Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
The Cardiovascular Journal of Africa is a Peer-reviewed journal. We cover all areas of cardiovascular scientific researches, Case Reports, Surveys, Industry News and Commentaries. The Journal is the official mouthpiece of the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR). It has been in publication since 1990 and its main aim is to provide a window for original research from the African continent. A full electronic record is available since its initiation (www.cvja.co.za). The journal is listed and/or indexed in almost all the major databases, namely, PubMed (2001); PubMed CENTRAL (2012), SciSearch SCI, Scopus, Sabinet. This Journal is the only specialist, widely indexed Cardiology Journal on the African continent.
This journal continues Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa
|Publisher||Clinics Cardive Publishing|
|Coverage||Vol 18 Issue 3 May/Jun 2007 - current|
Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET)
The Sciences Citation Index of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI)
Echocardiographic predictors of outcome in acute heart failure patients in sub-Saharan Africa : insights from THESUS-HF
Background: The role of echocardiography in the risk stratification of acute heart failure (HF) is unknown. Some small studies and retrospective analyses have found little change in echocardiographic variables during admission for acute HF and some echocardiographic parameters were not found to be associated with outcomes. It is unknown which echocardiographic variables will predict outcomes in sub-Saharan African patients admitted with acute HF. Using echocardiograms, this study aimed to determine the predictors of death and re-admissions within 60 days and deaths up to 180 days in patients with acute heart failure.
Methods: Out of the 1 006 patients in the THESUS-HF registry, 954 had had an echocardiogram performed within a few weeks of admission. Echocardiographic measurements were performed according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. We examined the associations between each echocardiographic predictor and outcome using regression models.
Results: Heart rate and left atrial size predicted death within 60 days or re-admission. Heart rate, left ventricular posterior wall thickness in diastole (PWTd), and presence of aortic stenosis were associated with the risk of death within 180 days. PTWd added to clinical variables in predicting 180-day mortality rates.
Conclusions: Echocardiographic variables, especially those of left ventricular size and function, were not found to have additional predictive value in patients admitted for acute HF. Left atrial size, aortic stenosis, heart rate and measures of hypertrophy (LV PWTd) had some predictive value, suggesting the importance of early treatment of hypertension and severe valvular heart disease.
Background: Paediatric cardiac services in Nigeria have been perceived to be inadequate but no formal documentation of availability and distribution of facilities and services has been done.
Objective: To evaluate and document the currently available paediatric cardiac services in Nigeria.
Methods: In this questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study, an audit was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2014, of the personnel and infrastructure, with their distributions according to geopolitical zones of Nigeria.
Results: Forty-eight centres participated in the study, with 33 paediatric cardiologists and 31 cardiac surgeons. Echocardiography, electrocardiography and pulse oximetry were available in 45 (93.8%) centres while paediatric intensive care units were in 23 (47.9%). Open-heart surgery was performed in six (12.5%) centres. South-West zone had the majority of centres (20; 41.7%).
Conclusions: Available paediatric cardiac services in Nigeria are grossly inadequate and poorly distributed. Efforts should be intensified to upgrade existing facilities, establish new and functional centres, and train personnel.
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of factors that are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. A low-grade inflammatory process acts as the underlying pathophysiology, which suggests that the MS may have a detrimental effect on coronary interventions, including coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We aimed to evaluate the effect of the MS on morbidity and mortality rates in the early postoperative period in patients undergoing CABG.
Methods: We prospectively included 152 patients (109 males and 43 females; mean age 60.1 ± 8.6 years) who underwent elective CABG on CPB between January and September 2011. Early postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were compared between subjects with and without the MS. Diagnosis of the MS was based on the American National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria.
Results: Of the study group, 64 patients (42%) had the MS. The two groups were similar in age and gender. In the postoperative period, rates of atrial fibrillation, wound infection, pulmonary complications, and lengths of intubation, hospitalisation and intensive care unit stay were significantly higher in MS patients (p < 0.01). The MS was significantly associated with wound infection (OR 6.64, 95% CI: 1.72–25.75), pulmonary complications (OR 6.44, 95% CI: 1.58–26.33), arrhythmia (OR 5.47, 95% CI: 1.50–19.97) and prolonged intubation (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05–1.32). The mortality rate was 3.1% in the MS group and 1.1% in the non-MS group, with no significant difference (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The MS was associated with a higher rate of early postoperative morbidity following CABG, without having a significant effect on the mortality rate.
Aim: Enzyme-positive acute coronary syndrome (EPACS) can cause injury to or death of the heart muscle owing to prolonged ischaemia. Recent research has indicated that in addition to liver and brain cells, cardiomyocytes also produce adropin. We hypothesised that adropin is released into the bloodstream during myocardial injury caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS), so serum and saliva levels rise as the myocytes die. Therefore, it could be useful to investigate how ACS affects the timing and significance of adropin release in human subjects.
Methods: Samples were taken over three days after admission, from 22 EPACS patients and 24 age- and gendermatched controls. The three major salivary glands (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) were immunohistochemically screened for adropin production, and serum and saliva adropin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Salivary gland cells produce and secrete adropin locally.
Results: Serum adropin, troponin I, CK and CK-MB concentrations in the EPACS group became gradually higher than those in the control group up to six hours (p < 0.05), and troponin I continued to rise up to 12 hours after EPACS. The same relative increase in adropin level was observed in the saliva. Troponin I, CK and CK-MB levels started to decrease after 12 hours, while saliva and serum adropin levels started to decrease at six hours after EPACS. In samples taken four hours after EPACS, when the serum adropin value averaged 4.43 ng/ml, the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the serum adropin concentration indicated EPACS with 91.7% sensitivity and 50% specificity, while when the cut-off adropin value in saliva was 4.12 ng/ml, the saliva adropin concentration indicated EPACS with 91.7% sensitivity and 57% specificity.Conclusion: In addition to cardiac troponin and CK-MB assays, measurement of adropin level in saliva and serum samples is a potential marker for diagnosing EPACS.
Myocardial dysfunction in children with intrauterine growth restriction : an echocardiographic study
Introduction: The prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is about 3–10% of live-born newborns and can be as high as 20% in developing countries. It may result in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases later in life.
Methods: The aim of this study was echocardiographic evaluation, with the use of conventional and tissue Doppler parameters, of cardiac function in children born with IUGR, and comparison with healthy peers born as normally grown foetuses.
Results: In the IUGR group, E wave and E/A ratio were significantly lower compared to the control group. A wave, isovolumetric relaxation time, deceleration time, myocardial performance index as well as E/E′ septal and E/E′ lateral indices were significantly higher compared to healthy peers.
Conclusion: Children with IUGR presented with subclinical myocardial dysfunction.
A comparison of off- and on-pump beating-heart coronary artery bypass surgery on long-term cardiovascular events
Objective: Our aim was to compare short-term outcomes and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)-free survival and independent predictors of long-term MACE after off-pump (OPCAB) versus on-pump beating-heart (ONBHCAB) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data of all consecutive patients who underwent elective CABG, performed by the same surgeon, from January 2003 to October 2009. A propensity score analysis was carried out to adjust for baseline characteristics and a total of 398 patients were included: ONBHCAB (n = 181), OPCAB (n = 217).
Results: OPCAB was associated with significantly shorter ventilation times (p < 0.001), intensive care unit stay (p < 0.001) and hospital stay (p < 0.001). The total blood loss was significantly more in the ONBHCAB group (p < 0.001), and accordingly, the number of transfused blood units was significantly lower in the OPCAB group (p < 0.001). Incidence of peri-operative renal complications were significantly higher in the ONBHCAB group (p = 0.004). The OPCAB group showed significantly lower long-term MACE-free survival (p = 0.029). The mean number of transfused blood units was the only independent predictor of MACE (HR: 1.218, 95% CI: 1.089–1.361; p = 0.001).
Conclusion: OPCAB provided better long-term MACE-free survival compared with ONBHCAB. Fewer units of blood transfused following OPCAB surgery may have been the main reason for this result.