Journal of Education - Volume 41, Issue 1, 2007
Volume 41, Issue 1, 2007
Author Wally MorrowSource: Journal of Education 41, pp 3 –20 (2007)More Less
This paper asks why conscientious teachers are chronically overloaded. Its central claim is that a failure to recognize the distinction between the formal and material elements of the concept of teaching provides a main part of the answer. An analysis of the Norms and Standards for Educators shows how, by failing to distinguish between the formal and material elements of the concept of teaching, it projects a conception of teaching which contributes to the overload of schoolteachers. The paper then contrasts the Norms and Standards with A National Framework for Teacher Education ï¿½ 16th June 2005, which puts a formal definition of teaching up front. The latter part of the paper moves to a discussion of the functions of schools, and proposes that both caregiving and the teaching of the young are crucial in our context; with caregiving becoming increasingly salient in the light of poverty and the HIV and AIDS pandemic. But we need to pose the question of whether caregiving should be regarded as part of the formal work of teachers, or whether others should be employed for this work, enabling schoolteachers to focus more sharply on their defining function.
Author Lorraine LawrenceSource: Journal of Education 41, pp 21 –41 (2007)More Less
The paper is based on a research study in progress at the University of Fort Hare, School of Postgraduate Studies in Education. I use narrative inquiry to increase understanding of the meaning of school transformation and the processes and principles involved in turning schools round in a radical way. The study investigates a sample of best practice schools that participated in the Eastern Cape Department of Educationï¿½s (ECDOE) Imbewu School Transformation Programme. They are all in extremely deprived rural or township contexts. It uses the narratives of principals to understand their perceptions of what happened in their schools during and after the intervention. The paper focuses on one primary school principal, and reflections on the narrative draw out principles and processes that have led to transformation. Based on these reflections the paper concludes by linking them to existing theories from post colonial African philosophy, social theory and educational theory. The aim of the paper is to increase understanding of whole school transformation in a specific context. I recognise that research in other contexts may lead to different understandings.
How do we develop inclusional epistemologies for a new scholarship of democratic educational enquiry?Author Ana** McNiff, Jean* & NaidooSource: Journal of Education 41, pp 43 –58 (2007)More Less
In this article we explain how and why, in our roles as a Dean and a visiting professor, we encourage practitioner-researchers in our faculties and elsewhere to enerate and make public their descriptionptions and explanations of practice as their living educational theories, by addressing the question, ï¿½How do I/we improve my/our work?ï¿½ (Whitehead, 1989), as we also do, and as we are doing here. Grounded in inclusional logics and values, these accounts constitute a reconceptualisation of theory from normative propositional forms to new living forms. A key feature of these living theories is the articulation of the relationally dynamic standards of judgement we use to test the validity of our research claims. Working collaboratively with others, as we research our practices in higher education settings, however, can be problematic, since we are developing new participative discourses within institutional cultures whose aims often include the perpetuation of divisive and exclusionary politically-constituted discourses, using technocratic epistemologies, to control what counts as knowledge and who should be seen as a knower. We experience such tensions keenly, especially in South African higher education contexts, where a commitment to democratic educational enquiry often means wrestling with the ontological insecurities of transforming existing logics of domination into new inclusive epistemologies within a post-apartheid democratic university culture. This is, however, the task we have set ourselves. In this paper, we explain how, by subjecting our accounts to public critique as we research how to encourage the development of new institutional epistemologies, we are aiming to contribute to the education of the social formation of the higher education community. We are doing this by showing how it is possible to develop high quality research programmes that are grounded in inclusional and transformational logics and that focus on demonstrating their methodological rigour through an analysis of the transformation of ontological values into the epistemological standards of judgement against which the validity of research claims can be tested. We explain how the development of such new inclusional institutional epistemologies can act as the grounds for a form of social solidarity that can contribute to forms of sustainable social evolution and, in a South African context, can contribute to South Africaï¿½s renaissance, and how our explanations for these processes can contribute to the education of wider social formations.
Towards a critical understanding of the teaching of discipline-specific academic literacies: making the tacit explicitAuthor Cecilia JacobsSource: Journal of Education 41, pp 59 –81 (2007)More Less
This paper explores the process that occurred among a group of academics at a tertiary institution, as they worked collaboratively over a three-year period in an attempt to situate the teaching of academic literacies within the mainstream curricula of various disciplines of study. The study draws on interview and focus group data, which were produced, using narrative methods such as stimulated recall, free writing and visual representations. Framed by New Literacy Studies and Rhetorical Studies theory, and drawing on the data from participating academics, the paper explicates a model for the process of integrating academic literacies into disciplines. The unfolding model presents factors to be considered when designing integrated approaches to the teaching of academic literacies, and the findings suggest that higher education needs to create discursive spaces for the collaboration of language lecturers and disciplinary specialists. The paper concludes that it is through sustained interaction with language lecturers that disciplinary specialists are able to make their tacit knowledge of the literacy practices and discourse patterns of their disciplines, explicit. Such collaboration enables both language lecturers and disciplinary specialists to shift towards a critical understanding of the teaching of discipline-specific academic literacies.
Author Lesley Le GrangeSource: Journal of Education 41, pp 83 –95 (2007)More Less
The year 2005 marked the beginning of the United Nations Decade of Education for sustainable development. Commonly, sustainable development (SD) means development that does not compromise the needs of future generations. Therefore the term implies two broad categories of needs: needs of present generations and needs of future generations. In this paper, I theorise about these two categories of needs. More importantly, however, I theorise about needs discourses associated with sustainable development. In other words, I focus not only on needs as the distribution of satisfactions but also on the contested character of needs or the politics of needs. Nancy Fraser writes that ï¿½needs talkï¿½ functions as a medium for making and contesting of political claims: ï¿½it is an idiom in which political conflict is played out and through which inequalities are symbolically elaborated and challengedï¿½. Furthermore, she proposes a scheme for classifying the varieties of needs talk in late capitalist societies, suggesting that there are three major needs discourses: ï¿½oppositionalï¿½ discourses, ï¿½reprivatisationï¿½ discourses and ï¿½expertï¿½ needs discourses. All of these relate to sustainable development, but sustainable development produces another discourse which might be descriptionbed as a ï¿½futuresï¿½ needs discourse. In this paper I explore some of the current rival needs discourses and reflect on ï¿½futuresï¿½ needs discourses vis-ï¿½vis sustainable development. I also suggest some implications of my discussion for education.
Author Jacqui DornbrackSource: Journal of Education 41, pp 97 –111 (2007)More Less
This paper descriptionbes an intervention conducted with a core group of teachers at an exmodel C high school in the Eastern Cape. The six teachers from various isciplines met weekly over a period of eighteen months with the researcher to discuss various aspects of diversity. One of the outcomes of these focus group meetings was that teachers began to reflect critically on how fixed, totalising forms of representation offer restricted understandings of people which may lead to discrimination and unfair practices.