Journal of Education - Volume 40, Issue 1, 2006
Volume 40, Issue 1, 2006
Author Ursula HoadleySource: Journal of Education 40, pp 15 –34 (2006)More Less
The sociologist Basil Bernstein presents a delicate and rigorous conceptual frame for researching pedagogy, which enables an analysis of transmission and acquisition in relation to social class. Bernsteinï¿½s theoretical project demonstrates how class relations generate and distribute different forms of communication and ways of making meaning which differentially position subjects with respect to schooling and its requirements. The purpose of this article is to interrogate the use of Bernsteinï¿½s theory in analysing pedagogy, in particular in relation to the two key concepts of classification and framing which underpin his theory. The article considers the application of the theory in the South African context, and the emergence of empirical texts that ï¿½fall outï¿½ of the theoretical frame. The development of the theory in relation to these texts is consequently explored. The article is located within a broader study addressing the reproduction of social class differences through pedagogy (Hoadley, 2005). The research was conducted in South African primary schools in 2004. Drawing on a range of data, including classroom observation, interview and student task data, the study sought to develop a framework for the analysis of pedagogic variation across social class school settings, and to show how inequalities are potentially amplified through the pedagogic practices found in classrooms.
Source: Journal of Education 40, pp 37 –58 (2006)More Less
In the aftermath of apartheid and apartheid education, South African universities are exploring ways in which they can make their curricula more responsive to the needs of under-prepared students. There are many possible kinds of ï¿½curriculum responsivenessï¿½. This paper focuses on ï¿½curriculum responsivenessï¿½ for epistemological access. It explores what it means to be responsive to both epistemological activities underpinning systematised forms of inquiry synonymous with academic practice and to the needs of under-prepared students in relation to these. The main focus of the paper is on the practices which constitute academic knowledge as fundamentally different from everyday-life ways of making meaning. This account entails an examination of the analytic logic of academic practice and the social conditions which underpin it. This account includes an analysis of the systematic inquiry through which university studies fulfil their necessary functions. The paper explores ways in which under-preparedness for such practices may be demonstrated, particularly in relation to ï¿½text-based practicesï¿½ (Wertsch, 1991). It concludes with an examination of ways of initiating newcomers into these specialised activities of academic meaning making. This paper is based upon, and developed from an earlier paper we wrote on ï¿½Curriculum Responsivenessï¿½ commissioned by SAUVCA and published in H. Griesel (Ed.) Curriculum Responsiveness: Case Studies in Higher Education, 2004. Pretoria: South African Universities Vice-Chancellors Association. 2004.
Author Heidi BoltonSource: Journal of Education 40, pp 59 –78 (2006)More Less
The generally acknowledged play of subjectivity in the judgement of art makes the concept of achievement in the discipline a complex one. In this paper I show that there are soughtafter albeit tacit criteria for secondary school art in a south-western region of South Africa, and that these features are similar to criteria in art assessment literature. I descriptionbe attempts to elicit the existence and nature of criteria from the teachers and moderators responsible for evaluation of learnersï¿½ final-year exhibitions, these displays being the only school art graded by teams rather than single individuals. Delineation of criteria is based on interviews and a ranking task administered to teachers and moderators. While results show broadly similar criteria, rankings are not uniform. Rankings are, however, patterned in a finite number of ways traceable in terms of art traditions. I argue that this existence of broadly structured tacit criteria, while rendered sensible with reference to Bernsteinï¿½s theory of knowledge and art as a weakly structured discipline, has implications for pedagogy. The transmission-acquisition process needs to include establishment of and induction of acquirers into, shared sought-after criteria. It is expected that findings of the study will have relevance for other weakly structured disciplines.
Author Peter RuleSource: Journal of Education 40, pp 80 –101 (2006)More Less
Given the enduring educational legacies of apartheid and the continuing poor standards of secondary schooling in South Africa, the question of what constitutes appropriate academic development for educationally disadvantaged students in universities remains pertinent. This paper draws on the work of the Russian literary theorist, Mikhail Bakhtin, applying his concepts of dialogue, language types and speech genres to the context of student development. It illustrates how these concepts may be interpreted and applied pedagogically with reference to a certificate course in participatory development at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. It argues for a pedagogy which negotiates the boundary between formal and informal knowledge, taking into account both disciplinary foundations and studentsï¿½ experiences.
Author Crain SoudienSource: Journal of Education 40, pp 103 –118 (2006)More Less
The perfect city is a powerful idea which runs through the literature on social space. It begins, as far as we know, in classical Greece. Aristotle, for example, had much to say about the ideal city: it had to be situated in a particular place, close to the sea but not right at the seaside, it had to be of a certain size, and have a certain number of citizens, each of a particular age, sex and character, and certain tasks had to be fulfilled if the city was to prosper. The discussion continued into the period of Roman domination of Europe and centred on the ï¿½genius of Romeï¿½ and its capacity to embrace difference, its ability for ï¿½making the conquered into oneï¿½s fellowsï¿½. Much of the discussion of the city is, of course, the domain of architecture and urban planning. It is architecture that has most to say about the relationship between space, freedom and happiness. Architecture, according to Le Corbusier (Bauman, 1999), is a born enemy of all confusion, spontaneity and chaos. Reason alone is its master. In this paper I look at the city, not in its perfect radiant form, but in its messy, fetid and combustive guise, as a physical and discursive landscape upon which citizenship rights and responsibilities are fought over, shaped and generated. The city of this paper is like Blakeï¿½s London where, as he says, . . .every face I meet marks of weakness, marks of woe. In every cry of Man, In every Infantï¿½s cry of fear, In every voice, in every ban, The mind-forgï¿½d manacles I hear. How the Chimney-sweeperï¿½s cry Every blackï¿½ning church appals; And the hapless Soldierï¿½s sigh Runs in blood down Palace walls. I look at the place of education within this landscape, particularly its role in mediating citizenship rights and in producing amongst young people a sense of place and belonging. What pathways, I ask, do schools, and education in general, provide on the urban landscape for young people towards citizenship?
Freedom of expression and the survival of democracy: has democracy in our schools received the death penalty?Source: Journal of Education 40, pp 119 –140 (2006)More Less
In this article we argue that the right to freedom of expression is viewed internationally as a core right in a democracy. Since critical thinking is a prerequisite for democracy, this skill needs to be developed in South African schools. Critical incidents in schools, however, indicate that school authorities are not yet ready to develop this skill, as they still feel threatened by new, non-traditional meanings and opinions of authorities, learners and parents on human rights and leadership issues. We conclude that democracy is being suppressed in South African schools, since the right to freedom of expression, as a core right in a democracy, is not currently nurtured in the school system.
Source: Journal of Education 40, pp 141 –159 (2006)More Less
The purpose of this paper is to examine what the national Education Management Information Statistics database is able to tell us about the racial desegregation of schools and to compare this with findings from qualitative research. Examining challenges in the data and using simple statistical techniques to analyse a dataset for 2001, the paper shows that overall patterns appear to confirm the findings of qualitative research that there has been more movement from and integration of African learners into schools previously defined as Indian and Coloured; that schools previously defined as white remain largely so and that the statistics for the Western Cape on race provide an interesting contrast with other provinces. The article shows how diverse the picture is provincially and raises questions about race-based statistics and what they can and cannot tell us about the role of schools in changing broader racial and class identities.