Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug - latest Issue
Volume 26, Issue 1, 2016
Author Rebecca M. GarlandSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26, pp 2 –3 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a1More Less
The Clean Air Journal celebrates its 45th year in 2016. The first issue started with an article on the problems with the application of the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act in South Africa (Boegman, 1971), and also included an article on Johannesburg's "good fortune" at having 3 000 acres of mine dumps available to revegetate into City Parks (Cook, 1971). Since 1971, the Clean Air Journal has aimed to report authentic scientific articles on the topic of air quality management and monitoring relevant to southern Africa.
Summary of research paper published in Journal of Energy in Southern Africa titled : A perspective of South African coal-fired power station emissions (2015) Volume 26 Issue 3 pages 27-40 : highlighted local researchSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a2More Less
Emissions from South African coal-fired power plants are significant on a regional and global scale. Globally, South Africa ranks seventh of the top 10 countries that are responsible for more than 85% of global carbon emissions from coal-fired plants (preceded only by China, USA, India, Germany, Russia and Japan and superseded by Australia, Korea and Poland). The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity (CO2 emissions per economic output) of South Africa was found to be one of the highest in the world and more than triple that of industrialized countries. Regionally, South Africa is the main power generator in Africa and the energy sector (of which around 83% is contributed by coal-fired power plants) is one of the major emitters of criteria (Particulate Matter (PM), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)) pollutants in the country.
Summary of research paper submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics titled : Optical and microphysical characterization of aerosol layers over South Africa by means of multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar measurements : highlighted local researchSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a3More Less
Optical and microphysical properties of different aerosol types over South Africa were measured with a multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar at Elandsfontein in the Highveld region of South Africa for one year. The observations were performed within the framework of the EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol, Cloud, Climate, and Air Quality Interactions) campaign of which the aim was to characterize particles in terms of physical, optical and chemical aerosol properties in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with aerosol with 50%. Since limited long-term data of this nature exists for this region, this study could significantly assist in bridging existing gaps relating to aerosol properties over South Africa.
Author Gregor FeigSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a4More Less
It is with great sadness that the National Association for Clean Air and the editorial board of the Clean Air Journal would like to acknowledge the recent death of Clive Turner. We would like to commemorate the immeasurable contribution that he made to the cause of clean air in South Africa. Clive was one of the founders of the discipline of Air Quality in South Africa, and was instrumental in many of the initial studies relating to air quality management and atmospheric chemistry and transport. The findings from that work still influence how we perceive the core issues and concerns of air quality in the country.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26, pp 7 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a5More Less
Retraction : New particle formation events in semiclean South African Savannah : corrections and amendmentsSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a6More Less
Ville Vakkari, Heikki Laakso, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Desmond Mabaso, Moses Molefe, Nnenesi Kgabi, John P Beukes, and Lauri Laakso. 2011. New particle formation events in semiclean South African Savannah, Clean Air Journal, 20 (2).
This article has been retracted by the Editors and the Authors due to redundant publication (Vakkari et al., 2011). This article was originally submitted to the National Association of Clean Air (NACA) 2011 conference as a conference paper. It was mistakenly included in the Clean Air Journal as a peer-reviewed original article.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26, pp 10 –14 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a7More Less
According to the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act of 2004 people have the right to clean air and a healthy environment. Particulate matter (PM) emissions pose a significant health threat. Both indoor and ambient air pollution contribute to the burden of disease associated with poor air quality. This is particularly true within the South African setting where low income households make use of different solid fuels for heating and cooking purposes resulting in high levels of PM emissions. This paper focuses on the evaluation mass concentration measurements recorded by continuous photometric PM instruments within KwaDela, a low income settlement in Mpumalanga located on the South African Highveld. Thus, obtaining a photometric calibration factor for both the DustTrak Model 8530 and the SidePak AM510. Sampling took place during August 2014 for a period of seven days. The photometric and gravimetric instruments were collocated within the indoor environment of selected households. These instruments were all fitted with 10mm Dorr-Oliver Cyclone inlets to obtain the respirable (PM4) cut-point. The study found that both instruments tend to overestimate the indoor particulate mass concentrations when compared to the reference gravimetric method. The estimated photometric calibration factors for the DustTrak Model 8530 and SidePak AM510 are 0.14 (95%Cl: 0.09, 0.15) and 0.24 (95%Cl: 0.16, 0.30) respectively. The overestimation of the photometric measurements is rather significant. It is therefore important that the correction factors are applied to data collected in indoor environments prone to the combustion of solid fuels. The correction factors obtained from this and other studies vary as a result of the environment (ambient, indoor etc.) as well as the aerosol size fraction and the origin thereof. Thus, it is important to considered site specific calibration factors when implementing these photometric light-scattering instruments.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26, pp 15 –20 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a8More Less
Despite the Government's intervention of an intensive electrification program in South Africa, which has resulted in more than 87% of households being connected to the grid, a majority of low-income households still depend on solid fuel (coal and wood) as a primary source of energy, especially on the central Highveld. In informal settlements, combustion of coal is done in inefficient self-fabricated braziers, colloquially known as imbaulas. Emissions from domestic coal combustion result in elevated household and ambient air pollution levels that often exceed national air quality limits. Continued dependence on coal combustion exposes households to copious amounts of health-damaging pollutants. Despite the health significance of coal-burning emissions from informal braziers, there is still a dearth of emissions data from these devices. Consequently, evaluating the emission characteristics of these devices and to determine the resultant emission factors is needed. The effects of ignition methods and ventilation rates on particulate and gaseous emission from coal-burning braziers are reported in literature. However, to date there are no studies carried out to investigate the influence of the size of coal pieces on brazier emission performance. In this paper, we report on controlled combustion experiments carried out to investigate systematically, influences of coal particle size on gaseous and condensed matter (smoke) emissions from informal residential coal combustion braziers. Results presented are averages of three identical burn-cycles of duration three hours or fuel burn-out, whichever was the soonest.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 26, pp 21 –28 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2410-972X/2016/v26n1a9More Less
The Waterberg Priority Area ambient air quality monitoring network was established in 2012 to monitor the ambient air quality in the Waterberg Air Quality Priority Area. Three monitoring stations were established in Lephalale, Thabazimbi and Mokopane. The monitoring stations measure the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, BTEX and meteorological parameters. Hourly data for a 31 month period (October 2012-April 2015) was obtained from the South African Air Quality Information System (SAAQIS) and analysed to assess patterns in atmospheric concentrations, including seasonal and diurnal patterns of the ambient concentrations and to assess the impacts that such reported pollution concentration may have. Local source regions for SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and O3 were identified and trends in the recorded concentrations are discussed.