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- Journal of Psychology in Africa
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- Volume 1, Issue 6, 1996
Journal of Psychology in Africa - Volume 1, Issue 6, 1996
Volumes & issues
Volume 1, Issue 6, 1996
Source: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 02 –11 (1996)More Less
The personality of one hundred and \ seventy-seven subjects in four groups of varying length and depth of relationship was assessed twice using the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). The subjects filled out the EPI (S) and secondly the EPI was rated during interview with friends or spouses (F). The difference between the two assessments of personality was compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results show that the third parties who had related with the subjects for more than 3 years were able to give a valid account of the personality especially in the Introversion-Extroversion component. Lowest validity coefficients were obtained in the Neuroticism component of the personality. The spouses gave the most valid account of personality though some husbands rated their wives exceptionally high on the Neuroticism scale.
Female students in Cape Coast/Ghana: a study on the female body image with special regard to the female sex-role and eating disordersAuthor Susanne ZollerSource: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 12 –27 (1996)More Less
The reflection of the female body image in connection with the role of women and eating disorders in another culture than the ""Western"" is the main concern of this' article. There is no doubt that there are connections between the body image, the role of women and eating disorders in the so called ""industrialized countries"". It has been stated, however, that the body shape in ""developing countries"" is a plumper one than that in countries of Central Europe and North America. Furthermore it has been found out that, due to a few epidemiologic surveys, the frequency of eating disorders in ""developing countries"" is, far less, than that in some parts of Europe. In this article I want to reconsider these hypotheses: The chief aim of the study was to find out, differences within the sample (- 237 female students of the University of Cape Coast/Ghana) and with other samples e.g. in Canada as far as body image, eating disorders and the role of women (regarding age, origin etc.) are concerned.
Author Peter O. EbigboSource: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 28 –49 (1996)More Less
Somatic complaints have been observed to be widespread not only in Africa but also Asia. Somatization was viewed to be a kind of cultural way of communicating idioms of distress. Efforts at decoding the message coded in somatic complaints led to the development of the Enugu Somatization Scale, a maze of somatic complaints, the collection, interpretation and understanding of which gives one a clue to the social and psychological problems underlying the complaints. Hoch (1967) drawing-from her experience in Asia exposes the meaning of somatization at the various levels, namely the generalized transparent hypochondriac complaint level of the less sophisticated mind, the gross hysteric manifestation level at which the problem is projected to an outside force, and the level at which somatization is used to cover up the problem and exonerate the sufferer from blame. The somatic complaints are examined and interpreted culturally and their meanings given. Treatment comprises discovery of the problem and helping the client to solve it. Two cases are given as illustration.
Author U.E. Dr. UmorenSource: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 50 –66 (1996)More Less
This paper studies African concept of child by studying oral tradition namely proverbs. The paper examines various African proverbs as they relate to the child and identifies three categories of the meaning of the child: (a) child-parent category of meanings, (b), polygynous family category of meanings, and (c) gender category of meanings. The paper brought out the meaning and implication of each category and concluded that the proverbs show disadvantages to the girl-child. It recommends the identification and removal of these disadvantages by the United Nations.
L'inflechissement culturel du fonctionnement cognitif dans l'execution des taches psychometriques, le KR26Author Henri Nsika NkayaSource: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 67 –99 (1996)More Less
The explanation of the generally low standard test achievements which African individuals get, urge the study of cognitive functioning in psychometric tasks, taking into account the inevitable cultural inflexion of that cognitive functioning. The use of the expression 'cultural inflexion of cognitive functioning"" instead of ""cultural bias"" is first accounted for and then the study itself which deals with an inductive reasoning test, the KR26, is introduced. Two samples of Congolese subjects, contrasted by means of instruction level are compared in that study. The method is based on item behaviour analysis in examining the kinds of errors. This analysis completes the one which is applied to total achievements (by means of the study of correlations and the variance analysis). The results actually show that the most obvious sources of variation of the performances to the KR26 test are culturally interpretable. Other aspects of item behaviour stress on the effect of familiarity to the test material such as the dominoes, and some critical aspects which seem to characterize the cognitive functioning of individuals from Congolese culture: the adaptation to evolutive situations and the use of mental rotation processes.
Source: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 100 –119 (1996)More Less
This is a Malawian foundational perspective of an envisaged 'Psychology for Development'. The outlook for development in the different sectors of the Malawian society is daunting indeed due to its numerous socio-economic problems. But against all odds, psychology is clearly prospering in Malawi by becoming increasingly more popular and conducting researches that present and explain the uniqueness of the Malawian on which fruitful developmental decisions can be based. The findings of Psychology in Malawi contradict the universality of the theories of 'Western Psychology' the application of which has not yielded much positive results. This illuminates why psychology has had a rather low key, aloof, and perhaps academic persona in developing countries. This paper treats these peculiarities as evident in issues concerning Management and Health and Welfare sectors of the Malawian society. The social survey method was used in collecting information directly from subjects on their beliefs, feelings and behaviour.
Author Aydan GulerceSource: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 120 –138 (1996)More Less
The transformational view conceptualizes human development not as following an unilinear and unidirectional path but rather as ongoing transformations of both the individual and the coexisting context. It aims at the dynamic processes moving beyond the apparent dualism in developmental psychology. By taking cultural context into account and providing various alternatives, this model already forms a significant challenge to most western theories of life-span development. Indeed, the developmental research which has been carried in Africa can be reexamined and reinterpreted within, and in support of, the transformational framework. Only an illustrative attempt of this sort is made in this paper by briefly pointing at some of the African findings about various developmental domains. More significantly, however, it is expected that future African research could be even more sensitive to the conceptual and methodological limitations of the theories, and thus, could make important contributions to developmental psychology.
Source: Journal of Psychology in Africa 1, pp 139 –140 (1996)More Less