Civil Engineering is the application of science and technology in the control and use of forces and materials of nature, for the progressive benefit of all the peoples on planet Earth. Construction is an essential human activity that rivals few in its consumption of resources and its potential to harm the Earth. Many decisions have environmental and ecological consequences, which may not immediately affect any of the primary actors in a project, but which still require wise ethical judgement. Codes of conduct established by the Built Environment Councils regulate the behaviour of professionals. They do not inculcate a value system within which choices between rival goods or ills can be made. A code of ethics is therefore required to provide a framework within which decisions between alternative courses of action can be made.
The impressive Mafenya Reservoir, which forms part of the Mafenya pipeline, is nearing completion and will soon be supplying water to the Maseve Mine and its surrounding communities, situated approximately 35 km northwest of Rustenburg in the North West Province. Th e project was awarded in July 2015, and construction of the reservoir started in September 2015.
South Africa is a semi-arid country with average annual rainfall of between 500-600 mm, and is therefore regarded to be the 30th most water-scarce country in the world. The ongoing drought being experienced all over the country emphasises the need to manage our nation's freshwater resources with greater care, and to explore other sources of water to meet/augment different water requirements. Water reuse is a viable water option that many communities can benefit from, especially if they generate significant quantities of effluent. In these communities, reuse may be indirect potable reuse (IPR, i.e. discharging treated effluent into an environmental buff er prior to extraction by a downstream drinking-water treatment plant), direct potable reuse (DPR, i.e. advanced treatment of treated effluent for potable water purposes without prior discharge into the environment), or non-potable reuse (NPR, i.e. untreated or treated effluent for non-potable water requirements).
Project Somarela Thothi was initiated in March 2015 to reduce water losses and improve water use efficiency in the Greater Gaborone water supply area. The partnership between GIZ, Water Utilities Corporation and First National Bank Botswana (FNBB) Foundation aimed to reduce the current water demand through the implementation of social and technical water loss reduction initiatives to curb the impact of Botswana's worst drought in 32 years. The social interventions focused on creating awareness to conserve water through the use of promotional material, schools awareness campaigns and various outreach activities. The technical interventions focused on bulk metering and sectorisation to assess leakage and the potential for pressure management.
In recent years eThekwini Municipality's Coastal Stormwater and Catchment Management (CS & CM) Department has received numerous flood-related complaints from residents of the Molife Road area in Chesterville. The adjacent road accesses were being washed away, which had a negative impact on residential dwellings, while flooded business kiosks resulted in loss of income.
The fact that groundwater is a problem in the civil engineering environment is well known. A shallow water table and groundwater ingress in deep foundations digging is but one example. However, the fact that groundwater can be an asset seems to be less well known.
Many small towns in South Africa are forced to deal with much higher traffic volumes than their road networks were originally designed to handle. One of the problems that is caused by these busy road networks is unsafe roads for pedestrians and road users.
The City of Cape Town recently undertook a project to conceptualise, design and produce an accessible pedestrian information sign that would be implemented at signalised pedestrian crossings in the city. The objective was to increase pedestrian and road-user awareness and understanding of the way in which the pedestrian push button should be used.
The use of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is one of the interventions that the South African National Roads Agency Ltd (SANRAL) is utilising to improve road safety to reduce the number of crashes and incidents, and when they do occur, to mitigate injury and fatality outcomes.
Many factors influence and/or cause economic growth and development. For many years researchers, economists, policy makers and governments have investigated and researched the causal link and relationship between financial development and economic growth. However, researchers have conflicting views on the finance-growth relationship and the impact or importance of financial development on economic growth. Some researchers argue that financial development does not cause or is not important for economic growth, but rather follows or is a consequence of economic growth. On the other hand, some researchers have found that financial development and the strength or depth of a country's financial systems (sophistication of financial systems) do contribute towards economic growth. For the latter school of thought the question is not 'if', but rather 'how' financial development can affect economic growth. Financial development contributes to both the quality and quantity of capital available in the financial markets. It is, however, the 'quality of capital' that contributes towards and influences the economic growth and development in an economy.
According to Lee (2005), market liberalisation can be defined as the removal of restrictions that act as barriers to entry into markets, thereby encouraging competition. The removal of barriers to market entry usually culminates in the proliferation of services across borders. The OECD (1997) accentuates that the most significant market liberalisation industry reform has been made in transportation, mainly in aviation and rail. Whilst there is evidence to affirm such, the focus of the study on which this article is based was limited to analysing and assessing the progress being made to liberalise market access with specific regard to only road freight in the SADC region. The road transport industry plays a significant role, especially for developing regions that are landlocked, as it facilitates the rapid movement of goods across borders (Kieck 2010).
Variable geology, sloping land and an immense single-level platform presented an exceptional set of challenges in the construction of a warehouse and distribution centre for earth-moving-equipment giant, Komatsu, at Tunney Ext 12 in Elandsfontein, Germiston.