African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development - latest Issue
Volume 8, Issue 3, 2016
A secure framework for SMS-based service delivery in m-government using a multicast encryption schemeSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 247 –255 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1156837More Less
The use of mobile devices has revolutionised the world. Their affordability, high availability and usage convenience could transform the current governance to mobile government. However, in literature, the existing m-government architecture in Africa does not adequately consider security in its feature. This paper proposes a framework for mobile government using SMS as a tool, which is considered affordable, reliable and secure for Nigerian government. The adoptable framework has four major components, namely: m-government administration, security/privacy, m-services and m-participation/trust. A secure platform for this SMS transmission based on multicast encryption system is presented with some policies to guide its adoption. A prototype of the proposed design is implemented on a peer-peer platform in order to display the uniqueness of the framework. To examine the readiness of the population for its adoption in Nigeria, this paper analyses the use of the technological acceptance model. Seventy questionnaires were administered to citizens, measuring their responses to perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), attitudes towards usage (ATU) and behavioural intention to use (BIU) the mobile system. The results of the study indicated that citizens' PEOU had a significant influence on ATU. Subsequently, PEOU had the strongest significant influence on PU. From data analysis, 95% of the respondents indicated a usability acceptance.
Occupational safety and health issues on road construction sites in sub-Saharan Africa : a case study from UgandaAuthor Stephen Nyende-ByakikaSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 256 –263 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1156838More Less
The road construction industry in Uganda has been boosted in recent years in an effort to foster economic development. Safety practices within the industry, however, leave a lot to be desired and this exposes workers to unnecessary occupational risks. This paper presents research findings on various safety aspects pertaining to interaction of traffic with workers, material handling, and plant and equipment used on road construction sites, and the risks these pose to workers. Various accidents and injuries that occur on road construction sites have been studied and remedial measures have been proposed. Conclusions that were drawn point towards proper work zone layouts, fairly good traffic management on the sites, good condition of plant and equipment and regular provision of first aid on the one hand; and inadequate usage of personal protective equipment, poor state of hygiene, insufficient training and inefficient safety committees on the other. As recommendations, traffic management should be emphasised, with the provision of personal protective equipment, observation of hygiene and emphasis of safety at tendering stage.
Modelling the effects of petroleum product contaminated sand on the compressive strength of concretes using fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks : a case study of dieselSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 264 –274 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1156840More Less
In this study an artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic (FL) were used to predict the compressive strength of concrete produced with diesel contaminated sand. Concrete was produced using sand contaminated with diesel at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5 and 10 percent, and each batch cured for 7, 14, 28, 58, 90 and 118 days. The compressive strength of the concretes was measured for each percentage contamination and curing time. Subsequently, an ANN and FL models were developed used to predict the compressive strength of the concrete. The ANN model predictions with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99316 predicted better than two FL models which predicted with correlation coefficient (R) values of 0.9086 and 0.8038 respectively. The results show that ANN and FL models could be used to predict the compressive strength of concretes produced with diesel contaminated sand.
Author Pius Bamidele MogajiSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 275 –280 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1163473More Less
The objective of this work is to design and develop an improved maize shelling machine in terms of better time management, affordable cost, portability and mechanical efficiency. The method used involved selecting appropriate materials, and utilisation of theories of failure that enable the determination of allowable shear stress on the bearing supports. It features the design calculations necessary for the completion of this work. The improvement in this work is its shelling efficiency without breaking the maize cob. The machine can be operated both manually and mechanically. A maize Sheller with a capacity of 3 horsepower was made effective for the shelling of maize. The efficiency of the machine is 96% and the production cost is ₦80 000 Nigerian naira (approximately $540).
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 281 –291 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1163474More Less
Youths as a critical socio-demographic cohort represent the gauge of societies relative to the present and future. Youths' construction(s) of the rural thus present(s) a veritable corridor through which powerful socioeconomic and ideological contestations emergent in the rural-urban divide debates can be well understood in the digital media age of developing countries, especially in Africa. While many studies have been conducted on factors driving the rural-urban divide in developing countries, most focus on migrations with very little attention to social construction(s) of rural space and people, particularly relative to significant others and digital ancillaries. This article thus examines how urban youths construct their being relative to their rural hometown origin. The article is empirical with the use of secondary and primary data within exploratory non-experimental research design with intergenerational factoring that interconnects kin, media (Nollywood) and the youths in rural construction contexts. Useful findings were made and valid conclusions reached, and these are presented in this article.
Source: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 292 –298 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1163475More Less
The detailed design procedure for a quick-return mechanism hand water pump is presented. The system designed is basically a modification to reciprocating lift pumps also known as India mark III. The modified pump is operated by the up and down reciprocating movement of the handle. The major problems associated with the India mark III pump were the high level of fatigue of the operator, and low pump capacity. These problems motivated the design and fabrication of a manually operated hand pump that employs a quick-return mechanism and a gear drive in the power train to ease the operation and at the same time increase the pump's capacity. Results obtained show that the quick-return mechanism has a capacity of 15.2 litres/min which will require an effort of 102.7 N, whereas the conventional lever lift mechanism has a capacity of 10.65 litres/min and requires an effort of 127 N.
Author Nathanael OjongSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 299 –308 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1163478More Less
Research on mobile phones abound. However, the use of the mobile phone as an informal value transfer mechanism has received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this lacuna in academic literature by focusing on the 'why' and 'how' of 'airtime remittances' in Cameroon. The paper shows that remittance mechanisms are embedded in social relations, and sheds light on the social meaning of informal remittance sending practices. It argues that although formal and informal remittance channels may be conceptually mutually exclusive, in practice they are interrelated. Depending on the local context, formal and informal remittance mechanisms may be mutually reinforcing.
Green economy transition and the sustainability of the Nigerian aquaculture industry : policy perspectives and the way forwardSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 309 –319 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1163479More Less
Sustainable development and green economy transition call for innovations that address the simultaneous realisation of economic growth, and improved human and environmental well-being. A holistic and appropriate policy and legislative regime is important to ensure the efficacy of these innovations. This research explored how policies and institutions in Nigeria relate to the need and drive for a sustainable aquaculture industry. The findings show that the policies and regulations do not address all aspects that could give rise to such an industry. The paper suggests the need for a holistic policy and institutions audit to determine their suitability for the new growth and development agendas.
Academic staff development : a lever to address the challenges of the 21st-century university classroomAuthor Severino MachingambiSource: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development 8, pp 320 –326 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1163480More Less
This paper reports on how a university of technology used design research to plan and roll out an academic staff development programme so as to influence the institutional throughput rate. The study forms part of the institution's effort to understand and address the generally unsatisfactory performance of the South African higher education system in facilitating the success of the majority of the student population. The programme is grounded in the constructivist paradigm. The paper examines the major aspects of the programme namely, the preliminary phase, the teaching experiment and the retrospective analysis. The study established that this initiative, while necessary, was not sufficient on its own to make an impact of the magnitude that is required given the enormity of the problem of student low throughput rate. It is therefore recommended that the university under study, in collaboration with other universities, explore and implement more impact-oriented action plans that are meant to enhance student learning outcomes.