Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
The Cardiovascular Journal of Africa is a Peer-reviewed journal. We cover all areas of cardiovascular scientific researches, Case Reports, Surveys, Industry News and Commentaries. The Journal is the official mouthpiece of the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR). It has been in publication since 1990 and its main aim is to provide a window for original research from the African continent. A full electronic record is available since its initiation (www.cvja.co.za). The journal is listed and/or indexed in almost all the major databases, namely, PubMed (2001); PubMed CENTRAL (2012), SciSearch SCI, Scopus, Sabinet. This Journal is the only specialist, widely indexed Cardiology Journal on the African continent.
This journal continues Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa
|Publisher||Clinics Cardive Publishing|
|Coverage||Vol 18 Issue 3 May/Jun 2007 - current|
Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET)
The Sciences Citation Index of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI)
Pacemaker syndrome with sub-acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a patient with a dual-chamber pacemaker : consequence of lead switch at the header
In the daily practice of pacemaker insertion, the occurrence of atrial and ventricular lead switch at the pacemaker box header is a rare and unintentional phenomenon, with less than five cases reported in the literature. The lead switch may have dire consequences, depending on the indication for the pacemaker. One of these consequences is pacemaker syndrome, in which the normal sequence of atrial and ventricular activation is impaired, leading to sub-optimal ventricular filling and cardiac output. It is important for the attending physician to recognise any worsening of symptoms in a patient who has recently had a permanent pacemaker inserted. In the case of a dual-chamber pacemaker, switching of the atrial and ventricular leads at the pacemaker box header should be strongly suspected. We present an unusual case of pacemaker syndrome and right ventricular-only pacing-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a patient with a dual-chamber pacemaker.
Background: Moderate exercise is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A suitable integrated model of the CHD pathogenetic pathways relevant to moderate exercise may help to elucidate this association. Such a model is currently not available in the literature.
Methods: An integrated model of CHD was developed and used to investigate pathogenetic pathways of importance between exercise and CHD. Using biomarker relative-risk data, the pathogenetic effects are representable as measurable effects based on changes in biomarkers.
Results: The integrated model provides insight into higher-order interactions underlying the associations between CHD and moderate exercise. A novel ‘connection graph’ was developed, which simplifies these interactions. It quantitatively illustrates the relationship between moderate exercise and various serological biomarkers of CHD. The connection graph of moderate exercise elucidates all the possible integrated actions through which risk reduction may occur.
Conclusion: An integrated model of CHD provides a summary of the effects of moderate exercise on CHD. It also shows the importance of each CHD pathway that moderate exercise influences. The CHD risk-reducing effects of exercise appear to be primarily driven by decreased inflammation and altered metabolism.
The effect of proximal anastomosis on the expansion rate of a dilated ascending aorta in coronary artery bypass surgery : a prospective study
Background: This study was designed to determine the short- and long-term effects of proximal aortic anastomosis, performed during isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta who did not require surgical intervention.
Methods: The study was performed on 192 (38 female and 160 male patients; mean age, 62.1 ± 9.2 years; range, 42–80 years) patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta who underwent CABG surgery between 1 June 2006 and 31 May 2014. In group 1 (n = 114), the saphenous vein and left internal mammarian artery grafts were used, and proximal anastomosis was performed on the ascending aorta. In group 2 (n = 78), left and right internal mammarian artery grafts were used, and proximal aortic anastomosis was not performed. Pre-operatively and in the first and third years postoperatively, the ascending aortic diameter was measured and recorded using transthoracic echocardiography at four different regions (annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and tubular aorta).
Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the groups for the number of grafts used and the duration of aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass. No significant intergroup difference was seen for the mean diameter of the ascending aorta (p > 0.05). Annual changes in the aortic diameter were found to be extremely significantly different in both groups (p = 0.0001). Mean values of the aortic diameter at the level of the sinotubular junction and tubular ascending aorta, mean aortic diameters (p = 0.002 and p = 0.0001, respectively), annual increase in diameter (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0001, respectively), and mean annual difference in diameter (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0001, respectively) at one and three years postoperatively were statistically significantly different between the groups.
Conclusion: In patients with ascending aortic dilatation who did not require surgical intervention and who had proximal anastomosis of the ascending aorta and underwent only CABG, we detected statistically significant increases in the diameter of the sinotubular junction and tubular aorta up to three years postoperatively.
Introduction: Heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation and therefore contributes to in-hospital outcomes such as mortality. In this study we describe patient characteristics and outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) in Botswana.
Methods: Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 193 consecutive patients admitted with AHF at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone between February 2014 and February 2015. The length of hospital stay and 30-, 90- and 180-day in-hospital mortality rates were assessed.
Results: The mean age was 54 ± 17.1 years, and 53.9% of the patients were male. All patients were symptomatic (77.5% in NYHA functional class III or IV) and the majority (64.8%) presented with significant left ventricular dysfunction. The most common concomitant medical conditions were hypertension (54.9%), human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) (33.9%), anaemia (23.3%) and prior diabetes mellitus (15.5%). Moderate to severe renal dysfunction was detected in 60 (31.1%) patients. Peripartum cardiomyopathy was one of the important causes of heart failure in female patients. The most commonly used treatment included furosemide (86%), beta-blockers (72.1%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (67.4%), spironolactone (59.9%), digoxin (22.1%), angiotensin receptor blockers (5.8%), nitrates (4.7%) and hydralazine (1.7%). The median length of stay was nine days, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 10.9%. Thirty-, 90- and 180-day case fatality rates were 14.7, 25.8 and 30.8%, respectively. Mortality at 180 days was significantly associated with increasing age, lower haemoglobin level, lower glomerular filtration rate, hyponatraemia, higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, and prolonged hospital stay.
Conclusions: AHF is a major public health problem in Botswana, with high in-hospital and post-discharge mortality rates and prolonged hospital stays. Late and symptomatic presentation is common, and the most common aetiologies are preventable and/or treatable co-morbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal failure and HIV.
Factors associated with early mortality in haemodialysis patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery
Introduction: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) results in higher morbidity and mortality rates in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient populations than in patients with normal renal function. This study aimed to identify the early results of CABG performed on ESRD patients, and the factors that affected the mortality rates of those patients.
Methods: A retrospective evaluation of our hospital database revealed 84 haemodialysis-receiving patients who underwent CABG during the years 2006 to 2012. Mortality was observed in 21 patients (group 1), and this group was compared with the remaining patients (group 2) for peri-operative parameters such as age, EuroSCORE, functional capacity, myocardial infarction, use of inotropes and completeness of revascularisation.
Results: The study included 60 male (71.4%) and 24 female patients (28.6%); the participants’ mean age was 59.50 ± 9.93 years. The pre-operative additive EuroSCORE was 7.96 ± 2.88 (range: 2–18). Pre-operative functional capacity was impaired in 35.7% of the patients [New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes III–IV]. Mean age and preoperative EuroSCORE values of group 1 were significantly higher than those of group 2. Impaired functional capacity (NHYA classes III–IV) was also associated with mortality (OR: 3.333; 95% CI: 1.199–9.268). Fifty-four patients (64.3%) underwent on-pump CABG procedures, and 30 (35.7%) underwent off-pump CABG procedures. The study found no statistically significant difference in mortality rates between these two techniques. Mortality occurred in 12 patients (22.2%) in the on-pump group and in nine (30%) in the off-pump group. Complete revascularisation was performed on 46 patients (85.2%) in the on-pump group and seven (23.3%) in the off-pump group (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Advanced age, impaired NYHA functional capacity and pre-operative hypertension were determinative for early-term surgical mortality. An on-pump surgical technique is recommended to ensure completeness of revascularisation.
Relationship between Vitamin D and the development of atrial fibrillation after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many diverse cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension, heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. The relationship between Vitamin D and the development of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between Vitamin D and the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after CABG.
Methods: Medical records of consecutive patients who underwent CABG surgery were retrospectively reviewed for the development of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period. Vitamin D, other biochemical parameters, and clinical and echocardiographic parameters were evaluated in all patients. The independent variables for the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation were defined and their predictive values were measured.
Results: The study group consisted of 128 patients, of whom 41 (32%) developed POAF. Age, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of transient ischaemic attack/stroke, heart failure, left atrial diameter, platelet:largecell ratio, and creatinine, urea, uric acid, calcium and potassium levels were identified as important variables for the development of POAF. However, with logistic regression analysis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 28.737, 95% CI: 0.836–16.118, p < 0.001), heart failure (OR: 15.430, 95% CI: 0.989–7.649, p = 0.006), diabetes mellitus (OR: 11.486, 95% CI: 0.734–11.060, p = 0.001) and left atrial diameter (OR: 1.245, 95% CI: 0.086–6.431, p = 0.011) appeared as independent variables predicting the development of POAF.
Conclusion: In our study, although there was a significant negative correlation between Vitamin D and left atrial diameter, Vitamin D level was not an independent predictor for POAF.