kavango east region of Namibia, 1950s : original researchAuthor Kletus M. LikuwaSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –5 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.168More Less
This is a study on flooding and its impact on the Nkondo community in Rundu, in the Kavango area of Namibia. It draws from archival sources at the National Archives of Namibia. Whilst archival documents provide an idea of what and how colonial officials thought of and related to the colonial subjects, they cannot represent the feelings, beliefs and interpersonal relationships of the ordinary people. This article thus made use of oral interviewing, not as a means to fill the gap but as an alternative to exploring memories of former Nkondo residents about the 1950s flood and its impact. Interviews were carried out in 2004 and 2005 when 14 people were interviewed for the histories of forced removals in Rundu, but only five are used for this article as they specifically speak to the story of flooding. Interviewees were chosen through referrals from the headmen of the surrounding villages of Rundu. Interviewees were asked questions that provide a chronological representation of a case study of forced relocations in Rundu. The article is an important historical piece that draws on unique oral-history regarding flooding and its impact. Furthermore, it is a story about power, politics and colonial dynamics and forced relocation using flooding as a pretext. The article indicates how colonial authorities made use of this benevolent excuse of a natural disaster to compel people to move permanently to new areas so as to fulfil the colonial administration's political agenda of security and control over the population. The article indicates that flood-prone communities may fear relocating permanently due to cultural, social and economic factors. Thus, the government should not use force to relocate communities but should address communities' fears and provide them with support in relocated areas.
Investigating the knowledge and preparedness of proximal residents to a general-emergency event at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station : original researchAuthor Alberto P. FrancioliSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.208More Less
Ward 23 in the City of Cape Town South Africa is situated within 16 km of Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS). Massive investments were made to provide the 13 800 residents of Ward 23 with information on emergency preparedness and evacuation procedures in case of a general-emergency event at KNPS. However, it is not known whether these efforts to inform and prepare the proximal residents for a general emergency have been effective or not. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge of and preparedness for an emergency exhibited by residents of Ward 23. Data was collected through the distribution of semi-structured questionnaires to 204 residents at the study site to ascertain their views on the provision and accessibility of emergency information and to find out whether they utilised this information to prepare themselves. The results revealed that the majority of interviewed residents had very poor knowledge concerning emergency procedures, and few had made any effort to prepare themselves. The majority of better-informed and prepared residents tended to reside closer to KNPS. The poor levels of knowledge and preparedness are attributed to residents' lack of awareness concerning the availability of information, misconceptions regarding a nuclear hazard and a general emergency event or a lack of incentive to inform themselves due to a perceived high sense of security and the improbability of such an event occurring. To improve resident knowledge and preparedness, efforts should be made to advertise the availability and importance of such emergency information and enhance incentives for residents to inform themselves.
Some international perspectives on legislation for the management of human-induced safety risks : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.170More Less
Legislation that governs the health and safety of communities near major-hazard installations in South Africa is largely based on existing legislation that had been developed in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries. The latter was developed as a consequence of several major human-induced technological disasters in Europe. The history of the evolution of health-and-safety legislation for the protection of vulnerable communities in European Union (EU) countries, France, Malaysia and the USA is explored through a literature survey. A concise comparison is drawn between EU countries, the USA and South Africa to obtain an exploratory view of whether current South-African legislation represents an optimum model for the protection of the health-and-safety of workers and communities near major-hazard installations. The authors come to the conclusion that South-African legislation needs revision as was done in the UK in 2011. Specific areas in the legislation that need revision are an overlap between occupational health and safety and environmental legislation, appropriate land-use planning for the protection of communities near major-hazard installations, the inclusion of vulnerability studies and the refinement of appropriate decision-making instruments such as risk assessment. This article is the first in a series that forms part of a broader study aimed at the development of an optimised model for the regulatory management of human-induced health and safety risks associated with hazardous installations in South Africa.
Menstrual hygiene - a salient hazard in rural schools : a case of Masvingo district of Zimbabwe : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.204More Less
Active participation of the girl child in development is hampered by Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) challenges. MHM is an important gender issue and a critical component in holistic human development. It affects about 25% of the global population aged between 15 and 49 years. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in schools have not prioritised MHM, thus exposing girls and the entire school community to health related hazards. The study explored knowledge, attitudes and community practices,and investigated the impact of religious and cultural beliefs on MHM and how they impact on the girl child in Masvingo district. The survey was largely qualitative and employed methodologies of document analysis, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and structured interviews. Participants included four churches, 13 NGOs, eight government departments and 40 women. Findings revealed deeply embedded power relations, a culture of silence around MHM, non-involvement of men in MHM issues, limited availability in terms of information, and a girl unfriendly infrastructure, and limited access to menstrual hygiene products due to poverty and poor management and disposal practices. Resultant effects ranged from poor class participation, lack of concentration and constrained interactions with peers and teachers, low self-esteem, anxiety and the general feeling of being discriminated against. Results confirmed the need for increased awareness initiatives on MHM in a bid to tackle inherent religious and cultural beliefs that are a barrier to effective holistic implementation of WASH interventions that empower women and girls. Lobbying government to provide an appropriate policy framework, education and training, construction of girl friendly sanitary facilities, exploring and capitalisation of local production of Reusable Menstrual Pads (RUMPS), more research targeting children living with disabilities, those living in refugee and makeshift camps and Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC), are some of the recommendations coming out of the study.
Source: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.200More Less
North-central Namibia is more vulnerable to effects of climate change and variability. Combined effects of environmental degradation, social vulnerability to poverty and a changing climate will compromise subsistence farming in north-central Namibia (NCN). This will make subsistence and small-scale farmers in the region more vulnerable to projected changes in the climate system. Thus, the aim of this article was to examine factors contributing to subsistence farmers' vulnerability to impacts of climate change. The article further discusses different aspects of human vulnerability and existing adaptation strategies in response to impacts of climate related disasters experienced over the past three to four decades in NCN. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches and methodology were employed to obtain information from subsistence farmers in north-central Namibia. The socio-demographic characteristics of Ohangwena, Oshana and Omusati Region reveals high levels of unemployment, high adult and elderly population and high dependency on agricultural livelihood system. These indicators help understand levels of household vulnerability. The study concludes that households interviewed revealed low levels of adaptive capacity due to exposure to climate risks and combined effects of social, political and cultural factors. This article provided an understanding that is required to inform the adaptation pathways relevant for NCN.
Community led total sanitation for community based disaster risk reduction : a case for non-input humanitarian relief : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.183More Less
Sanitation related diseases have become endemic in southern Africa resulting in increased sanitation and hygiene morbidity and mortality. The region has experienced 318 400 cases of cholera and diarrhoea outbreaks between 2006 and 2012. There is insufficient financing for sanitation and hygiene activities, as people lack basic sanitation services, they engage in open defecation, the primary cause of faecal oral disease transmission. This study investigated Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), subsidy free, community based disaster risk reduction approach, for open defecation reduction, in four constituencies in Swaziland. Data collected from households, through a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey illustrated that with appropriate training, involvement of traditional and community leaders, CLTS minimises open defecation. There is need of participatory rural appraisal through regular community monitoring and feedback meetings, as the disgust generated especially for women and youth, through the meetings, as well as group dynamics, steer the sustained construction and use of sanitation facilities. Lack of coordination between Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) leads to slow improvement of sanitation coverage, wherein the same communities are promoting CLTS and others are promoting Subsidy Based Sanitation Intervention (SBSI) which involves subsidies. It is recommended that there be coordination between partners for harmonisation of messages and an integration of the CLTS and SBSI approaches.
Indigenous food security revival strategies at the village level : the gender factor implications : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.175More Less
This article is based on an evaluation concerning the practice of the Zunde raMambo concept (commonly referred to as Zunde) in four of Zimbabwe's 52 districts; (Mangwe, Lupane, Guruve and Hwedza). Zunde is a social security system providing protection against food shortages to vulnerable families and is coordinated by chiefs. The Zunde concept identifies with Ndebele and Shona rural communities in Zimbabwe. Thus, this evaluation sought to determine the relevance and fulfilment of the Zunde project objectives, namely: efficiency,effectiveness, impact and sustainability. The revived Zunde practice extends a long way in reducing food insecurity in vulnerable communities. Although the concept may be as old as the Zimbabwean culture, it had been abandoned as communities became urbanised. The Chief's Council of Zimbabwe, in collaboration with the Nutrition Unit of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare have rekindled it. However, to revive this indigenous knowledge practice, there is need to assess the nature of existing social and economic structures, leadership,gender roles and the availability of resources such as land, inputs and implements. This article, which is based on both qualitative and quantitative data, collected between September 2013 and March 2014, goes on to reflect on policy issues surrounding disaster risk reduction (DRR) and survival strategies used by vulnerable communities in rural areas of Zimbabwe. It recommends that the gender factor approach offers the best means possible to understand peoples' needs and challenges as well as how these can be satisfied and resolved respectively.
Combating HIV and/or AIDS : a challenge to millennium development goals for disaster managers in the Southern African development community : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.173More Less
Disaster management is a process of planning and implementation of measures involving multiple disciplines and sectors; hence Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) cannot go unnoticed. Approximately 189 member states agreed to endeavour to achieve MDGs which should be accomplished by 2015. The purpose of this research was to establish the primary involvement of the disaster management fraternity within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region in this agreement. SADC countries are the countries with a high prevalence of HIV and AIDS and they feature on the disaster manager's priority list of hazards, hence the focus on MDG 6 for this study. Various data gathering tools were employed and included making use of indicators developed by the United Nations to review disaster management statutes or civil protection statutes and scholarly documents on the progress of MDG 6. Structured interviews were carried outwith heads of disaster management centres of SADC countries through the guidance of MDG 6 indicators. The main findings were that most statutes do acknowledge the fight against epidemics and most disaster managers are aware of MDG 6 and are involved in its achievement. It was recommended that disaster managers should be part of the Post 2015 MDG delegation.
Post-traumatic stress disorder amongst children aged 8-18 affected by the 2011 northern-Namibia floods : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.169More Less
Extreme flooding in the northern parts of Namibia occurred in 2011, impacting many school-going children in the region. The rationale for the current research is to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on school children as a result of the floods. A self-administered Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire (CTSQ) with closed-ended questions was administered to 480 children between the ages of eight and 18 years at their respective schools. The CTSQ consists of five items assessing re-experiencing and five items assessing hyper-arousal symptoms. The results show that 55.2% of learners aged 12 and below and 72.8% of learners aged 13 and above reported experiencing symptoms of trauma from the floods 2 years after the event. These percentages were quite high and are therefore a cause for concern. Given the magnitude of this problem, it is important for the government and other stakeholders to provide the necessary psychological and/or emotional support in the event of future floods or similar disasters.
The impact of and responses to flooding in Thulamela Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.166More Less
The frequency of climate-related disasters such as floods is growing due to environmental and human factors. This paper examines the impact of flooding and communities' perceptions towards responses to flooding in the cases of Maniini and Tshilungwi Villages in the Thulamela Municipality in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 60 household respondents in the two selected villages and then analysed. Key-informant interviews with community leaders and municipality officials established the key impact of and responses to the flooding. Secondary data on flooding provided useful historical trends in the region. Field observations assisted in corroborating information provided in interviews. The findings indicate that communities are vulnerable to flood disasters, and these disasters had a significant impact on infrastructure and the livelihood of the selected communities. An increase in household income and levels of education as well as access to grants decreased households' vulnerability in cases of flooding. The responses to flooding by the municipality were viewed negatively by the community who did not support permanent relocation. Hence, the article points out the need to strengthen coping mechanisms by local governments and communities themselves in order to cope with the impact of flooding.
Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cholera preparedness and prevention in Ga-Mampuru village, Limpopo, South Africa : original researchSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.164More Less
The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cholera prevention and preparedness in Ga-Mampuru village (Limpopo, South Africa). Interviewers collected data using a two-pronged method, namely a household questionnaire (open- and closed-ended questions) to assess knowledge and attitudes about cholera and observations to assess practices in the prevention and management of the disease. Additionally, interviewers took pictures with the respondents' permission. Ninety-six respondents were interviewed. Most respondents (86%) indicated they knew how cholera was contracted with 84% indicating contaminated water as a source. Ninety percent of the respondents indicated they knew how to prevent contracting cholera. All respondents generally knew that cholera could be treated with medicine received at a health-care facility or worker. Fewer respondents (58%) had specific knowledge such as the use of rehydration solutions. The respondents' high level of prevention practices could be biased. Interviewers observed that many practices were not adhered to, like not washing hands, not using toilet paper and throwing waste in respondents' yards. Therefore, the community of Ga-Mampuru had not reached a stage of adequate cholera prevention and preparedness in spite of the fact that they were aware of cholera risks and risk reduction measures.
Author Lori PeekSource: Jamba : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8, pp 1 –2 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.270More Less
From 06-08 October 2014, I had the opportunity to attend the second biennial conference of the Southern Africa Society for Disaster Reduction in Windhoek, Namibia. The theme of that meeting was drivers, scales and contexts of disaster risk in the Southern Africa Development Community. The three-day event included morning plenary sessions, afternoon breakout paper sessions and evening social hours and networking events. Those conference days were filled with lively debate and discussion. This dynamism of interchange was due, in part, to the diversity of the participants themselves: They hailed from all over the southern Africa region as well as from other parts of Africa, Europe, North America, Asia and beyond. Speakers included elected and appointed government officials, practitioners, graduate students, faculty members and many others. The sessions and associated events opened up the opportunity for long-standing collaborators as well as new colleagues and acquaintances to connect and to converse about common research interests and practical applications.