Journal of Education - Volume 38, Issue 1, 2006
Volume 38, Issue 1, 2006
The hidden work of caring: teachers and the maturing AIDS epidemic in diverse secondary schools in DurbanSource: Journal of Education 38, pp 5 –24 (2006)More Less
In this article we argue that, almost unnoticed, teachers are dealing with the consequences of HIV/AIDS in their schools and classrooms. By focusing on the pastoral care of teachers work with learners, we explore the ways that teachers understand the care component of their school work, and descriptionbe what they actually do for learners who are either infected or affected by AIDS. Many teachers are in some or other way involved in care work, but the conditions of schools determine the nature and extent of the care work that teachers are called to deliver. In most schools there are no staff employed specifically to provide counselling though well resourced schools often are able to employ counsellors to assist learners. Teachers in the schools with the least resources are frequently those required to provide the most demanding forms of support and care to learners. This article is based on interviews with secondary school teachers in the greater Durban area who are responsible for the delivery of the life orientation curriculum in their schools. It is these teachers who are in the frontline of pastoral work although other teachers perform pastoral work too. Teachers in under resourced schools, located in areas characterised by poverty, do a huge amount of work with learners. This work does not fall within the curriculum and cannot easily be measured. It does not count towards promotion nor is it noticed in any public way by the teacher hierarchy. But, we argue, it is this work that is cushioning learners from the trauma of loss that many are confronting. It is thus vital for the well-being of schools, even as it is hidden from public recognition.
Author Fatuma ChegeSource: Journal of Education 38, pp 25 –44 (2006)More Less
This article uses data selected from two studies in countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR), namely, Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, to explore how teachers used gender to construct their identities and those of their students. It demonstrates the role of perceived models of African masculinities and femininities in the lives of teachers and how these were contrived to sexualise girls and construct them, not only as inferior to boys but also, as objects of sexual ridicule. We see how female and male students negotiated gendered and sexual identities in the school and in HIV/AIDS classes in ways that often threatened teacher image and confidence, often undermining classroom participation. The article analyses the gendered dynamics of school and classroom life, highlighting educational implications, identifying gaps for further research and suggesting strategies that could help transform HIV/AIDS education classes, making them relatively more empowering for teachers and students.
Source: Journal of Education 38, pp 45 –66 (2006)More Less
Within the social sciences generally, there is a burgeoning of interest and expertise in using visual and participatory elements for research designs which have a built-in ï¿½research as a social changeï¿½ orientation. Lister and Wells (2001) stress the unprecedented importance of imaging and visual technologies in contemporary society, and urge researchers to take account of those images when conducting research. A growing body of scholarship in education is incorporating certain image-based techniques into its research methodology. This article explores the use of visual and arts-based methodologies with a group of educators in a postgraduate programme at a university. Issues around HIV and AIDS are explored through creating photographic representations of the body, a natural site to begin exploring AIDS, trying to use photographic imagery to unpack understandings and experiences of AIDS, in so doing creating a context for action and social change. From their visual presentations a variety of themes, revealing the participantsï¿½ understandings and experiences of AIDS emerged, but differences were also apparent in the way the selections were presented and in the stories that were told. Implications both for methodologies in education, as well as implications for addressing HIV and AIDS with educators are discussed.
From our frames : exploring with teachers the pedagogic possibilities of a visual arts-based approach to HIV and AIDSAuthor Jean StuartSource: Journal of Education 38, pp 67 –88 (2006)More Less
This article profiles the visual arts-based methodology used for a short project set up to explore the uses of a visual arts-based approach for addressing HIV and AIDS through teacher development. It also attempts to explain how visual arts-based approaches to addressing HIV and AIDS may contribute to more creative and culturally contextualised research and pedagogy to address HIV and AIDS within the education sector. The project was undertaken at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in response to the suggestions that teachers need to explore their own understanding, attitudes and perceptions of the disease if they are to deal confidently with the demands HIV and AIDS places on them as educators in schools. Methods for the approach were adapted from the work of Ewald and Lightfoot (2001) and from Wangï¿½s (1999) photo-voice.
Author Rob PattmanSource: Journal of Education 38, pp 89 –116 (2006)More Less
Educational resources are usually understood as material things with monetary values, but, as I propose in this paper, with a particular focus on HIV/AIDS and sex education, they should also be conceptualised as the lives and identities of pupils. How teachers can tap into the rich potential of pupils by developing appropriate teaching materials and pedagogies is a major theme addressed in this paper which draws on a recent UNICEFfunded study with mainly black African teenage children as a model of good pedagogic practice and as a source of rich material about young people which can be used to generate further reflexive discussion in sex education. In this study loosely structured (mixed and single sex) group interviews were conducted with young people, from countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, about their lives, identities and their relations with others. In these, young people were positioned as experts, with the adult researchers trying to establish friendly and non-judgmental relations with them and encouraging them to set the agenda. In some counties the young people were also asked to record significant experiences in diaries. Gender and sexuality emerged as key categories through which boys and girls defined themselves and others, yet sexuality was also reported as a topic which was rarely discussed with adults including teachers. I argue for sex education teachers to be like the UNICEF researchers ï¿½ friendly, non-judgmental and self-reflexive, aware of themselves as resources modelling versions of gender and authority. Boys and girls, in all countries, tended to define themselves in opposition to each other, notably in relation to sexuality, with male initiated sexual desire constructed as the main source of attraction between the sexes, though these gendered versions of self and sexuality were often contradicted in the diaries they kept. In interviews conducted in all the countries girls were distinguished as ï¿½goodï¿½ and ï¿½badï¿½ in relation to sexuality, and the effect of this was to circumscribe girlsï¿½ behaviour ï¿½ including their capacity to talk, in mixed groups especially, about sexuality and to challenge forms of control emanating from these moral binaries. In response to these findings, I advocate and develop sex educational pedagogies and activities which aim to help students to explore the (different) ways they construct their gendered identities, in various sites, including school and the sex education class. I also suggest specific ways of working with boys and girls which encourage students to challenge forms of gender polarisation, in which they may be invested. For these mitigate against boys and girls taking themselves as resources and freely discussing gender and sexuality in sex education.
Diseases come from girls : perspectives of male learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal on HIV infection and AIDSSource: Journal of Education 38, pp 117 –138 (2006)More Less
The rapid spread of HIV, particularly among young people, is a source of concern across disciplines focusing on HIV risk reduction interventions. Research indicates that while adolescents have knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and AIDS, this knowledge does not necessarily translate into safe sexual behaviour. Such realisation calls for a move beyond knowledge-based approaches to exploring how youth experience, make meaning of and respond to HIV and AIDS. This article descriptionbes research conducted with a sample of rural male learners on their perspectives of the behaviour of men and women in relation to the spread and the prevention of the disease and perceptions of their personal risk for infection. An analysis of the discourses of the learners is presented and arising from this, implications for prevention are suggested.
Source: Journal of Education 38, pp 139 –164 (2006)More Less
Participatory research is frequently fore-grounded as an innovative approach to knowledge production, which, in contrast to the more traditional controlled research methods, engages participants in meaningful exchanges with researchers. In this article, we argue that participatory research has its own complexities and contradictions. We draw on data emanating from a research project aimed at mapping barriers to basic education in an HIV and AIDS context in the Richmond area, South Africa. Using post-structuralist notions of power, we explore constructs of voice, situated ethics, knowledge, emancipation and researcher reflexivity in order to determine to what extent and in what ways the use of participatory research methods is truly participatory.
Author Peter John, Vaughn & RuleSource: Journal of Education 38, pp 165 –186 (2006)More Less
Research in HIV/AIDS and education has been dominated by large-scale quantitative studies which have neglected the socially embedded nature of the disease. he authors are involved in a study that is investigating how HIV/AIDS affects schooling in Richmond, and how it intersects with other barriers to schooling in a context where the prevalence of HIV infection is high. Initial analysis in this study has indicated that an understanding of the context, particularly Richmondï¿½s violent past, is central to an understanding of HIV/AIDS and schooling. This article reports on a qualitative micro-study that emerges from the larger Richmond study. It attempts to provide a contextual understanding of Richmond as a geographic and socio-historic space, as a community and as a discursive space. We discuss Richmond as geographic and community spaces by examining its recent history with a view to understanding factors underlying HIV infection and affection. This discussion focuses on problems of fractured families, alcohol abuse, commercial sex work and drugs which all seem to be connected to a history of violence. We then examine Richmond as a discursive space in terms of discourses of violence, peace and barriers to schooling. In the final section of the article we theorise context using the metaphor of ï¿½groundï¿½ and apply this theorisation to the case of Richmond.