Journal of Education - Volume 37, Issue 1, 2005
Volume 37, Issue 1, 2005
Author Nelly P. StromquistSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 7 –36 (2005)More Less
This article brings together globalization and gender, two unavoidable subjects in the analysis of our contemporary world. Globalization must be considered because ï¿½it is the underlying structural dynamics that drives social, political, economic, and cultural processes around the worldï¿½ (Robinson, 2003). And gender because it is constitutive of most social relations and a common ground on which to construct power on a daily basis. Though gender might work as a contingent element of reality, it is present in all spheres of society and most moments of social life.
Author Astrid Von KotzeSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 39 –58 (2005)More Less
This paper looks at different ways in which popular education has been played out in South African university adult education (UAE) since the 1980s. It traces the changing relationships between UAE and sections of civil society, notably social movements, within the context of shifting socio-political dynamics. It suggests that today, there is a tension: UAE is asked to pay allegiance to vocationalism, market values and individualism. Adopting the old struggle language of ï¿½empowermentï¿½, ï¿½participationï¿½, and ï¿½people-centred educationï¿½ seems to signal that the old freedoms adult education as non-formal education utilised, are still alive. However, popular education is in danger of becoming a technology, divorced from the purpose and alliances that gave it meaning in the past. The paper asks what role does popular education have to play, today? It outlines some ways in which UAE can still make itself accountable and useful to struggles for social justice. These are proposed as a model of good practice ï¿½ encapsulated by Collinsï¿½ (1991) suggestion that rather than putting theory into practice, we should put ourselves into practice.
Author Elize** Naude, Piet* & NaudeSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 59 –78 (2005)More Less
In discussing the ethical challenges related to ï¿½cultural justiceï¿½ below, we take as assumptions the moral agency of higher education institutions individually and llectively as a system, as well as the implicit social contract between universities and the societies in which they function. We first argue that globalisation is a homogenizing cultural force to which higher education is subjected, but to which it also contributes. Thereafter we highlight two broad ethical challenges emanating from this, namely globalisation as cosmological narrative of identity formation, and as constituting cultural injustice by forcing people to surrender what is taken for granted. We then translate these two challenges into the context of Higher Education, and close with a brief outline of a curriculum project that attempts to address at least some of these issues.
Source: Journal of Education 37, pp 79 –102 (2005)More Less
Internationally, the understanding of children as social actors and the belief in childrenï¿½s rights ï¿½ in particular, the right to be heard and to participate in their lives has led to inclusion of childrenï¿½s voices in research. South Africa was party to the African Charter on the Rights and Responsibilities of the African Child (OAU, 1994), and ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNICEF, 1989) which advocates strongly for a recognition of children as persons in their own right, capable of acting on their social world, and articulating their experiences in different ways. Whilst there are a growing number of studies in South Africa that include the voices of school age children (for example, Griesel, Swart-Kruger and Chawla, 2004; Childrenï¿½s Institute, 2003; Nelson Mandela Foundation, 2005; Van der Riet, Hough, and Killian, 2005), there is a paucity of South African research that includes the ï¿½tellingsï¿½ of young children, in particular the under fours2 In this article, a sociological lens is used to explore some sense making moves in doing research with under fours as people in their own right. The article draws on a study that investigated under fours as social actors doing childhood in two multi ethnic early childhood centres in KwaZulu-Natal. Four sense making moves are highlighted, namely, the complexities of researching children as social actors doing childhood; the potential of participatory techniques for researching childrenï¿½s knowledge; the tensions inherent in the altering of power relations between researcher and children; and the challenges of working through situated ethics. An examination of these issues suggests the need for the practice of responsive research where multiple sense making moves are adopted in order to engage, firstly, with complex circumstances that shape young childrenï¿½s lives and secondly, with the particularities of young children as people shaping their lives.
Source: Journal of Education 37, pp 103 –130 (2005)More Less
What is it about curriculum and pedagogy that really makes the difference to pupil learning?1 Do particular pedagogic features matter in teaching learners thematics? Or is it rather the range of factors associated with making mathematics available to learners for learning? What makes the real difference: pedagogic style or opportunity to learn? The paper discusses why it is plausible to study opportunity to learn (OTL) in South Africa. It outlines some of the methods used to operationalise particular dimensions of OTL and measure variation in the structure and organization of school mathematics. Data are presented on the mathematics knowledge made available to low SES grade 5 and 6 learners in the first three terms of 2003 in terms of content complexity and across grade developmental complexity. The effects of this availability on learning will be reported on in future papers.
Author David RoseSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 131 –168 (2005)More Less
South African secondary students see themselves as a ï¿½new generationï¿½, the first to come of age in the democratic nation. They are intelligent, politically aware and highly motivated, but very few currently stand a chance of achieving their goals of further education and professional careers (Taylor, Muller, Vinjevold, 2003). If the new South Africa is to realise the possibility of a just society this situation urgently needs to change. But we are hamstrung, not just by the history of schooling in South Africa, but by classroom practices that have evolved in western education systems to reward the elite and marginalise the majority. This paper contends that the basis of inequality in the lassroom, and hence in the society, is in studentsï¿½ differing capacities to independently learn from reading, which is the fundamental mode of learning in secondary and tertiary education. Whether teaching practices are promoted as ï¿½learner-centredï¿½ or ï¿½teacher-centredï¿½ has little impact on the central problem of studentsï¿½ differing capacities to engage in and benefit from them. This problem can be overcome if we focus squarely on teaching all learners in a class to read and write the texts expected of their level and area of study, as part of everyday teaching practice. I argue here that democratising the classroom is the primary condition for achieving the kinds of educational outcomes needed to build a democratic South Africa, and outline a literacy pedagogy that can enable us to do so.
Author Kai HorsthemkeSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 169 –188 (2005)More Less
The Bantu Education Act has been descriptionbed by Archbishop Desmond Tutu as ï¿½the most evil of all pieces of apartheid legislationï¿½. Following a recent call for a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) for education in South Africa, numerous questions arise not only about the possibility but also about the plausibility, content and aims of such a commissioned investigation. This paper examines the epistemological, ethical and political ramifications of this approach. It argues that, given a certain ambiguity in the meaning of the term and given certain problems in the TRC process, the possibility and plausibility of such redress depend to some extent on a suitable ï¿½running partnerï¿½ for the idea and the process of reconciliation. After discussing and dismissing several such ï¿½partnerï¿½ ideas and principles, like ubuntu or botho, communalism and the common good, this paper examines and defends a rights-based approach that establishes rights as the backbone of redress and reconciliation as its heart.
Author Veerle DieltiensSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 189 –202 (2005)More Less
The maximalists would have us be ideal citizens if we conform ï¿½ and learn to conform ï¿½ to a number of precepts. We should be active citizens, we should value our community (and in particular our national identity) and we should take on the virtues that commit us to upholding the common good. For the maximalists, democracyï¿½s moral root lies in our civic ties to our community and to ensuring that the ideals of justice and equality are met. In many respects, the maximal project is admirable ï¿½ but as an educational project it is flawed. In this paper, I will argue that by filling in the details on how we ught to behave and what values we ought to have as citizens, maximal educators have slipped too far from educationï¿½s role in developing autonomous individuals who are able to freely express themselves. We need an account of citizenship education that takes seriously the development of individuality, while at the same time contributing to the democratic project that seeks the common good. This is a fine balance. I will argue that it is in an education towards a minimalist citizenship that offers a way of achieving both these educational objectives.
Author Alette DelportSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 203 –224 (2005)More Less
According to Dent (1988), Rousseauï¿½s political philosophy is based on a conception of the ideal society as comprising two mutually reciprocal dimensions, namely the political and the pre-political, or personal dimension. Rousseau believed that, although these two dimensions are interrelated, the personal level is more fundamental than the political level. In order for the superstructural dimension to be stable and legitimate, it has to rely on the personal, infrastructural dimension. Regarding social transformation, this means that, unless South African citizens have transformed at the inner, personal level, the new, transformed society will lack stability and legitimacy. In essence, this means that South Africans need to make certain crucial ï¿½mind-shiftsï¿½. In this article I intend to examine the process of transformation of the inner, personal self within the context of the changing South African political landscape. As a female white Afrikaner, who grew up in the heyday of Apartheid, I will also try to illuminate the complexity of such inner, personal developments and conversions by reflecting on some personal ï¿½emotionalï¿½ migrations. I will discuss this with reference to the three distinct cognitive elements of emotions as asserted by Martha Nussbaum (2001), namely its object-intentionality, evaluative belief component, and its reference to the perception of personal well-being.
Author Yusuf WaghidSource: Journal of Education 37, pp 225 –241 (2005)More Less
In this article I reflect on teaching and learning in a Masters programme in education policy studies with which I have been involved with for the past two years. To my mind, the theoretical framework which has underpinned our teaching and learning in this project relates to seminal ideas of Hannah Arendt and Maxine Greene, in particular their understanding of action and imagination respectively. I critically explore moments in our teaching and learning which lean towards imaginative action. One of our breakthroughs has been to act imaginatively through exploring possibilities as to how forgiveness can be harnessed beyond the university classroom. However, our pedagogical classroom encounters have not been without their dilemmas such as the studentsï¿½ canonical reading of texts, their uncritical reliance on teachersï¿½ authority, and their claim about the conclusiveness about the outcomes of education. This in turn brings into question the aims of our ambitious project ï¿½ to stir students to reach out on their own initiative, engage them in critical thinking, and to share in a dialogue where there is always more to be discovered and more to be said (Greene, 1995). Our narrative is still in the making, which implies that our imaginative action agenda with postgraduate students in education policy studies at a South African university should not be abandoned but ï¿½released through many sorts of dialogueï¿½ (Greene, 1995, p.5). This is necessary in order that our teaching and learning ï¿½disclose the ordinarily unseen, unheard, and unexpectedï¿½ (Greene, 1995, p.28), such as happened when we dialogically discovered a language of forgiveness.