African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) - latest Issue
Volume 23, Issue 1.1, 2017
A comparative overview of exercise and health related professions : athletic training, clinical exercise physiology and biokineticsSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 1 –12 (2017)More Less
The world has embraced the salutogenic effect of sport and physical activity in view of its role in promoting thewell-being of mankind. This international consensus has transformed this pastime into a multi-billion dollar/rand enterprise. The lucrative sport and physical activity enterprise provides substantial revenue to aspiring people interested in pursuing a career in the field. The numerous employment opportunities being advertised internationally in exercise and health related professions are actively being pursued by many South African biokineticists. Therefore, the overlap in the scope of practice among the professions of athletic training, clinical exercise physiology and biokinetics needs to be examined. This overview examines the similarities and differences among the most popular tertiary qualified exercise and health related practitioners in the United States of America, Canada, Australia and South Africa. A systemic review of literature following the PRIMSA guidelines from 1959-2016 was undertaken. In total, 931 records associated with athletic training, clinical exercise physiology and biokinetics were identified, but only 18 were included in this review. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Evidence Hierarchy and a modified Down and Black Appraisal Scale were employed to synthesise the literature. This review highlights the admiral position that biokineticists are placed with regards to final phase rehabilitation of patients across the spectrum of healthy (athletes) to diseased and/or disabled individuals. It is hoped that the review will encourage affiliation and international accreditation of the profession of biokinetics with those of Athletic Training and Clinical Exercise Physiology.
Enhancing inclusive sports participation through volunteer coaches : the case of Camp Shriver at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, KenyaAuthor P.W. BukhalaSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 13 –27 (2017)More Less
The study investigated the effectiveness of using trained volunteer coaches to improve the physical activity level of youth with and without intellectual disabilities enrolled in an inclusive programme. In total, 106 youths with and without intellectual disabilities participated in the programme. Thirty two trained volunteers served as coaches. The volunteer coaches were trained for four days on teaching motor skills to an inclusive group of learners with and without disability. Data was collected through questionnaires, observation checklists and a physical fitness test protocol. Effect of the volunteer coach programme on participants’ achievement levels was assessed and a significant improvement was noted in motor performance for both participants with and without disabilities. Specifically, there was a marked improvement in both the left handgrip (t(196)=-.979<0.05), right handgrip (t(196) = -2.798<0.05) kicking (t(196)=2.743<0.05) and right leg balance(t(196) =-3.067<0.05). No significant changes were recorded in the physical fitness measures except for the waist to hip ratio for all participants (t(132)=2.743<0.001). That is, male participants (t(62)=2.139<0.036) and females (t(62)=2.139<0.036). Volunteer coaches and parents’ views were analysed qualitatively as themes. Both volunteer coaches and parents had positive views about the programme. Coaches felt that they had gained experience working with persons with disabilities, had learned new coaching methods and had improved their personal lives by changing other peoples’ lives. For parents, the programme enabled them to see the capabilities of their children. The study recommended the use of volunteer support groups to enhance motor and social skills of youth enrolled in inclusive programmes.
Emotional labour and job satisfaction relationships : lived experiences of amateur sport coaches in South AfricaAuthor M. DhurupSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 28 –44 (2017)More Less
The study examines the relationship between three emotional labour constructs (surface acting, deep acting, and naturally felt emotions) and job satisfaction among amateur sport coaches in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The motivation for the study on coaches in particular was founded on the critical roles that coaches play in the life of an athlete. Coaches recruit athletes, attempt to develop them into excellent athletes and become mentors to them. Through a quantitative study, two hundred and sixty eight (n=268) amateur coaches participated in the study. Data from the survey are analysed through confirmatory factor analysis (to confirm factor structure), correlations and regression analysis to access the associations and predictive relationships between the constructs. Results show that of three emotional labour constructs (surface acting, deep acting, and naturally felt emotions) only deep acting has a significant and positive influence on coaches’ job satisfaction. The study advocates the inclusion of mediating and moderating variables to test the measurement and structural path model to better comprehend the total effects of emotional labour and job satisfaction.
Respiratory health risks and exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) among informal waste pickers at a landfill site in Durban, South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 45 –58 (2017)More Less
Waste picking contributes to sustainable development while simultaneously providing an income for socioeconomically disadvantaged people. However, there are occupational hazards and health risks involved. We hypothesised that waste pickers may be exposed to increased amounts of dust that could exacerbate respiratory effects. A validated questionnaire for respiratory health was administered to 102 waste pickers and exposure to environmental and personal PM2.5 was evaluated. There was a relatively high prevalence of chronic cough and wheeze amongst all participants (57% and 51% respectively). Males reported a higher frequency of cough (64.9%), shortness of breath (68.7%) and wheeze (67.3%) than females. The interquartile range (IQR) for personal sampling was 286 μg/m3 compared to 15.8 μg/m3 for environmental sampling, which exceeded South African guidelines. The increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among participants in this study may be attributed to the exposure to particulate matter in their working environments. This could be exacerbated by the limited use of personal protective equipment.
Factors contributing to patients’ satisfaction with public health services in the Eastern Cape, South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 59 –68 (2017)More Less
A cross-sectional study was carried out among patients to assess the factor structure of their satisfaction with Primary Health Care (PHC) services. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted exit interviews with a sample of 19 136 patients aged 18+ years in 266 PHC facilities, Eastern Cape, South Africa. To determine factor structure, principal component analysis with varimax rotation was done. Subsequently, there were five components that explained 52.8% of the total variance. Factor 1 (eigenvalue: 7.6) had items on dignity (talked respectfully) and communication (clear explanations) and xplained 25.5% of the variance. Factor 2 (eigenvalue: 2.8) had items on the quality of basic amenities (cleanliness) and explained 9.2% of the variance. Factor 3 (eigenvalue: 2.5) had management-related items (complaints) and explained 8.5% of the variance. Factor 4 (eigenvalue: 1.7) related to Information, Education and Communication materials which explain 5.5% of the variance. Factor (eigenvalue: 1.2) had items on prompt attention (waiting time) and explained 4.0% of the variance. Dignity, communication and basic amenities were identified as major factors determining patient satisfaction.
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 69 –76 (2017)More Less
Substance misuse in urban and peri-urban areas is a serious problem among adolescents and is associated with negative individual and social consequences. While plenty of information exists in the literature on causes and consequences of drug abuse among adolescents; very few studies have focused on family support for adolescents after rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents and guardians support their adolescent sons a year after rehabilitation from drug abuse. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten (10) families who had sons with drug use problems and had been admitted at the rehabilitation centre. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Thematic analysis of data was used to identify the themes. The findings of this study challenges prior studies that parents of adolescents on substances are better placed to assist with the post-rehabilitation of their adolescent sons. Two major themes of associative stigma and approach-avoidance conflict confirm the reality that parents of adolescent sons are faced with a dilemma of the need to protect their sons and the knowledge that the use of drugs is harmful. The study concluded that parents are faced with ambivalent feelings in relation to offering support to their sons. Culturally congruent measures are needed to address drug use and misuse among adolescents. Further studies are needed to explore the use of drugs among adolescents especially in South Africa where there is paucity of information.
Sport students’ perception of their learning experience : Ama-zing Race as an innovative outdoor teaching and learning strategySource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 77 –89 (2017)More Less
Universities are constantly seeking new applications of innovative teaching and learning strategies, with special attention given to the learning environment and activities performed. Learning environments and activities that focus on learners being active participants can enrich the students’ learning experience and in this regard, outdoor adventure education programmes are utilised effectively to enhance the quality and scope of learning. This study investigated the perceived learning experience regarding academic content-specific outcomes and learning of life skills as identified by sport curriculum students competing in an on-campus Ama-zing Race activity. The study was qualitative in nature and involved the participation of 99 undergraduate sport curriculum students at a university within the Gauteng province of South Africa. Data analysis was done inductively using the qualitative techniques proposed by Côté, Salmela, and Russell (1993). The analysis rendered 217 meaning units, grouped together into 12 categories, which emerged as five primary themes, namely social behaviour, competitive view, cognitive skills, learning outcomes and physical realisation. The students perceived the outdoor programme to enhance their learning experience, not just limited to content-specific outcomes, but also regarding life skills. The findings of this study could assist universities to explore and construct innovative outdoor adventure and activity-based teaching and learning strategies to achieve enhanced student learning.
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 23, pp 90 –116 (2017)More Less
With the growth in the tourism industry, it is a priority of government to develop quality Learnerships and Internships in South Africa to improve skills and the qualifications of the tourism workforce. Employers are increasingly conscious of the value for money from their investments in training and are demanding that training be more deliberately aligned with the strategic needs of their organisations. However, the tourism industry still complains that learners are not adequately prepared for the workplace and the learners believe that they have sufficient knowledge to meet the needs of the industry. The purpose of this research was to analyse the skills expectations of learners versus employers with reference to the Culture, Arts, Tourism, Hospitality and Sport SETA (CATHSSETA). This was achieved by conducting quantitative research by means of a structured questionnaire that was distributed to 217 employers and 1023 learners on the CATHSSETA database. Various significant differences between skills expected by employers and those presented by learners were found. Employers expect higher levels of competence than those which learners in the CATHSSETA programme can deliver. More specifically, employers indicate that learners lack skills in handling customers professionally and being proactive in solving problems. It is thus critical to review current vocational training programmes with the input of all relevant role players in South Africa if this country is serious about the tourism industry.