African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development - latest Issue
Volume 8, Issue 5-6, 2016
Development of an innovative eco-friendly rice puffing machine for modernizing a traditional cottage industrySource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 371 –376 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219465More Less
Traditional enterprises are economically less viable although they impact the environment less adversely. Modern industries that have replaced traditional skills for mass manufacture of the same products are capital intensive and more polluting. A midway is essential that can upgrade the age-old, traditional business to generate more profit without harming the environment. Cereal puffing has long been undertaken as an arduous cottage industry across rural India. The practice of cereal puffing, chiefly rice, by the conventional method is polluting and adversely affects the health of the maker. Large puffing mills are economically not viable alternatives for small-scale, rural entrepreneurs. A unique, innovative, manually operated machine has been designed and patented that modernizes the practice of rice puffing and increases the production efficiency by 1100% (approximately), thereby increasing the profit margin significantly. It drastically improves the working conditions, enables operations for long durations, produces traditional quality products and is also environment friendly, generating much less smoke and heat compared with the traditional method of rice puffing. The machine has shown tremendous potential in economically empowering marginalized sections of Indian society, chiefly rural and tribal women in different states across India.
Climate change and intellectual property rights in Africa : Environmental necessity-economicopportunitySource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 377 –385 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219482More Less
Promoting the development of clean technologies is critical in achieving a low-carbon economy in Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed more light on the role of IPRs in the efforts to mitigate climate change in Africa. This paper argues that the existing IP regime, specifically the patent system, does not necessarily preclude African countries from developing clean technologies that meet world standards. However, African countries lack capacities to adapt, develop, deploy and operate high low-carbon technologies which can give them competitive advantage in the global market. This article proposes that African countries should create an institutional set-up by which innovative strategies can easily be shared to accelerate and facilitate the development and diffusion of clean technologies. The paper concludes that unless African countries adopt appropriate policy mix to stimulate technological catch-up with rest of world in the area of clean technology development and diffusion, they will continue to lag behind and face deepening marginalization in the global economy, irrespective of the IP system regime.
Performance and emission evaluation of pure biodiesel from non-edible feedstock and waste oil in a diesel engineSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 387 –398 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219483More Less
Biodiesel prepared from Jatropha, Moringa and restaurant waste oil were evaluated in a 3.5 kw diesel engine to determine their performance and pollutant emission. The brake specific (BS) emissions across the full load spectrum were benchmarked against the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US, EPA) and the European Union (EU) emission caps. Results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiencies gave marginal differences between conventional diesel fuel (ndiesel) and the biodiesel fuel samples (±4% and ±5 respectively at peak load). Carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and particulate matter (PM) emissions (in parts per million) showed a decreasing trend with load increase and were lower than those of ndiesel fuel samples. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emission for the biodiesel were observed to be lower than those of ndiesel. This was because the 1650 k peak temperature to activate thermal NOX was sparingly breached for the biodiesels. BSHC for all fuel types failed the EPA as well as the EU emission caps under all loading conditions. All tested fuel samples met the regulatory standards at load conditions exceeding 65%. Brake specific particulate matter (BSPM) for all fuel type fell short of the EPA and EU standard, except those of waste oil and jatropha biodiesel, with BSPM below the EU upper limit of0.85 g/Kwh.
Methods for assessing the impact of research on innovation and development in the agriculture and food sectorsSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 399 –410 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219484More Less
The need for technological transition and the context of the privatization of public research funding both challenge the evolution of methods to assess the impact of research in the agricultural and food sectors. We analyze this evolution through a literature review and an examination of a range of case studies on research completed in developing countries. In the first part, the results stemming from the former analysis question the controversies raised by quantitative approaches. In view of these controversies, we then examine the methodological innovations taking place in a qualitative approach. A survey of case studies ultimately helps to characterize the strategic resources that research generates with a view to improving its impact on innovation and development.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 411 –422 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219501More Less
The paper presents the modelling of unbalance in a shaft rotor-bearing system using energy methods and finite element analysis strategies. The modelling process brought about the review of three types of unbalance in the shaft rotor bearingsystem. They include mass unbalances in the rotor disk, and misalignment in the flexible coupling, which includes parallel and angular misalignment. Each component in the unbalanced system was defined and modelled using energy methods. The forcing function causing unbalance introduced through the flexible coupling was also defined and modelled. Each component and the forcing function were integrated into the global shaft rotor-bearing unbalance system model. The output model was solved using numerical simulation analysis in Matlab. The result yielded a stability optimization model for managing balance in shaft rotor-bearing systems.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 423 –428 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219502More Less
Agile practices are the current trend in the software industry, so it is, therefore, pertinent that students not only learn but practise agile development in the learning environment. Adapting to a different approach such as agile practices in software systems development has been a challenge for both students and lecturing staff. This study examined the underlying challenges and experiences of students in using the agile approach to software development in a project course. A mixed-methods approach was followed with focus group interviews and a survey instrument used to determine the students' experiences of the agile approach to software development. The results reflected an intention to use agile practices in future and enthusiasm in using agile practices in learning. In addition, it was found that more programming expertise was needed for some students without the requisite programming knowledge. These findings have implications for structuring courses more effectively for undergraduate modules.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 429 –438 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219503More Less
This study investigates the perceptions of sugarcane farmers on climate change impacts and their potential alternative livelihoods in the Lowveld of Swaziland with the objective of informing research and policy initiatives. The study obtained data mainly from a survey involving supervisor respondents who had 10 years or more practical farming experience in the study area. In addition, historical climate data on rainfall and temperature patterns were generated to triangulate responses on perceptions. Farmer respondents and the historical data confirmed the perceptions on increased drought and flood incidences, severe temperature fluctuations, decreased water availability, increased pests and diseases that have been observed from as far back as 1975. As for alternative livelihoods in the event that sugarcane farming significantly fails, the farmers indicated that they would and were already engaged in diversification systems that include: livestock farming, and growing food and other cash crops. The study concludes that farmers' perceptions are indeed aligned to emerging global trends on climate change impacts on the agricultural sector in general and the sugarcane industry in particular. Drawing from historical data on rainfall and temperature, we recommend that the government puts in place necessary adaptation measures to minimize foreseeable negative impacts on farmers, especially those engaged in medium- to small-scale operations.
Water quality of the Luvuvhu River and its tributaries within the Thulamela Local Municipality, Limpopo Province, South AfricaSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 439 –445 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1219504More Less
The study was conducted during dry and wet periods at the Luvuvhu River and its tributaries within the Thumalamela Local Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 50 samples (25 per sampling session) were collected for physico-chemical analysis at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Regression, ANOVA: single factor and Pearson Correlation Coefficient analyses were applied in order to examine the influence of seasonal variation on water quality. This study found that the concentration of fluoride, pH, SO4, NO- 3 and TDS are within the recommended levels for domestic water use in South Africa. However, a high concentration of total acidity was found at Dzindi, Luvuvhu and Mutshundudi rivers at an average of 2.40 mg/l ± 0.55 mg/l, 3.00 mg/l ± 1.00 mg/l and 4.40 mg/l ± 2.07 mg/l, respectively during the dry sampling period. The level of total alkalinity, NO- 3 and TDS were found to be high at Lukunde River.
Author Mercy MpinganjiraSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 447 –456 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1222752More Less
Developments in information and communication technologies have transformed the way retailing is conducted today,enabling the opening of stores online. This study aims at examining customers' post-purchase attitude towards online stores. Data was collected from 201 online customers from Gauteng, South Africa, using a structured questionnaire. The findings show that most customers had positive attitudes towards the online stores they had bought from. Store offerings, navigation aids, security features, and fulfilment reliability were found to have significant influence on customers' attitude towards online stores, while customer community did not. The findings also show that post-purchase attitude towards an online store has significant influence on behavioural intentions to repurchase from a store. With online retailing being a new phenomenon in Africa in general, not much research has been done to help understand customers' perceptions and attitudes as well as factors that influence these. This study addresses the gap and shows factors that managers can focus on in order to influence positively their customers' attitude towards their stores.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 457 –466 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1224543More Less
Today's maintenance workforce operates in a complex business environment and relies on metrics that indirectly link equipment breakdown, fluctuating production rate, demand uncertainties and fluctuating raw material requirements. This has triggered a change in the scope as well as the substance of maintenance workforce theory and practice, and the necessary requirement to promote a full understanding of maintenance workforce optimization of some seemingly non-polynomial hard problems. Theorizing is essential on the near optimal solution techniques for the maintenance workforce problem. In this paper, a fuzzy goal programming model is proposed and used in formulating a single objective function for maintenance workforce optimization with stochastic constraint consideration. The performance of the proposed model was verified using data obtained from a production system and simulated annealing (SA) as a solution method. The results obtained using SA and differential evolution (DE) were compared on the basis of computational time and quality of solution. We observed that the SA results outperform those of the DE algorithm. Based on the results obtained, the proposed model has the capacity to generate reliable information for preventive and breakdown workforce maintenance planning.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 467 –474 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1224611More Less
This study evaluates the effect of rubber crumb on the microstructural properties of concrete which was used to partially replace fine aggregate by 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16% proportion and designated as M0, M4, M8, M12, and M16 respectively. The wet and hardened properties of concrete were investigated by conducting a slump test and a compressive strength test, and by measuring the concrete bulk density. The crack formed as a result of compressive strength was investigated using a digital microscope, while the micro-cracks formed in the concrete structure were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that concrete slump for all the samples range between 25 and 10 mm, with M0 and M4 having the highest slump. The compressive strength and density of the concrete decreased as the amount of rubber crumb increased in the mixture, with M0 having a compressive strength of 51.88 N/mm2 and M16 having the lowest compressive strength of 19.40 N/mm2. The SEM analysis showed that there was a weak bond between the concrete paste and the rubber crumb, which resulted in to a weak adhesive force, and the development of micro-cracks which contributed to the week compressive strength in concrete with higher rubber crumb.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 475 –481 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1224613More Less
Most developing countries grapple with management of solid waste and environmental health risks associated within sanitary conditions. Indiscriminate dumping of household and industrial waste remains an alternative means of waste disposal for communities that have no access to reliable refuse removal services. This phenomenon affects not only developing countries but developed ones as well, although the literature points out that it is more prevalent in the latter. The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that are associated with the prevalence of indiscriminate dumping of waste in communities in order to establish the cause-effect relationship between these factors and environmental health risks in these communities. This paper reviewed peer-reviewed articles on the field of waste management. An approach that looks at waste management factors individually as well as holistically is needed to curb and/or end this practice.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 483 –495 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1226705More Less
This study empirically establishes the causal relationship between financial innovation and economic growth in the SADC. Using an Auto regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model, estimated by Pooled Mean Group and Dynamic Fixed Effects, the study finds that financial innovation generally has a positive relationship with economic growth in the long run for the SADC. Introducing Mobile Banking props up the role of financial innovation in growth in the SADC. The long-run estimations show mixed effects on proxy variables other than Mobile Banking, strengthening the importance of having appropriate measures for financial innovation. Panel Granger causality tests establish that there is no causality, in any direction, between financial innovation and growth, both in the short and long run.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 497 –508 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1257537More Less
Smallholder farmers are reluctant to risk investing in fertilizers. To understand how risk is perceived and how economic returns are distributed before the decision to invest in fertilizer use is made, needs a systematic approach using localized applications. This study assesses the profitability and net return variability of fertilizer micro-dosing (MD) in the subhumid rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) farming system in Tanzania. Useful data was gathered from a household baseline survey, water and nutrient limited calibrated yields, marginal costs and yields from farmers' field trials, along with other information from expert and historical data. Crop yields, crop prices and prices for key production inputs (mainly fertilizer) were simulated for the net economic return distributions for maize under different fertilizer MD rates using the Economic and Nutritional Impact Assessment Model (FARMSIM), which is supported by Simulation and Econometrics to Analyse Risk (SIMETAR). The results show relative differences in stochastic returns between water and nutrient limited (without fertilizer MD) and with fertilizer MD scenarios. Farmers are likely to adopt fertilization technologies if best agronomic practices are promoted through farmer groups and field schools, fertilizers are repackaged into small quantities for ease of purchase and access, and the coverage of subsidized fertilizers is increased.
Author Sanghamitra DasSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 509 –511 (2016)More Less
The Rise of the Creative Class: Revisited, first published in 2002, is now in its second edition. The very first aspect of the book that attracts the attention of the reader is the title itself, which alludes to the role of creativity in the economy and society. Indeed, when the book was first published, it became a bestseller and took the world of urban studies, particularly in advanced countries, by storm. Although technically a novel construct, Richard Florida's concept of creativity and creative capital was criticized by several scholars, including the Harvardurban economist, Edward Glaeser, as being not very different from the already established concept of human capital (Glaeser 2004). Human capital is based on the level of skills possessed by an individual, as a result of formal education. Creativity, like human capital, gives rise to new ideas that can spur technological and economic innovation which, in turn, can lead to economic growth. In the second edition of the book, Florida addresses these criticisms and redefines the 'creativeclass' as a socioeconomic group whose distinguishing characteristic is the ability of its members to engage in such work whose function is to 'create meaningful new forms'. This ability, Florida claims, by citing the examples of entrepreneurial giants like Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, is regardless of the educational qualifications of its members and hence is fundamentally different from human capital.