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Volume 59, Issue 1, 2016
Author Damiano AcciarinoSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 1 –22 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1.15731/AClass.059.01More Less
During the Renaissance, with the rediscovery of the Codex Farnesianus, a new philological and editorial interest in Festus' De verborum significatione arose. Many famous scholars of the 15th and 16th century, inter alios Angelo Poliziano, Aldo Manuzio, Piero Vettori, Antonio Agustin and Joseph Scaliger, studied and published this work, focusing on various aspects of its tradition. A substantial watershed occurred around 1580 when Fulvio Orsini decided to propose a new edition of Festus : from a methodological perspective, this work emerged as a revolutionary text with the potential to modify our perception of its history, sinceit considered the Farnesianus as the central ecdotic element. The aim of this contribution is to retrace the pathway followed by Orsini in arranging his text, considering its complex transmission and showing the impact of its innovations and its controversial literary fortunes.
διά τοΰτο όθεν τοίνυν οΰν, or rather asyndeton? inferential expressions and their social value in Greek official petitions (i-iv ad)Author Klaas BenteinSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 23 –51 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.02More Less
Mullins (1962) first suggested that the choice for a request verb in Greek petitions is socially conditioned: άξιόω, he argues, functions as the routine request verb, while ζέομαι is more formal. In this article, I investigate whether similar observations can be made with regard to the inferential expressions preceding the request verb, that is, ξιό ξιά τοΰτο όθεν τοίνυν, and οΰν. Focusing on the social status of the addressee, I argue that it may indeed be possible to situate these different conjunctions on a social scale. That being said, it should be stressed that we are not dealing with a mechanical 'rule', which is never the case in historical sociolinguistics. To conclude the article, I discuss a number of alternative inferential expressions, including asyndeton.
Author Jo-Marie ClaassenSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 52 –79 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.03More Less
Appropriation by Ovid of aspects of the Augustan propagandistic discourse may be traced in his exilic poetry. The exiled Ovid appears to be consciously featuring the imperial civic and political discourse in some of his many examples of allusion to the emperor. The paper examines some examples of such appropriation that add nuance to the apparently subservient attitude of Ovid to the emperor Augustus. Most of what Augustus wrote himself is lost, so that material available for direct comparison of Ovid's exilic oeuvre is relatively slight. Yet Ovid's apparent appropriation of the Augustan discourse, where it may be deduced, while reflecting the Augustan Zeitgeist, casts an interesting light on the poet-prince relationship.
Author Richard J. EvansSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 80 –100 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.04More Less
Electoral competition in the Late Roman Republic ended in 49 at the start of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. That event could not have been long foreseen; nonetheless, when consideration is given to the state of the res publica in the two decades beforehand, it might be assumed that some significant undermining of the political system had already occurred. One such subversive player might have been Pompey, who played a dominant role in public life between 71 and 50, and his contribution to the end of the Republic perhaps would be especially manifested in his three consulships. Each of Pompey's elections to the consulship was characterised by unusual features which ought to provide indicators of a termination in the freedom of the electoral process and in restricting competition. The discussion here, therefore, focuses, in three chronological snapshots, on the electioneering and background to the consular elections for 70, 55 and 52 in which Pompey was made consul, but when, arguably, no election as such took place.
Author Valerij GouschinSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 101 –113 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.05More Less
This article analyses Solon's instruction that citizens should 'ground arms' during a time of political conflict (stasis). It argues that this requirement was part of an unsuccessful attempt by Solon to prevent the establishment of Pisistratus' tyranny in Athens in 561/60 BC.
Author Savvas KyriakidisSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 114 –136 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.06More Less
Accounts of single combat between heroic figures feature prominently in descriptions of battle that can be found in the works of historians of the middle and late periods of Byzantine history. This article investigates the characteristics of single combat in Byzantine historiography and examines how different authors used descriptions of single combat to promote their agenda and praise the military virtues of their heroes. Moreover, it discusses the impact of Homer, Old Testament, Byzantine epic and Western European ideals on the concept and descriptions of duelling in Byzantium.
Author Egidia OcchipintiSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 137 –156 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.07More Less
This paper focuses on Plutarch's representation of the demos of Syracuse in the Life of Dion, seen against the corrective lens offered by Diodorus' narrative. If at first sight it might appear that Plutarch is associating the mob's behaviour with 'barbarian' habits, making us think that that is something peculiar to the Life of Dion, a closer examination shows that in Diodorus the topic of luxury and fickleness is a feature which characterises the Syracusan demos as well as other Sicilians of all classes. Irrationality is a consequence of the masses' lack of political experience rather than of barbarism, and when, occasionally, they are asked to fulfil political duties, they are found to be totally unprepared. A certain degree of reality is to be glimpsed behind Plutarch's depiction of the Syracusan masses, for it was indeed their complex ethnic make-up that caused the forming of class divisions within the city and determined their lack of political insight.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 157 –183 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.08More Less
The aim of this article is to identify how many functions there are of the conjunction sed in the works of Plautus and to evaluate them. In order to accomplish this, the article begins by taking into consideration the linguistic context, which is important for the interpretation of adversative and argumentative usages of sed as they link with the verbal system. It also examines extra-linguistic data. The analysis makes possible the interpretation of the usages of sed, both in terms of how it links with the verbal system, and also with the non-verbal and the extra-linguistic aspects of the speech situation.
Author Philip BosmanSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 183 –192 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.09More Less
τὸ ΔωΔωναῖον XαλκεῖονThe expression τὸ ΔωΔωναῖον Xαλκεῖον ('the Dodona bronze/coppervessel')1 is recorded in dictionaries of Late Antiquity as a παοιμία.2Stephanus of Byzantium 4.146.107 and Diogenianus 8.32 give the proverb's meaning as ἐπὶ τ ῶν πολλὰ λαλούντων, that is, referring to incessant babblers.3 LSJ9 s.v. ΔωΔωναῖος suggests the metaphor 'chatterbox' as theEnglish equivalent. Surprisingly few actual uses of the παροιμία were transmitted, but its regular form appears to have been a simile, with the tertium comparationis the persistent sound produced. Libanius, Decl. 26.1.24 describes the stock figure of the excessively talkative woman as'exceeding' (ὑπερηαίνει), that is, worse than the ΔωΔωναῖον Xαλκεῖον, inmuch the same fashion as its first transmitted occurrence in Menander, seven centuries earlier.
Author Joel D. EisSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 193 –202 (2016)More Less
Recently published research on the ekkyklema has confirmed that within the texts of the plays by all the major writers, previously unrecognised features exist that are specific indicators of the use of this arcane device unique to Greek theatre. Furthermore, vase images that show the device in climactic scenes from those plays confirm the dependability of these indicators. In every case examined so far, where the telltale features are present so is the ekkyklema. This evidence raises the question : were there other plays - for which we have only text fragments - that also shared these features, and therefore used this device as well? Such a discovery would support the importance of this technique in Greek dramaturgy as an iconographic tool for the writers and their sponsors.
Author Maria S. MarsilioSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 203 –214 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.11More Less
Within the 'Lesbia' cycle of Catullan poems, poem 37 on the salax taberna has received minimal scholarly attention, due principally to its obscene content and language. This poem deserves a fuller exploration of its significant place in the Catullan corpus. Several critics of Catullus' carmina have noticed the connection of poem 37 to poem 36, where the truces iambi that Lesbia wishes to consign to the flames in poem 36 may refer to poem 37, which attacks her as one of the occupants of the salax taberna. Yet approaches to how poem 37 relates to other poems in the Catullan corpus vary widely. Donald Lateiner and Marilyn Skinner focus on the meaning and function of its obscene language. Brian Krostenko and Alan Booth examine Catullus' characterisation of Egnatius in poems 37 and 39 and consider the relative chronology of these poems. Marguerite Johnson argues that Catullus contrasts military and erotic warfare in poem 37, suggesting that the Temple of Castor and Pollux in 37.2 and the magna bella fought by Catullus for the sake of Lesbia in 37.13 may be subtle references to the Trojan war, and Catullus' imagining of Lesbia as Helen.
Author Joshua NudellSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 215 –219 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.12More Less
Alexander the Great was in Egypt for a matter of months between 332 and 331 BCE. This period is often viewed with a curious mix of inconsequentiality and dire importance. On the one hand, Egypt was a distraction from Alexander's declared intent of defeating Darius and conquering Persia, included seemingly for the purposes of capturing all Persian possessions; on the other, it was in Egypt that he founded the most famous Alexandria and was confirmed in his godhead by the oracle of Zeus Ammon at Siwah. Alexander in Africa, the latest in a series of volumes based on conferences about Alexander and his legacy, is designed to unpack these 'activities of great political and symbolic significance' (p.vii). The conference was held in Grahamstown, South Africa in 2011 as part of the biennial Classical Association of South Africa Conference; the resultant volume has four main areas of inquiry: the history and historical record for Alexander in Africa, the role of the diadochic period in constructing Alexander's African legacy, the African variations on Alexander's legend, and twentieth-century conceptions of Alexander as mediated by African contexts (p. viii). The nine contributions tend to deal with issues and controversies common to scholarship about Alexander and are arranged in rough chronological order. While the topics are notformally represented by section headings, all but one of the contributions may be grouped into pairs about each of the core areas of inquiry.
Preaching Bondage : John Chrysostom and the Discourse of Slavery in Early Christianity, Chris L. de Wet : reviewAuthor Wendy MayerSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 219 –222 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.13More Less
This first book of an exciting young South African scholar is based on his doctoral research, but bears only a pale resemblance to his doctoral dissertation. Rather, it constitutes a much more mature reflection on hissubject - the discourse of slavery in Late Antiquity - shaped by further engagement and discussion with a wide circle of scholars from a range of disciplines. Pitched as a project in cultural historiography, it asks large questions about the legacy of slavery, challenging current complacency byexposing largely unconscious and socially problematic discourses of domination that continue to persist into the present. This book may be about the period of Late Antiquity, but it draws a long trajectory from the Classical Greek and Roman past into Hellenistic Judaism, Early Christianity, the 'crisis of masculinity' of the 4th century, and well beyond.Similarly, while the focus is the discourse of a single late-fourth-century author, the Syrian priest John Chrysostom, subsequently bishop of the Eastern imperial capital, Constantinople, De Wet provides a model for the analysis of other late-ancient authors on the topic, as well as demonstrating the pervasiveness within Christian circles of the main threads of this particular writer's approach. In essence, the book offers a major contribution to the history of ideas in Western thought, delineating how a core set of ideas, transformed through a Christian lens, led to the passiveacceptance of the (gendered) oppression of other human beings. The implications of the study presented in these pages are extensive and this is a book to be read by scholars across a wide range of interests and disciplines.
The Land of the Elephant Kings. Space, Territory and Ideology in the Seleucid Empire, P. Kosmin (Ed.) : reviewAuthor Brian McGingSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 222 –226 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.14More Less
The Seleucid Empire has been well served by scholarship in the present generation, certainly since Amélie Kuhrt and Susan Sherwin-White presented new possibilities in their excellent 1993 study, From Samarkhand to Sardis. The books of Ma, Capdetrey, Primo and Aperghis lead the way amongst a host of specialist articles. The Seleucid economy in particular is taking its place in new thinking about the economies of the Hellenistic world, and there will be a great deal more produced on the Astronomical Diaries. It is a pleasure, then, in this exciting field to welcome Paul Kosmin's sparklingly original contribution to Seleucid studies.
Author Michael LloydSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 226 –228 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.15More Less
Iphigenia in Tauris (abbreviated as IT) is the Latin title of the play by Euripides known in English as Iphigenia among the Taurians. 'Tauris' is not strictly speaking a geographical term, although used as such by Goethe (Iphigenie auf Tauris) among others, and Parker might have offered more by way of explanation than a sarcastic footnote (p. lxxii n. 143). IT, produced about 414 BC, is one of Euripides' late plays, sometimes known as 'romances' or 'melodramas'. It is set in the Crimea, and resembles Helen (set in Egypt) in taking a famous heroine of myth to an exotic location and subjecting her to innovative adventures. Both plays end with an exciting escape and return to Greece. The happy ending may seem untragic, but Aristotle (Poetics 14) regarded the averted catastrophe in IT as an example of the best kind of tragedy.
Author David WoodsSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 229 –232 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.16More Less
This is a revised version of a DPhil thesis submitted at Oxford University. As the title suggests, the focus is on the treatment by the late Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus of the reign of the emperor Julian, both as Caesar (AD 355-60) and as Augustus (AD 360-63). Ross subjects Ammianus' text to a detailed narratological and intertextual analysis in order to explore how exactly Ammianus creates his distinctive depiction of Julian, the relationship of this depiction to the earlier predominantly Greek traditions concerning Julian, and how Ammianus crafted his text to appeal to a Latin-speaking Western audience. However, Ammianus devotes a large portion of his text to the career of Julian, and Ross has necessarily to be selective in choosing what episodes to subject to a detailed analysis in this manner. The result is five main chapters carefully subdivided into a number of sub-chapters dealing, after the first chapter, with four episodes (or sets of episodes) in the order that they occur within Ammianus' text.
L. Török, Herodotus in Nubia. Mnemosyne Supplements, History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity 368. : reviewAuthor Joseph SkinnerSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 59, pp 232 –236 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.15731/AClass.059.17More Less
László Törökâ??s Herodotus in Nubia represents a notable and highly welcome addition to the steadily-burgeoning field of Herodotean studies. Classicists and historians working on Herodotus will have ample cause to thank Török for providing such a thorough introduction to a topic largely beyond their ken, namely the history and archaeology of ancient Kush. The latter forms the backdrop for the two ancient Ethiopias which Török identifies within the Histories in Books 2 and 3 respectively : the first a historical kingdom situated in the Middle Nile Region which encompassed Egypt under Nubia's Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, and the second the semi mythical utopia already familiar to Homeric audiences and thus firmly entrenched in the Greeks' ethnographic imagination by the time Herodotus embarked on his enquiries. As a leading light in Nubian studies Török is ideally placed to comment on the largely overlooked sections of Herodotus' Histories relating to ancient Ethiopia (Török follows Herodotusby referring to the latter throughout as 'Aithiopia').