Journal of Education - Volume 35, Issue 1, 2005
Volume 35, Issue 1, 2005
Author Radhika ViruruSource: Journal of Education 35, pp 7 –30 (2005)More Less
In this paper a key concept in postcolonial theory, an unmasking of the will to power, that essentializes diverse ways of viewing and living in the world, is related to the field of early childhood education. Drawing on the work of such scholars as Young (2001) who suggest that the adopting of an activist position that seeks social transformation is a crucial concept in postcolonial work, this paper briefly reviews the work of various scholars across the globe who have used postcolonial theory in their analyses and reconceptualization of early childhood education. Finally and perhaps most importantly a discussion ensues as to why, despite the powerful nature of the ideas it has to offer, as well as its relevance to the lives of young children, postcolonial thought has had only minimal if any impact on the field of early childhood as an academic discipline and even less on the daily practices of early childhood educators.
Author Salim VallySource: Journal of Education 35, pp 31 –48 (2005)More Less
This article attempts to understand citizenship and childrenï¿½s human rights in the context of poverty and inequality in South African society. It reviews some of the policy texts pertinent to Early Childhood Development, particularly Education White Paper 5 on Early Childhood Education and White Paper 6 on Special Education. The article speaks to the discrepancy between the existing normative framework of society and its reality. It seeks to do this through a discussion of the ï¿½glossy rhetoricï¿½ of education policies and legislation informed by human rights, social justice and a democratic citizenship discourse and the actual realization of this promise.
Source: Journal of Education 35, pp 49 –74 (2005)More Less
Social exclusion has become a significant policy theme in most ï¿½developedï¿½ countries and in many ï¿½developingï¿½ countries as well. England and South Africa are no exceptions. Following a brief review of some perspectives on social exclusion, this paper descriptionbes some key policies in England and South Africa designed to combat social exclusion. The notion of social exclusion is examined in the context of addressing childhood poverty. It considers the extent to which these policies conform to a broad or narrow notion of social inclusion. The paper highlights some contradictions, complexities and ambiguities in both policy contexts.
Mapping HIV/AIDS as a barrier to education: a reflection on the methodological and ethical challenges to child participationSource: Journal of Education 35, pp 75 –98 (2005)More Less
The authors reflect on a qualitative research project on mapping the impact of HIV/AIDS as a potential barrier to education for young, vulnerable children. The methodological and ethical challenges in this project are explored in terms of the multiple layers of context, topic and skills that impinged on the nature and process of the research design. The means of obtaining informed consent, negotiating the bounds of confidentiality and addressing beneficence and nonmaleficence are discussed. A four-stage focus group design is related to the underlying principles of valuing the child and a process approach to research. Strategies, including participatory research techniques with vulnerable children are descriptionbed. The researchers argue that especially in developing contexts, the ethical and methodological issues are interrelated and result in inherent tensions in the research process.
Author Sarah Aubrey, Carol* & DahlSource: Journal of Education 35, pp 99 –120 (2005)More Less
This paper provides a review of effective methods for interviewing young and vulnerable groups of children and the influence of their voices on decisionmaking from the English-speaking literature. Very few studies are designed to address questions of effectiveness. Of those that do, there is evidence to suggest that interviews with young children are enhanced by the use of activity- and computer-based techniques. Quite young children can participate successfully in interviews though their responses are affected by question format. Age, gender and family circumstances will also be an influence. Descriptive-analytical studies in the family, educare and social welfare context suggest that a range of multi-method techniques is being employed to access childrenï¿½s views and that these may be beginning to influence decisionmaking. Not all young children are as yet asked for their views though involvement increases with age. The impact these have on policy, however, may be less certain. Children want their views to be listened to and treated with genuine consideration, nevertheless, and may not necessarily be upset or offended by questions probing sensitive areas. The current emphasis on widening childrenï¿½s opportunities to talk, however, may risk creating a culture in which children are expected to talk. Extending the range of documented themes to include child survival, renegotiation of parenthood or children and violence that better encompass global issues are discussed.
Ten years of early childhood development: a case study of Little Elephant Training Centre for Early EducationAuthor Peter RuleSource: Journal of Education 35, pp 121 –138 (2005)More Less
The last decade has seen considerable changes in the field of Early Childhood Development (ECD). This paper focuses on change within and around a single ECD training organisation, Little Elephant Training Centre for Early Education (LETCEE). Established in 1991 in Greytown, LETCEE started as a pre-school, took on training for ECD educators, and later worked in ECD as an aspect of community development. LETCEE has been shaped by the increasing formalization and regulation of the field, on the one hand, and its evolving understanding of ECD as a part of community development, on the other. This historical case study explores LETCEE as a unique organisation with its own contextually specific history, and as a microcosm of the evolving ECD field. It draws attention to the critically important but neglected area of Early Childhood Development within South African educational research.
Author Sophie Brown, Fraser & WebbSource: Journal of Education 35, pp 139 –158 (2005)More Less
This article concerns a small-scale research study conducted during the first year of a playwork intervention with abandoned children living in a Romanian paediatric hospital. The children, ranging in age from one- to ten-years-old, had suffered chronic neglect and abuse. They had previously spent most of their lives tied in the same cot in the same hospital ward. They were poorly fed and their nappies were rarely changed. Although able to see and hear other children, they experienced little in the way of social interaction. The article highlights the benefits of the playwork project for the childrenï¿½s development. It also draws parallels between the behaviour patterns of these children and those exhibited by infant monkeys reared in isolation in research conducted by Harlow. The article quotes extensively from reflective diaries kept during the study in order to identify some of the most significant therapeutic elements of playwork.
Social play by young at-risk children: a microgenetic approach to the study of emergent collaboration and numeracySource: Journal of Education 35, pp 159 –180 (2005)More Less
A sociocultural perspective was taken to examine the development of social play and emergent mathematics during social play with students at-risk. A longitudinal experimental design was carried out including a microgenetic study of the play sessions. Nineteen dyads from five primary schools and eight dyads from six special primary schools participated in the study. The dyads will be followed through from Grade 2 to 3. The subjects were selected with respect to age, language development, intelligence score and temperament. Then dyads were matched within classrooms according to sex and age. The dyads in the experimental condition took part in six 20-minute play sessions over a period of three weeks followed by a seventh session two months after the sixth one. The dyads in the control condition were studied in the first and seventh session only. Each experimental session included an invitation to build a zoo using toy-animals and wooden blocks. The study is still in progress. The results with respect to comparison of mathematical knowledge at the end of Grade 2 are presented. Moreover, collaboration and emergent mathematics during play sessions from two dyads are descriptionbed and discussed.