Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - latest Issue
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Volume 56, Issue 3, 2016
Die geskiedenis, aanvaarding en impak van die Afrikaanse Bybel van 1933 - 'n oorsig : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsAuthor Piet StraussSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 733 –745 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a1More Less
The history, acceptance and impact of the Afrikaans Bible of 1933 - an overview
The first translation and publication of the entire Bible in Afrikaans in 1933 had a notable impact on its environment. It became an important book of life for speakers of the Afrikaans language; helped standardize this language as a spoken and written language, and through its readers influenced the history of South Africa.
The translation of 1933 was the outcome of a third, definite period leading up to the translation of the entire Bible in Afrikaans.
The first period: 1872-1911. On 7 September 1872, Arnoldus Pannevis wrote a letter in the Cape paper the Zuid-Afrikaan in which he pleaded for the translation of the Bible in the upcoming Afrikaans. On 14 August 1875, as a result of Pannevis's letter, a meeting of 8 young individuals was held in Paarl. They founded the pro-Afrikaans Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners (Society for True Afrikaners), which had as its aim the promotion of Afrikaans. The translation of the Bible in Afrikaans was regarded as a key factor in achieving this. Afrikaans was not yet a standardized written language.
At the time, the rule for translation was "write as you speak". People should be able to understand the message of God in their mother tongue. This led to an informal Afrikaans translation of the Bible that was not acceptable to many speakers of the language. In their reading, they used the well-known Dutch State translation of 1637, which had a more formal conception - and wording - of what is mentioned in the Bible. At the time, the leading figure in translating the Bible was SJ du Toit. The period came to an end with his death in 1911.
The second period: 1914-1923. Two factors determined this translation. One was a movement away from informal Afrikaans. The new translators were of the opinion that, in order to achieve this, they should translate the Dutch State translation into Afrikaans. The second factor was the strong urge of these translators to be instrumental in achieving an Afrikaans Bible. There was also a growing need among speakers of Afrikaans for a Bible in their own language. A proof or concept of the New Testament and Psalms was published in 1922.
This translation, however, was not well received by the speakers of Afrikaans. Well-known Afrikaans writers also spoke out publicly against it. There was a feeling that the Afrikaans used was rather a bad Dutch. The way of saying things, the wording and the rhythm were not Afrikaans.
The third and final period for the translation: 1923-1933. This was started with a decision by the Broad Committee on Translation of the three Afrikaans Reformed Churches in July 1923 to translate from the best available Hebrew text of the Old Testament and the best available Greek text of the New Testament. These churches were the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed Church in South Africa and the so-called Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa.
The translation was completed in 1928 and was followed by a revision of the translation and the input of learned scholars of Afrikaans. The well-known editors of the Old and the New Testament were JD du Toit, the famous Afrikaans writer and poet from Potchefstroom, and JD Kestell, a pastor and church leader from Bloemfontein. They were trusted by the members of the churches and were able and recognized users of written Afrikaans. The churches received the completed translation of the Bible in Afrikaans with celebrations on 27 August 1933.
The impact of this translation of the Bible can be regarded as the same impact Luther's translation had on German and the State translation had on Dutch. The Afrikaans Bible of 1933 stimulated the standardization of Afrikaans as a spoken and written language. The content and thoughts of the Bible in Afrikaans were also used by the speakers of Afrikaans to help determine the history of South Africa.
The Afrikaans Bible of 1933 was called a triumph of Afrikaans.
Die eerste publikasie van die volledige Bybel in Afrikaans in 1933 het 'n duidelike invloed op sy omgewing gehad. Hierdie vertaling het die Bybelse boodskap verstaanbaar vir Afrikaanssprekendes gemaak, 'n impak op hierdie sprekers en daarmee op hulle omgewing gehad en Afrikaans as 'n spreek- en skryftaal help standaardiseer.
Hulle verstaan van die Bybel het eerste taalsprekers van Afrikaans beweeg om na gehoorsaamheid aan God met die hele lewe te soek: in die kerk en samelewing. Die vertaling van 1933 het ook die spelling, woordvorme en segswyses van Afrikaans beïnvloed.
Die Afrikaanse Bybel van 1933 het die koers van Afrikaanssprekendes in hulle lewensbeskouing, opvoeding, politiek en sosiale lewe bepaal. Dit is egter ook gebruik om apartheid te regverdig en diskriminasie teen anderskleuriges deur Afrikaners te verdedig.
Die Afrikaanse Bybel van 1933 word beskou as 'n triomf vir Afrikaans.
"Sonder onderwys, geen bevryding". Moedertaalonderrig en gemeenskap in die grondslag vir swart onderwys in Suid-Afrika, 1952-1990 : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsAuthor Grietjie VerhoefSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 746 –762 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a2More Less
"There can be no freedom without education". Vernacular instruction and community in the foundation of black education in South Africa, 1952-1990
In the context of deficiencies in education in South Africa since 1994, voices have become louder in questioning the current education policy and delivery. This is an opportunity to reassess aspects of Bantu Education since 1952, especially the role of two key elements of Bantu education, namely community and parent involvement in the management of schools and vernacular as a medium of instruction. Current critics of education often refer to the dedication of teachers, parent involvement, the accountability of school management and performance of learners. These issues remind one of similar issues prevalent under Bantu education since 1952. This second part of the investigation into key elements of Bantu Education seeks to consider the role and contribution made under Bantu education to the foundations of community and parent involvement and mother-tongue instruction since 1952 as a strategy for general education to black children. Verwoerd approached the development of black communities from the perspective of empowerment of ethnic communities as the building blocks of a strategy for peaceful co-existence in southern Africa. Separate development in South Africa sought to promote ethnic and cultural diversity whereby African traditions of different peoples could be cherished and developed by utilising the education of the different communities. This education provided for the use of ethnically differentiated vernacular as a strategy for community empowerment. The prerequisite for development was education. The state introduced a system of Bantu education to enhance school attendance and the level of literacy and education of all black children. This paper explains the utilisation of key elements such as community and parent involvement and vernacular tuition to facilitate community buy-in into general education for black children.
In this second part the contribution of vernacular as an educational medium in the provision of education to black children is outlined. The paper shows the agency of the Department of Bantu Education in developing the different vernacular systematically in order to enhance the teaching and learning of advanced subject matter in schools and beyond. It also shows the support of communities in sending children to school to acquire formal education. The grand scheme of Bantu education was finally derailed because of the irreconcilability of the model of separate development and black majority rule, which was the slogan of post-independence Africa. Bantu education did in spite of the rejection of the political model of separate development, succeed in enhancing black literacy and education. The paper does not claim to deny shortcomings of the system of Bantu education, nor does it presume to address all the aspirations of the growing black elite, but it emphasises the key functionality of community and parent involvement and vernacular tuition (with systematic linguistic development to support such a policy) developed by Bantu education, which might be assessed anew. These aspects of Bantu education may be revisited as building blocks to address present shortcomings in the current education environment.
In 'n herbesinning oor die elemente van Bantoe-onderwys wat ten grondslag kan lê van 'n gesonde onderwysbedeling in Suid-Afrika, is die voorsiening van onderwys aan swart kinders sedert 1950 histories ontleed. In die eerste deel van die ontleding is onderwys aan swart kinders geplaas in die konteks van Afrika en Suid-Afrika in die middel van die twintigste eeu en verduidelik die implementering gedurende die eerste vyftien jaar. In hierdie deel word die aanwending van moedertaalonderwys en gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid by onderwysvoorsiening ontleed. Met beide aspekte is 'n momentum verkry wat bygedra het tot die vordering met onderwysvoorsiening. Politieke opposisie het gedurende die onstuimige sewentigerjare en daarna die bedeling tot stilstand gebring. Die artikel kontekstualiseer ten slotte die afloop van swart onderwys teen 1990.
Wigfield en Guthrie se Motivation for Reading Questionnaire vir Afrikaanssprekende adolessente? : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 763 –779 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a3More Less
Wigfield and Guthrie's Motivation for Reading Questionnaire for Afrikaans speaking adolescents?
Wigfield and Guthrie's Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) consists of 53 items and eleven reading motivation dimensions that can be used to compile a reading motivation profile of learners. Wigfield and Guthrie, internationally recognised reading motivation researchers, used the MRQ for different learner groups in different grades and countries to compile reading motivation profiles of learners. During 2012, the questionnaire was used for the first time in South Africa to compile the reading motivation profile of 806 Afrikaans-speaking grade 9 learners from different geographical areas within an education district. In order to compile the reading motivation profile of Afrikaans-speaking learners, the MRQ was translated. It was necessary to adapt some of the items of the MRQ for the context of Afrikaans speaking learners in mainstream schools. The analysed research results indicated that the MRQ could be interpreted as consisting of less than eleven reading motivation dimensions identified by Wigfield and Guthrie. Some of the items were interpreted as belonging to more than one of the eleven dimensions or to another dimension as being placed within the original MRQ. The question was posed as to whether the same reading motivation profile of a group learners can be obtained by using a more compact MRQ (fewer items and fewer reading motivation dimensions). In the current article the conclusion is drawn that the same reading motivation profile of the specified respondents can be obtained by using a more compact MRQ than the original MRQ.
Wigfield en Guthrie se Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) is 'n vraelys, bestaande uit 53 items en elf leesmotiveringsdimensies, deur middel waarvan 'n leesmotiveringsprofiel van 'n bepaalde groep leerders saamgestel kan word. Wigfield en Guthrie, wêreldbekende navorsers oor leesmotivering, het die MRQ verskeie kere vir leerdergroepe in verskillende grade en lande gebruik om leesmotiveringsprofiele van leerders aan die hand daarvan saam te stel. Gedurende 2012 is hierdie vraelys vir die eerste keer in Suid-Afrika gebruik om die leesmotiveringsprofiel van 806 Afrikaanssprekende graad 9-leerders uit verskillende geografiese gebiede van 'n onderwysdistrik saam te stel. Omdat die leesmotiveringsprofiel van spesifiek Afrikaanssprekende leerders vasgestel moes word, is die MRQ vertaal. By enkele items was dit nodig om dit vir die konteks van Afrikaanssprekende adolessente in hoofstroomskole aan te pas. Die 2012-studieresultate het daarop gedui dat die respondente die MRQ geïnterpreteer het as bestaande uit minder as die elf leesmotiveringsdimensies wat Wigfield en Guthrie geïdentifiseer het. Sekere van die items is geïnterpreteer as behorende tot meer as een van die elf dimensies, of as behorende tot 'n ander dimensie as dié waarin dit volgens die MRQ tuishoort. Dit het die vraag laat ontstaan of dieselfde leesmotiveringsprofiel van 'n groep leerders verkry kan word deur middel van 'n meer vaartbelynde MRQ (minder items en minder leesmotiveringsdimensies). In die huidige artikel is tot die slotsom gekom dat dieselfde leesmotiveringsprofiel van die betrokke respondente verkry kan word uit 'n meer vaartbelynde MRQ as uit die oorspronklike MRQ.
Author Herculene KotzeSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 780 –794 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a4More Less
The role perceptions of educational interpreters in South Africa
The aim of this article is to report on one aspect of a study which investigated the role of the educational interpreter. The study attempted, among other things, to determine what the role perceptions of educational interpreters are. The findings of the study pointed to a discrepancy between interpreters' perceived "correct" role and what takes place in reality, as discussed by Kotzé (2012; 2014:127-145). This current article revisits the qualitative data, and specifically attempts to identify themes relating to the role fulfilment of educational interpreters. This is done in order to determine why educational interpreters make specific role-fulfilment choices.
The data consists of 188 minutes of recordings made during interviews and/or focus group discussions which took place during 2009. The chosen data collection method was based on availability sampling, because it simplifies the data collection process and respondents are more easily accessible (Babbie & Mouton 2014:166; Maree ed. 2010:177).
The qualitative methods which were used, included observations, structured interviews and focus group discussions (Creswell 2009:150). While observation was used in each case (Creswell 2014:219; Maree ed. 2010:263), a choice was made between a structured interview and focus group discussions, and iterations were followed until data saturation was achieved.
Based on the findings and discussion of data, three key issues are evident. The first is that Niska's role pyramid for community interpreting (2002:137-138) and Kotzé's call for a more dynamic role model for educational interpreting (2014:141) are confirmed and motivated. It cannot be expected of the educational interpreter to commit to only one role description, but the interpreter should be given room to fulfil many role descriptions - even within the same interpreting event. These findings also reiterate the necessity of a more dynamic role model: the educational interpreter must be allowed to utilise specific tools in order to successfully cope with the challenges of educational interpreting.
The second finding is that the educational interpreter's role is influenced by his position in relation to the other role players in the communication triad. The reason for this is that issues such as body language, relationships that have developed among the parties in the interpreting event, and the interpreter's sense of responsibility (Olivier 2008:110) all come into play. The educational interpreter finds himself in a situation which necessarily leads to communication with the users of the service inside (by means of body language during an interpreting event) and outside each interpreting event. There are indications that as a result of these relationships, the interpreter may feel increasingly responsible for the users, more so than is normally expected of an interpreter. In turn, this points to an expansion in the role of the educational interpreter, as can clearly be seen when educational interpreters fulfil a more facilitative role - something which is not supported as part of conventional interpreting practices.
Lastly, it seems as though educational interpreters are still trained to view the well-known "channel" role as directional. In essence, the channel role can be employed successfully to achieve an accurate interpreting product. However, it appears that when this role is applied prescriptively, it can be perceived by educational interpreters as too limiting and it can even create uncertainty in terms of role fulfilment.
In hierdie artikel word verslag gelewer oor 'n gedeelte van 'n studie wat die rol van die opvoedkundige tolk ondersoek het (Kotzé 2012; 2014). Die studie het onder meer bevind dat daar 'n teenstrydigheid bestaan tussen normatief-korrekte rolvervulling en die werklike rolvervulling van opvoedkundige tolke. Die onderhawige artikel het spesifiek ten doel om vas te stel wat die rede(s) vir hierdie teenstrydigheid is. Dit word gedoen deur die ontleding van kwalitatiewe data wat ondersoek ingestel het na die rolpersepsies van opvoedkundige tolke. Die data is ondersoek vir temas wat verband hou met die rolvervulling van opvoedkundige tolke, om vas te stel waarom opvoedkundige tolke spesifieke rolvervullingskeuses maak.
Drie afleidings word uit hierdie ondersoek gemaak: Die eerste is dat Niska (2002:137-138) se rolpiramiede vir gemeenskapstolking en Kotzé (2014:141) se betoog om 'n meer dinamiese rolmodel vir opvoedkundige tolking bevestig en ook gemotiveer word. Tweedens word die rolkeuse van die opvoedkundige tolk beïnvloed deur die nabyheid ("proximity") van die kommunikasiegenote binne die tolkgeleentheid, omdat daar faktore betrokke is soos lyftaal, verhoudings wat ontwikkel tussen die partye in die tolksituasie, en die opvoedkundige tolk se verantwoordelikheidsin (Olivier 2008:110). Derdens blyk dit dat tolke steeds opgelei word om die kanaalrol as rigtinggewend te beskou. Dit wil voorkom asof die kanaalrol - wanneer dit voorskriftelik aanbeveel word - deur die opvoedkundige tolk as te beperkend ervaar kan word en dat dit selfs verwarring kan veroorsaak. Daar word dus aangevoer dat die opvoedkundige tolk, vanweë die uniekheid van sy tolksituasie, eerder 'n meer dinamiese rolmodel (soos voorgestel deur Kotzé 2014:127-145) geleer behoort te word, om die uitdagings van opvoedkundige tolking sodoende beter die hoof te bied.
'n Jungiaanse siening van sinchronisiteit in perdeondersteunde psigoterapie : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsAuthor Carel Van WykSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 795 –808 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a5More Less
A Jungian perspective on synchronicity in equine-assisted psychotherapy
Synchronicity is not generally known in therapeutic modalities except for analytical psychology. Although there is a variety of literature sources on synchronicity and equine-assisted psychotherapy as entities in and of themselves, there is a dearth of information about the phenomenon of synchronicity as experienced during equine-assisted psychotherapy. The fact that this phenomenon is largely undocumented leads to synchronistic occurrences being labelled as mere coincidence. Consequently, the therapist and the horse behaviour specialist may fail to therapeutically process a synchronistic event with the client. This article thus aims to address the mentioned dearth in the literature by subjecting this phenomenon to scrutiny. Since a digital search of the literature yielded no search results for the combination of "synchronicity" and "equine-assisted psychotherapy", separate searches were undertaken for each of these terms. In the classic Jungian view, synchronicity is defined and described as the simultaneous, acausal occurrence of a psychic and a physical condition which is embedded in the constellation of archetypes found in the collective unconscious. "Sinngemäße Koinzidenz" (concurrent/analogue coincidence) is translated from German into English as "meaningful coincidence", while meaningful coincidence instead translates to "sinnvolle Koinzidenz". This has resulted in a situation where the meaningfulness of a synchronistic event is emphasised over the ontology, the latter being Jung's intended focus with this phenomenon. Similarly, in this article, the focus does not fall on the ontology of synchronicity, but rather on how it manifests within the framework of equine-assisted psychotherapy. A distinction is made between equine-assisted psychotherapy and equine-facilitated therapies. In the first-mentioned form of equine therapy the horse is utilised as a tool, while in equine-facilitated therapies horses are regarded as fully fledged co-therapists. Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is distinguished from other forms of equine therapy due to the utilisation of prey-predator dynamics and the horses' instincts during therapeutic sessions. The present article describes the phenomenon of synchronicity as it manifests within equine-assisted psychotherapy by means of an example from practice. In this example, the client undergoing equine-assisted psychotherapy as a member of a developmental group session voiced a preference for one horse over another since it seemed lighter and thus more capable of flying away from her existing problems. At precisely this time the heavier horse jumped a fence for no apparent reason. This synchronistic occurrence is analysed in terms of the Jungian view of synchronicity by explaining that two psychic conditions occurred simultaneously and acausally, and that this held meaning for the person who experienced it. Thus, an understanding of synchronicities is developed through equine-assisted psychotherapy and the way is paved for possible further research. It is envisaged that a mixed-methods research design may be applied to collect qualitative as well as quantitative information on synchronicity with the ultimate aim of developing a model for future analysis of synchronistic events in equine-assisted psychotherapy.
Eine Jungsche Sichtweise über Synchronizität bei pferdegestützter Psychotherapie
Außerhalb der Analytischen Psychologie ist Synchronizität generell nicht als therapeutische Verfahrensweise bekannt. Auffallend ist ein Schweigen in der Literatur hinsichtlich Synchronizität, ganz besonders in Verbindung mit pferdegestützter Psychotherapie. Die Unbekanntheit der Synchronizität bei pferdegestützter Psychotherapie führt unter anderem dazu, dass man Synchronizitätsereignisse als schiere Zufälle abtun kann und der Therapeut / die Therapeutin und der Pferdekenner / die Pferdekennerin sie nicht, mit Blick auf ein therapeutisches Verfahren mit dem Klienten / der Klientin, erkennen können. Daher besteht der Zweck dieses Artikels darin, das Stillschweigen in der Literatur in Bezug auf Synchronizitätsereignisse bei pferdegestützter Psychotherapie unter die Lupe zu nehmen. Es wurden Literaturrecherchen bezüglich pferdegestützter Psychotherapie und Synchronizität unternommen. Die Begriffe "synchronicity" und "equine-assisted psychotherapy" wurden getrennt als Schlagworte für die elektronische Literaturrecherche eingesetzt, da eine Kombination der Begriffe keine positiven Ergebnisse erbrachte. Synchronizität und pferdegestützte Psychotherapie werden aufeinander abgestimmt. Dieses erfolgte anhand eines Praxisbeispiels. Das Praxisbeispiel veranschaulicht, wie sich eine Synchronizität mit einem Pferd ereignete. Das synchronistische Ereignis wird auf der Basis der Jungschen Sichtweise über Synchronizität analysiert. Somit wird ein Verstehen von Synchronizität bei pferdegestützter Psychotherapie entwickelt und der Weg für weitere Forschungsmöglichkeiten geebnet.
Die ervaring van aktiewe betrokkenheid by 'n aanlyn Facebook-ondersteuningsgroep as 'n vorm van ondersteuning vir individue wat met Meervoudige Sklerose gediagnoseer is : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsAuthor Chrisma PretoriusSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 809 –828 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a6More Less
The experience of active involvement in an online Facebook support group, as a form of support for individuals who are diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating, degenerative inflammatory disease in the central nervous system, and there is little research on support networks for people with MS. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the use of online support groups by individuals with more well-known diseases, such as cancer or arthritis; while more uncommon diseases, such as MS, have received little attention. One way of improving peer support models is to incorporate insights from individuals' personal experiences which could present healthcare providers with an understanding of the skills that are required by individuals to cope with, and manage, a chronic disease on a daily basis.
The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the impact of active involvement in an online Facebook support group for individuals with MS, with a specific focus on the support and challenges that relate to membership of this group. The sample consisted of eight females and two males whose ages ranged between 29 and 59 years (mean = 46.7). The duration since MS diagnosis ranged from 5 years to 18 years (mean = 9.4), and the period of membership of the online support group ranged from 3 months to 3 years (mean = 2.4). There were vast differences between participants in the years since diagnosis, as well as the duration of membership to the online support group, which resulted in a heterogeneous sample. MS is a complex disease which is diverse in nature and affects various individuals in different ways. It thus seemed fitting to examine the experiences of a heterogeneous sample that might be a more adequate representation of the broader population of MS sufferers who utilise online support groups.
An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, with thematic analysis being utilised to analyse and generate themes from the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted with individuals diagnosed with MS, and actively involved in the online Facebook support group. Using the components of functional support (Sherbourne & Stewart 1991) as a means to interpret the results, five forms of support were identified as resources, namely: emotional support, informational support, social companionship, instrumental support, and appraisal support.
Membership to an online support group for people with MS seems effectively to address the need for social companionship and emotional support that these individuals often require. The online support group also seems to address physical problems like fatigue and problems with mobility, which are experienced by individuals with MS in particular, because these individuals can be part of an online support group in the comfort of their own home without any geographical barriers. This is an aspect of instrumental support. Another benefit of online support groups that people with MS in particular benefit from is that online support groups provide people with the opportunity to reconsider their message and write their message at their own tempo before posting it on the group. This is an important benefit and a form of instrumental support because the cognitive functioning, and in particular the processing speed, of individuals that have been diagnosed with MS is often affected by the illness.
It was also clear that there is an appreciation for the sharing of experiences that occurs among the group members. The group members often seem to learn from one another on how to make life easier for themselves. On the other hand, a number of challenges were also identified, namely: emotional challenges, limited information, mutual comparison and the need for personal interaction. Online support groups seem to be beneficial to the extent that they allow communication to occur between individuals from different parts of the world; however, difficulties may emerge when individuals desire personal contact. An interesting phenomenon that was noted in the appreciation theme related to mutual comparison between group members. Some indicated that they experienced this as a challenge, because the progression of some group members is often much faster in comparison to other group members. This leads to feelings of anxiety and uncertainty in some group members because they anticipate similar experiences of rapid decline and symptomatology. The findings of this study therefore suggest that although there is no personal contact between the group members, the hardships and challenges that group members experience and report still have an impact on these individuals.
This is the first study of its kind to investigate the experiences related to active involvement of people with MS in an online support group. This study provides a platform to understand people with MS's experiences of an online support group. It is clear from the experiences of the participants of this study that people with MS get support from the online support group in various ways, particularly in today's society with rapid technological developments allowing access to online communication and information. The findings of this study support the general trends reported in the literature about the experiences of people with other chronic conditions, and therefore contribute to the paucity of research currently available on this topic. The latter is probably one of the most important contributions of this study, given the exponential growth in the use of online support groups among people who are living with different chronic conditions worldwide.
It is my hope that the MS patient perspectives that were presented in this study will continue to increase awareness about this degenerative condition and furthermore make an educational contribution to the family and friends of people who suffer from MS. On a practical level, this study can make a particular contribution to healthcare providers who work with people with MS, by informing them about the value that online support could have for people who suffer from MS. The healthcare providers can in turn encourage people with MS to take part in support groups of this kind, and in that way contribute positively to the support that they receive.
Hierdie studie benut 'n kwalitatiewe metodologie om 'n grootliks onverkende onderwerp, nie net in Suid-Afrika nie, maar wêreldwyd te ondersoek. Bestaande navorsing oor ondersteuningsnetwerke vir mense met meervoudige sklerose (MS) is beperk. Die doel van die studie was om die ervarings van aktiewe betrokkenheid by 'n aanlyn Facebook-ondersteuningsgroep vir individue wat met MS gediagnoseer is, te ondersoek. Die studie fokus spesifiek op die hulpbronne, asook die uitdagings verbonde aan die aktiewe betrokkenheid by hierdie groep. Tematiese ontleding is gebruik om tien semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude met individue wat met MS gediagnoseer is en aktief by 'n aanlyn Facebook-ondersteuningsgroep betrokke is, te ontleed. Verskeie temas het in die studie na vore gekom. Die temas sluit verskeie vorms van ondersteuning in, naamlik emosionele, instrumentele, inligtings- en waarderingsondersteuning sowel as sosiale kameraadskap.
'n Aantal uitdagings is ook geïdentifiseer en sluit emosionele uitdagings, beperkte inligting, onderlinge vergelyking en 'n behoefte aan persoonlike kontak in. Hierdie studie is die eerste van dié aard en voorsien dus 'n platform om MS-lyers se ervarings van aanlyn ondersteuningsgroepe te verstaan. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie ondersteun verder oor die algemeen wat in die bestaande literatuur rapporteer word oor die ervarings van mense met ander kroniese siektetoestande en dra dus by tot die beperkte navorsing wat tot op hede daaroor beskikbaar is. Laasgenoemde kan heel moontlik gesien word as een van die belangrikste bydraes van hierdie studie, gegewe die eksponensiële groei in die gebruik van aanlyn ondersteuningsgroepe onder mense met verskeie kroniese siektetoestande wêreldwyd.
Dit is my hoop dat die perspektiewe van die MS-lyers wat aangebied is in hierdie studie sal voortgaan om bewustheid te verhoog oor hierdie degeneratiewe toestand en verder 'n opvoedkundige bydrae sal lewer tot die medici, familie en vriende van diegene met MS. Op 'n praktiese vlak kan hierdie studie veral 'n bydrae lewer tot gesondheidsorgwerkers wat met MS-lyers werk, deur hulle in te lig oor die waarde wat hierdie tipe van aanlyn ondersteuningsgroep vir MS-lyers kan hê. Die gesondheidsorgwerkers kan weer mense met MS aanmoedig om deel te neem aan hierdie tipe aanlyn ondersteuningsgroepe en sodoende 'n positiewe bydrae maak tot die ondersteuning wat hulle ontvang.
Histerie en Perversie (deel II) : slagofferskap in Der Nazi & der Friseur (Edgar Hilsenrath) en De joodse messias (Arnon Grunberg) : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsAuthor Cilliers Van den BergSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 829 –843 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a7More Less
Hysteria and Perversion (Part 2): Victimhood in Der Nazi & der Friseur (Edgar Hilsenrath) and De joodse messias (Arnon Grunberg)
The first, theoretical part of this two-part study encompassed a short analysis of subjective identity and the dynamics of identity formation from a psychoanalytical point of view. Whereas the concept of "interpellation" was used to describe the signifier denoting the subject, the performative relation of the subject to its signifier (and the symbolic investiture it represents) was identified as that which posits the state of subjectivity. The focus was on two kinds of performative relations: hysteria, which describes the subject that challenges its interpellation; and perversion, which refers to the subject that completely submits to its pre-fixed meaning in the Symbolic Order. Victimhood, as identity marker, was used as a case in point to demonstrate hysterical and perverse subjectivity. With reference to LaCapra's work on structural and historical trauma, the subject's conflation of the two trauma registers was identified as being perverse, whereas the distinction between trauma as ontological structure and trauma as historic event was read as being hysterical. In terms of victimhood the evolution of the Holocaust discourse seems to have shown a tendential development from hysteria to perversion, i.e. the universalisation of trauma discourse seems to have facilitated the easier appropriation of victimhood.
In the second part of this study two novels are used to demonstrate the hysterical challenge directed at victimhood as identity marker, and the perverted appropriation of the same, respectively. Both Der Nazi & der Friseur by Edgar Hilsenrath and De joodse messias by Arnon Grunberg have identity formation as one of their main themes. The former novel tells the story of Max Schulz, a German SS-officer who survives the Second World War and decides to change his identity to that of a Jew. The novel relates his efforts to achieve this goal, which include his circumcision and his illegal emigration to Palestine, where he fights for the establishment of the state of Israel. But Max fails in his attempts in that he is unable to appropriate the one identity marker he considers to be the most important: Jewish victimhood. Because of his actions during the war as perpetrator he is unable to partake in what he sees as a Jewish tradition of suffering. Various motifs in the novel suggest that he is aware of the ontological trauma on which his identity is based, but again any efforts to map this onto the historical trauma of the Jews, specifically the Holocaust, are unsuccessful. His story, narrated from his point of view and relating all of his anxious attempts, demonstrates his hysterical relation to Jewish victimhood: appropriating all the identity markers he can identify, but realising that it is not enough.
Xavier Radek, protagonist of De joodse messias, is at the beginning of Grunberg's novel a teenager in die city of Basel. Like Max Schulz his grandfather was a SS-officer responsible for the death of many Jews. Xavier's fascination with his grandfather extends to his interest in Jewish suffering, resulting in his decision to set himself up as the great comforter who will rid the Jews of their suffering. In order for him to do that he decides, like Max Schulz, to take on the Jewish identity. He is ultimately successful, partly because of a botched circumcision, which for him establishes a link to Jewish suffering. From his perspective his partaking in Jewish victimhood makes his change of identity complete. This clearly represents a perverse appropriation of the identity marker of Jewish victimhood, a fact that explains his role in the anticipated nuclear destruction of the world at the end of the novel: because of what is in Xavier's case the conflation of structural and historical trauma, the only way to completely get rid of suffering, seen both as an ontological state and as historical event, is to destroy all of life.
My hypothesis is that the respective hysterical and perverse reactions to the interpellation of victimhood as established in the two novels represent a shift in both the Holocaust discourse specifically and trauma discourses in general. The passing of time allows for historically specified traumas to become universalised in their mediated representation - this, along with the current culture of trauma (which often conflates structural and historical trauma) facilitates the perverse appropriation of victimhood. This trajectory from hysteria to perversion poses questions as to the ethics of victimhood: is not a hysterical coming to terms with historical trauma more acceptable than its perverse counterpart? This issue should be raised since the latter either results in potentially destructive fundamentalism or a trivialisation of historical victimhood.
In deel II van hierdie studie word twee romans gebruik om die histeriese bevraagtekening van slagofferskap as identiteitsmerker met die perverse appropriasie daarvan te kontrasteer. Waar identiteit in Der Nazi & der Friseur deur Edgar Hilsenrath na 'n histeriese omgaan met Joodse identiteit herlei kan word, is dit in die geval van De joodse messias deur Arnon Grunberg eerder pervers van aard. In beide romans poog die hoofkarakter (Max Schulz in eersgenoemde en Xavier Radek in laasgenoemde) om die Joodse identiteit hulle eie te maak. Beide sien slagofferskap as hoekpilaar van die Joodse identiteit, maar hulle vermoë om dit toe te eien verskil: Max faal in sy pogings terwyl Xavier suksesvol is. Max se mislukking word performatief en histeries in sy vertelling uitgespeel, terwyl Xavier as perverse subjek suksesvol is, maar tog die wêreld in die proses vernietig. Die hipotese van hierdie artikel is dat die twee reaksies bakens op die trajek van die Holocaust-narratief verteenwoordig, deurdat historiese universalisering van trauma (en dus slagofferskap) en die Holocaust perverse slagofferskap fasiliteer.
Deiktiese patrone in die verfilming van J.M. Coetzee se Disgrace (2008). Deel 2 : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 844 –855 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a8More Less
Deictical patterns in the film version of J.M. Coetzee's Disgrace (2008)
In this second part of the article, the focus will be on the film version of Disgrace (2008). The narrative situation in the Afrikaans traditional farm novel is that of an omniscient narrator. In the novel Disgrace the narration is that of figural narration in the sense that the perspective is that of the main character, David Lurie. The filmic version of Disgrace is also in the main the subjective perspective of David Lurie. Through this perspective the spectator becomes part of Lurie's chaotic universe and thus shares the main character's traumatic personal experiences charged with existential anguish. In the older farm novel and film it is usually suggested that the farm is the centre of the universe, from which a son or daughter leaves for the city in search of a better life. Yet the farm is also the place to which one may return; the narrative structure is therefore cyclical and typical of this archetypal structure of becoming, evolution and acquisition. In Disgrace one finds exactly the opposite: the narrative structure is indicative of devolution: Paradise Lost, degeneration, devolution and loss. (This can include material things like status, position and affluence but also pride, love, happiness and security). The farm is no longer a safe, impenetrable haven; it is a place of departure rather than sojourn. In this second part of the article we will emphasise the way in which the cinematic elements of the film convey these different messages, not only by focussing, for example, on the interaction of characters, but rather the manner in which the camera can be manipulated.
In hierdie tweede deel van die artikel staan die verfilming van J.M. Coetzee se gelyknamige roman sentraal. Die vertelsituasie in die tradisionele Afrikaanse plaasroman is die ouktoriële (ook bekend as die alwetende) verteller. In die verfilming van Disgrace word telkemale gefokus uit die subjektiewe perspektief (in die prosa-teorie staan dit bekend as die personale vertelswyse) van David Lurie. Daardeur staan die gebrek aan logika voorop; die traumatiese persoonlike ervarings van 'n buitestaander- individu belas met eksistensiële angs. In die ouer plaasroman en film word gewoonlik gesuggereer dat die plaas die sentrum van die universum is: daarvandaan word vertrek (gewoonlik deur 'n seun of dogter wat hulle heil in die stad gaan soek), maar daarheen sal ook teruggekeer word; die narratologiese struktuur is daarom ook siklies en tipies van hierdie grondpatroon van wording, evolusie en verkryging. In Disgrace vind presies die teenoorgestelde plaas: die narratologiese struktuur dui eerder op devolusie: Paradise Lost; verwording, devolusie en verlies staan voorop (hier van materiële dinge soos status, posisie, maar ook van trots, liefdesgeluk én geborgenheid). Die plaas is geen veilige ruimte meer nie; dit word plek van vertrek eerder as verblyf; die lokale word omvorm en wyk voor die universele waarheid. In die artikel sal gekonsentreer word op die wyse waarop die kinematografiese elemente van die film hierdie onderskeie boodskappe tuisbring, nie net deur handelingspatrone nie, maar veral deur die wyse waarop die kamera gemanipuleer word.
Die belang van mediavryheid in Suid-Afrika : tweehonderd jaar, twee gevallestudies, van die Magna Carta tot die Muilbandwet : navorsings- en oorsigartikelsAuthor Lizette RabeSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 856 –873 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a9More Less
The importance of media freedom in South Africa: Two centuries, two case studies, from the Magna Carta to the Secrecy Bill
This article discusses the current threats to a free media in South Africa from a media historiographical point of view and argues that the role of a free media in South Africa is more important than ever. Media freedom as a concept is discussed, and a free media sector is discussed from a libertarian as well as the social responsibility theoretical point of departure. Although these two models can be regarded as almost prehistoric amidst a plethora of current, more abstract, media theories, these models encapsulate the role of the media within a functioning democracy. This is followed by a brief discussion of the case study as research design and the historical method as research tool, also referring to the fact that the historical method supports the view of the cyclical nature of history since antiquity; this entails that events occur in a cycle and that only names and dates may differ, but what has happened before will occur again. The importance of media freedom as "guardian and guide of all other liberties" is discussed, concluding that no single definition of media freedom can exist, as it is interpreted according to various relevant contexts. As such, no absolute freedom exists either, as it is always relative to and measured against other liberties and rights, as also illustrated by media freedom as enshrined in Article 16 in the South African Constitution's Bill of Rights. This discussion is followed by two case studies in the struggle for media freedom against the government of the day over a time span of almost two hundred years in South Africa. The first is under authoritarian British colonial rule, and the second under a democratic dispensation under the ANC. In the first, at the beginning of the 1800s, the situation developed from no freedom of the press to so-called unconditional freedom. The press pioneers Fairbairn, Pringle and Greig secured press freedom for the time by standing up against a colonial governor who has been described as a despot and as authoritarian. They succeeded in obtaining freedom of the press in what was known as the Magna Carta of press freedom, namely Ordinance 60 of the Cape of Good Hope in 1829. It was regarded as a new era for the free press in South Africa, where it would be impossible to interfere with the press ever again. As context, examples of interference by the government of the day are discussed briefly to lead to the second case study, which is set in post-1994 South Africa. Despite constitutional guarantees, the proposed Media Appeals Tribunal (MAT), the Protection of State Information Bill (commonly referred to as the Secrecy Bill), the amendments to the Films and Publication Board (FPB) and the February 2015 jamming of cell phone signals in parliament, as well as undemocratic statements and actions by South Africa's head of state and his Government, suggest serious dangers to media freedom. Experts are united on the issue that these aspects contain serious threats to media freedom. Within a democratic dispensation and because of the media's function within the libertarian/social responsibility model, the system of self-regulation therefore is relevant and is discussed briefly. Such a self-regulation system - in this case, the South African Press Council, the Press Code and the Press Ombud system - is seen as vital for the functioning of an independent media sector. Despite this on-going review of self-regulation, the threats of the MAT, the Secrecy Bill, seemingly ad hoc decisions by the State's security cluster, and the FPB and its amendments, as well as statements made by the South African president and his government, indicate that media freedom, despite its constitutional entrenchment, is not guaranteed. The article concludes that media freedom is always conditional, despite a pro tempore experience that it can be unconditional. Indeed, media freedom is as much an issue in a so-called liberal democratic dispensation as it was in a previous dictatorial colonial era.
Hierdie artikel beskou die huidige bedreigings teen 'n vrye media in Suid-Afrika vanuit 'n mediahistoriografiese vertrekpunt en betoog dat die rol van 'n vrye media in Suid-Afrika belangriker is as ooit weens die bedreigings van die ANC-regering op die vrye vloei van inligting. Mediavryheid as konsep word bespreek, waarna 'n vrye media vanuit 'n libertaries-sosiaal verantwoordelike teoretiese vertrekpunt belig word. Dit word gevolg deur 'n kort bespreking van die gevallestudie as navorsingsontwerp en die historiese metode as navorsingsinstrument. Twee gevallestudies in die stryd om mediavryheid teen die regering van die dag oor byna tweehonderd jaar in Suid-Afrika volg: Die eerste onder 'n outoritêre Britse koloniale regering en die tweede onder 'n demokratiese bedeling onder die ANC. In die eerste word beweeg van geen persvryheid, na sogenaamde onvoorwaardelike vryheid. In die tweede hou die voorgestelde Media Appèl Tribunaal, sekere wetsontwerpe, sowel as ander bedreigings, asook die ondemokratiese uitsprake en optrede van Suid-Afrika se staatshoof en sy regering, ernstige gevare in vir mediavryheid, ondanks grondwetlike waarborge. Die stelsel van selfregulering is relevant en word kortliks bespreek. Die gevolgtrekking is dat mediavryheid altyd voorwaardelik is, ondanks 'n pro tempore-belewenis dat dit onvoorwaardelik kan wees, en dat mediavryheid eweseer 'n kwessie is in 'n sogenaamde liberaal-demokratiese bedeling as wat dit in 'n vorige diktatoriale koloniale era was.
Source: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a10More Less
In hierdie rubriek tree Danie Strauss toe tot die "Debat oor die moderne staat' deur aan te voer dat die tekortkominge van sowel individualistiese (atomistiese) as universalistiese (holistiese) benaderings ondervang kan word "indien erns gemaak word met die ontiese beginsels van soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring en universaliteit-in-eie-kring".
Author Danie StraussSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 876 –880 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a10More Less
The debate on the modern state
This brief partaking in the debate about law and state focuses on a number of deepening philosophical insights, inter alia regarding the difference between aspects and entities, the distinction between modal laws and type laws, and the nature of modal universality and typically specified universality. Succinct attention is also given to the one-sidedness of both individualistic (atomistic) and universalistic (holistic) approaches - shortcomings that could be transcended if the ontic principles of sphere-sovereignty and sphere-universality are taken seriously.
In hierdie saaklike toetrede tot die debat oor reg en staat word aandag geskenk aan enkele verdiepende wysgerige insigte, waaronder die verskil tussen aspekte en entiteite en die onderskeiding tussen modale wette en tipiese wette, tussen modale universaliteit en tipe-gespesifiseerde universaliteit. Aandag word ook kortliks aan die eensydighede van beide individualistiese (atomistiese) en universalistiese (holistiese) benaderings gegee - tekortkominge wat te bowe gekom kan word indien erns gemaak word met die ontiese beginsels van soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring en universaliteit-in-eie-kring.
Author E.L.P. StalsSource: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56, pp 881 –882 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2016/v56n3a11More Less
Suidwes-Afrika het in 1921 'n mandaatgebied van die Unie van Suid-Afrika geword. Dirk Frederik Mudge, gebore in 1928 van ouers wat kort tevore na die gebied verhuis het, het sodoende lid van 'n uitgelese eerste geslag Suidwesters van die nuwe era geword. Vandag is hierdie garde grootliks uitgedun, wat aan 'n herinneringskrif soos hierdie besondere waarde verleen.
Source: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56 (2016)More Less
In 2017 herdenk die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns die eeufees van die heel eerste Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls (AWS) van 1917. Daar word beoog om ter herdenking van hierdie besondere gebeure 'n spesiale uitgawe van Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe te laat verskyn.
Source: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 56 (2016)More Less