African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) - latest Issue
Volume 22, Issue Issue-41, 2016
African Journal for Physical and Health Sciences (AJPHES), Vol. 22(1:2), March 2016, pp. 251-272 : errataSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 251 –272 (2016)More Less
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 952 –964 (2016)More Less
The purpose of this paper is to deepen understanding about the biopsychosocial relationship between fat-shaming and vulnerability to weight gain and inability to lose weight among school children and youth. The growing juvenile obesity trend in Africa is associated with multiple risk factors, such as dietary habits, physical activity pattern, built environment, school physical education curriculum and socio-economic status of obese individuals and their communities. An important issue that has not been significantly theorized and investigated to inform juvenile obesity containment policies in the African context is the use and consequences of obesogenic slurs or fat-shaming in homes, schools, communities, mass media and health care systems. Fat-shaming is often used by well-meaning or mean-spirited significant others such as parents, peers, teachers, coaches and medical workers to discourage unhealthy dietary and sedentary habits in chubby kids in the hope of inducing behaviour modification. Paradoxically, the use of fat-shaming to induce weight loss is a significant public health issue, as it has been linked to eating and exercise psychopathology. As juvenile obesity increases in African societies, there is a continuing risk that obese school children and adolescents in physical activity settings will become targets of fat-shaming that damage their developing self-image and weight management efficacy. The thesis of this paper is that fat-shaming in physical activity contexts can undermine efforts to stem juvenile obesity, promote lifelong physical activity and redress health inequities. The paper is based on review of contemporary literature on the correlates and consequences of fat-shaming. Implications of fat-shaming for physical education pedagogy and juvenile obesity interventions in Africa are drawn.
Nursing students' experiences of caring for women with stillbirths at public hospitals in Gauteng Province, South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 965 –976 (2016)More Less
Nursing students are expected to support women after a stillbirth, while they themselves experience difficulties to deal with the emotional impact of a stillbirth. The objective of this article is to explore and describe nursing students' experiences of caring for women with stillbirths at public hospitals in South Africa. A qualitative approach was used to conduct a descriptive, explorative and contextual study. The population consisted of all nursing students registered for the Diploma in Nursing allocated to the obstetric sections of five public hospitals in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 nursing students who had taken care of women who experienced stillbirths. Five focus groups and reflective journals were used to collect data. Data was analysed according to Tesch's method by the researcher and an independent coder. Psychologically nursing students experienced emotional trauma and overwhelming feelings of guilt, helplessness, and anxiety. They struggled with emotional conflict related to the expression of compassion and were faced with certain dilemmas in caring for women after stillbirths. Recommendations were formulated to make provision for availability of bereavement and emotional support of nursing students when exposed to stillbirths.
Acquiring midwifery skills : learner-midwives' emic views with regard to experiential learning environment in Limpopo Province, South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 977 –989 (2016)More Less
This study explored the emic views of learner-midwives with regard to their experiential learning environment in the Limpopo Province using a qualitative descriptive phenomenological and contextual research design. The target population included all the learner-midwives pursuing their final year studies at the University of Limpopo who were placed in maternity units of public hospitals for their midwifery experiential learning exposure. Purposive sampling was utilised to select three focus groups consisting of six participants each. Focus groups were conducted for data collection until saturation was reached. Audiotapes and Fields notes were used to capture verbal and nonverbal communication. Data were analysed using the Teschs' open coding method. The study revealed that the learner-midwives experienced an experiential environment that was not conducive to learning. The study concluded that learner-midwives were exposed to inadequate human and material resources, which impeded them from acquiring midwifery skills.
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 990 –1005 (2016)More Less
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a motor disorder of unclear etiology which severely interferes with a child's ability to perform daily motor tasks. The aim of the study was to examine the convergent validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Checklist (MABC-C) when completed by teachers with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Test (MABC-2) when completed by Kinderkineticists, in order to determine if teachers possess the competency to identify grade 1 children with DCD in the classroom. Five hundred and forty five (N = 545) grade 1 children in South Africa between the ages of five and eight years took part in this study. There were 234 girls and 311 boys. The ethnic groups that took part consisted of 321 Caucasian and 224 Black learners. The MABC-C demonstrated a specificity of 70.3% and a sensitivity of 46.5%. The convergent validity between the two assessment tools when completed by teachers indicated a kappa coefficient of 0.110 (11%), and thus had a small effect size (r = 0.125). Therefore, it can be argued that teachers using the MABC-C could not identify children with DCD in the classroom.
Influence of HeartMath quick coherence technique on psychophysiological coherence and feeling statesAuthor S.D. EdwardsSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 1006 –1018 (2016)More Less
This small scale study used mixed, quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate whether HeartMath practice of at least five consecutive sessions would be associated with higher psychophysiological coherence levels, decreases in negative feeling state, and increases in positive feeling state, ratings and experiences. A convenience sample of six participants, four women and two men, with a mean age of 38.3 years, recorded low, medium and high psychophysiological coherence scores achieved after each HeartMath practice session. Before and after each session, participants also rated negative feeling states involving anger, anxiety, boredom and sadness, as well as positive feeling states of contentment, peacefulness, happiness and excitement. After all five sessions, participants provided written descriptions of their experiences of the HeartMath practice. Quantitative data were analysed using on-parametric Spearman rank order correlations, Wilcoxon Z and Friedman's X2 statistics for collective changes, as well as parametric Analysis of Variance with repeated measures for longitudinal, individual, dependent variable changes over time. Qualitative data in the form of participants' phenomenological descriptions were analysed into individual, experiential summaries and then synthesized into a group profile. Integral findings converged in consistently supporting the research hypothesis of significant changes in psychophysiological coherence, negative feeling states and positive feeling state clusters. There were also significant changes in specific, dependent variables such as increased percentages of high psychophysiological coherence,decreased feelings of sadness and increased feelings of peacefulness. Psychophysiological and emotional state findings are discussed in relation to health and sport psychology, theory and practice.
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 1019 –1035 (2016)More Less
District health policies on non-communicable diseases are informed by reliable epidemiological data which are scarce in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa. This study addresses this evidence gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes among South African adult residents of BCMM. A cross-sectional survey of 998 adults (321 men and 677 women) attending the three largest out-patient clinics in BCMM was conducted using the World Health Organisation STEPwise Questionnaire. Glycaemic status was determined by analysing fasting blood glucose and use of diabetes medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent associations of sociodemographic, behavioural and cardiovascular risk factors with diabetes. The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was 14% and 24%, respectively. Age (p<0.000), marital status (p<0.000),employment status (p<0.000), level of income (p<0.000), level of education (p<0.000), alcohol consumption (p<0.000), physical activity (p<0.014), obesity (p<0.000) and hypertension (p<0.000) were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus. However, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounders, only age (26 years and above)(AOR=1.9, CI= 1.4-2.7), ever married (AOR= 4.0, CI= 1.1-2.4), abdominal obesity (AOR= 1.9, CI= 1.2-2.9), alcohol use (AOR=1.6, CI= 1.1-2.4) and hypertension (AOR= 2.7, CI= 1.9-3.8) were the significant and independent predictors of diabetes mellitus. A high prevalence of diabetes found among the study participants could be attributed to modifiable risk factors and ageing. District health policies should be tailored toward addressing cardio-metabolic risk factors at both the primary health care and population levels.
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 1036 –1057 (2016)More Less
Teaching spirituality and spiritual care in health sciences education has been identified as a need to enhance holistic care. However, educators seemed to be unprepared and have insufficient knowledge about how to include spirituality in teaching. This review aimed to systematically review previous literature from 2000 to 2013 regarding the content knowledge and teaching strategies used to teach spirituality and spiritual care in health sciences education. Fifty-three studies met the inclusion criteria for the review and provided suggestions for teaching spirituality and spiritual care in health sciences education. The review was conducted using electronic databases: CINAHL, Educational Resources Information Centre (ERICA), and Science Direct in the Ebscohost search engine. The results suggest that the content knowledge may include concept analysis, self-awareness, cultural beliefs, diversity and social justice, ethics, spiritual competence, person-centred attributes and barriers, evidence-based practice, and possible areas where spirituality and spiritual care may be covered. Furthermore, learning objectives should involve knowledge-based, skills-based learning and attitudes-based learning. Teaching strategies should include educators' teaching strategies in the classroom, collaborative learning and practice learning. This systematic review provides a framework for designing and developing guidelines for integrating spirituality and spiritual care in health sciences education.
Challenges encountered by women seeking termination of pregnancy services in the North West Province of South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 1058 –1066 (2016)More Less
The purpose of the study was to identify possible challenges that prevented women from utilising termination of pregnancy services in the North West Province of South Africa. Fifty structured interviews were conducted with conveniently selected women who requested termination of pregnancy services but who could not access these services. Most respondents were younger than 25 years of age, unmarried, unemployed and had only requested one termination of pregnancy. Despite the provision of legal free termination of pregnancy services in the North West Province, some women could not access these services. Challenges that hampered women's access to termination of pregnancy services included transport costs, nurses' negative attitudes towards women requesting termination of pregnancy services, lack of privacy, waiting lists for booking women for terminations of pregnancy and women's lack of knowledge.
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 1067 –1079 (2016)More Less
Long Term Athlete Development as a conceptual framework for the research represents a sport development pathway that articulates with progressive human growth and development. The differential layering of the development phases relates to the socialisation process (into and through sport) which underpins the elite sport participation trajectory. The study reports on the role of a public residential South African university in managing the optimal development of elite student-athletes in field disciplines and decathlon. The case study approach and analysis utilise insights from 'effective sport governance' to reflect on organisational factors directly affecting the development of elite student-athletes. This explorative study uses a mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative) that is informed by document analysis, in-depth interviews with key role players and a questionnaire completed by current elite-student athletes. A purposive sample includes 15 current (total population) and 5 retired elite throwers and decathlon student-athletes (n=20), 2 coaches, 5 managers and 5 specialist service providers. Results indicate the challenges faced by elite student-athletes in balancing a dual career-pathway, access appropriate resources and integrate the different components of their lives as most are compelled to earn a living after their studies. Athletes' preference for sporting excellence dominated their lives, which in turn translated into high demands for quality resource provision by the university. The lack of resources, strategic partner collaboration and intra-institutional synergies contributed to differential levels of satisfaction and the creation of an enabling environment for fostering optimal student-athlete development.
Source: African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) 22, pp 1080 –1093 (2016)More Less
The aim of this study was to measure time-motion variables during simulated karate kumite matches. Twelve (n=12) elite male karateka's who regularly participate in national and international events were recruited from the Free State Karate High Performance Squad in Bloemfontein, South Africa. All simulated fights were recorded and analysed by means of Dartfish, a video analysis software program. Fifty-two percent (52%) of all techniques scored were attributed to upper limb techniques and 48% to the lower limbs. The same values were recorded with regard to the scoring of offensive versus defensive techniques. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between rounds with respect to the mean counts of techniques used. Furthermore, 61% of the total fighting time was attributed to the various fighting activities and 39% to stoppages. An effort-to-rest ratio of 1.5:1 was also observed regarding the mean effort periods and stoppage intervals. Karateka's predominantly use upper limb karate techniques. With respect to the activity contributions during the kumite matches, it was evident that a high proportion of time (82.5%) was spent on low-intensity or bouncing actions and only 17.5% on contact with the opponent. It is important that basic notational analysis of World Karate Federation karate continues in order to thoroughly document the physical demands of the sport at all levels and categories, including men, women and youth.