Commonwealth Youth and Development - latest Issue
Volume 13, Issue 2, 2015
The socio-economic and cultural implications of skhothane on youth's (under)development at Ekurhuleni's township(s) of South AfricaAuthor Ndwakhulu TshishongaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 1 –19 (2015)More Less
This article examines the socio-economic implications that the controversial sub-culture of skhothane has on the development or underdevelopment of youth at Ekurhuleni and surrounding townships. It interrogates skhothane within the post-modern expressive youth culture. In the township(s) of Ekurhuleni, skhothane is regarded not only as a controversial sub-culture but also as a lifestyle whereby young people compete in acquiring material goods with the ultimate purpose of destroying them. This practice co-exists alongside youth unemployment and underdevelopment which is exacerbated by poverty, rising unemployment and gross inequalities. The author argues that the practice of skhothane sub-culture does not only undermine the policies and programmes aimed at the socio-economic upliftment of young people, but turns the youth into materialistic consumers. In this article, young people are viewed as victims of post-modern lifestyles who are socialised under an intergenerational culture of poverty and underdevelopment. It uses primary data from selected interviews with skhothane members and general members of local communities and secondary sources from books, accredited journals and newspapers.
Author Solomon MakolaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 20 –35 (2015)More Less
This article investigated whether teaching student leaders about the Meaning-Centred Leadership Model results in a significant improvement in their leadership potentials. The participants consisted of two groups of student leaders (N=18) from a satellite campus of a university of technology in South Africa. The article utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative data was collected using Purpose in Life Test (PIL) and Youth Leadership Test (YLT). In addition, qualitative data was collected on the participants' subjective experience of development in leadership potential. A non-equivalent control group design was employed. A 'repeated measures' t-test was used. The qualitative data was analysed by means of themes. The findings from this article indicate that a meaning-centred leadership model can be used to inspire young people in their leadership development. The levels of meaning of student leaders in the experimental group were significantly better after the intervention than before. In addition, there was a significant increase in the leadership aptitude of student leaders in the experimental group after the meaning-centred leadership model. Notable differences were also observed between the two groups, in the sense that the Purpose in Life and Youth Leadership Test scores of participants in the experimental group was significantly better after the intervention than before. The findings indicate that it is possible to inspire youth leaders in their leadership development for meaning by means of a meaning-centred leadership model, and that this helps in their transformational self-knowledge.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 36 –54 (2015)More Less
The growing number of armed conflicts in Africa has impacted adversely on women who fall victims to violence, sexual abuse and harassment. Women play a minimal role as combatants during the armed conflicts and as peace negotiators after the armed conflicts. This article looks at the role women play in the pre-armed and post-armed conflict phases in an African context. Data for this article were gathered through questionnaires distributed to twenty women officers who participated in the Joint Senior Command and Staff Programme (JSCSP) at the South African National War College. The findings make it evident that women often participate unwillingly as combatants in an armed conflict; they face social changes in the post-armed conflict phase that make their roles change in both their families and communities, and often neglected in the post-armed conflict negotiations and conflict resolution processes.
The unique obstacles of female entrepreneurship in the tourism industry in Western Cape, South AfricaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 55 –71 (2015)More Less
The intention of this article is to identify the obstacles unique to female entrepreneurs in the tourism industry in Western Cape, South Africa. This is against the backdrop that in order to accelerate economic growth and development in South Africa, female entrepreneurs should also be considered as important vehicles that can bring about the necessary economic growth and development. Unfortunately, this growth has been stifled due to the high failure rate in the SMME sector; specifically among women. This article used the qualitative deductive approach, utilising in-depth semi-structured interviews, which enabled the participants to disclose important information relating to the study. The data were analysed qualitatively using themes. For effect, this article also made use of content analysis because of its significance in qualitative studies.Three themes emerged from content analysis. These include demographic factors; socio-economic factors and culture. The findings have shown primarily that the factors that impede female entrepreneurs differ from sector to sector. Within the Western Cape Tourism industry, specifically the accommodation sector, unique obstacles abound. While the authors acknowledge that the obstacles faced by female entrepreneurs are unique to this sector, they are equally mindful of the repercussions of a generalisation of the findings. To this end, we suggest that a broader study be conducted to compare factors that impede entrepreneurship in other provinces in South Africa and/or draw a comparison between males and females. This article undoubtedly has value not simply because it is gender biased, but also because by highlighting the unique challenges and barriers faced by female entrepreneurs, there could be better government support for female entrepreneurs in general and especially those in the accommodation sector in the Western Cape.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 72 –85 (2015)More Less
There is increasing recognition of the potential contribution of small and medium enterprises towards economic growth and creation of job opportunities worldwide. This study was aimed at determining the factors that contribute to the success or failure of small businesses operating under jurisdiction of Greater Giyani Municipality. Data were collected via a focus group, which consisted of eight business owners. The findings revealed that business owners experience challenges, for instance, no entrepreneurial support is accessible to them and they struggle to get start-up capital for their businesses and as a result end up sourcing funds from micro-lenders. Most business owners have poor business skills, but they do not receive any training to enhance their capabilities, hence the likelihood of some businesses failing. Businesses are not being afforded the support they require. This could compromise the intentions of the government to encourage people to start businesses and thus improve their livelihood and the wellbeing of society. For these businesses to sustain their operations, it is important that they be provided with support, particularly in the form of start-up capital and business skills. Regarding future research, a study should be carried out on a large scale in order to allow for generalisability of these findings to the entire Limpopo province.
Author Vimbai Moreblessing MatizaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 86 –99 (2015)More Less
Dramatic and theatrical performances have a long history of being used as tools to enhance development in children and youth. In pre-colonial times there were some forms of drama and theatre used by different communities in the socialisation of children. It is in the same vein that this article, through the Intwasa koBulawayo performances, seeks to evaluate how drama and theatre are used to nurture children and youth into different developmental facets of their lives. The only difference which this article will take into cognisance is that the performances are done in a different environment, which is not the one used in the pre-colonial times. Although these performances were like this, the most important factor is the idea that children and youth are socialised through these performances. It is also against this backdrop that children and youth are growing up in a globalised environment, hence the performances should accommodate people from all walks of life and teach them relevant issues pertaining to life as they live it now. Thus the main task of the article is to spell out the role of drama and theatre in the nurturing of children and youth through socio economic and political development in Intwasa koBulawayo festivals.
Author Godwin MakaudzeSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 100 –109 (2015)More Less
Contemporary society has had running battles with citizens, trying to force them to be aware and appreciative of the importance of relating well with, and also safeguarding the environment. Modern ways of child socialisation seem unsuccessful in mentoring youngsters about the being, nature and significance of the environment (both natural and social) in life. Today, society it has largely become the duty of non-governmental organisations and law enforcement agents to educate and safeguard against the abuse of the social environment and the degradation, pollution and extinction of crucial facets of the natural environment. Using the Afrocentricity theory, the article explicates the position of the environment in Shona children's oral literature (folktales, songs, riddles and taboos), showing that it was presented, viewed and taken as a teacher, book and close companion whose welfare was to be guarded jealously. The article advocates the adoption and adaptation of African ways of child socialisation, which subtly but effectively build a positive and healthy relationship between people and their environment.
Author William AmoneSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 110 –128 (2015)More Less
This article provides a discussion of economic growth and development, including new perceptions that have arisen. It covers the trending issues of inclusive growth, global poverty and the miraculous economic growth of the East Asian economies. The article identifies the major determinants of economic growth and the key objectives of economic development. It also acknowledges the fact that inclusive and sustainable economic growth is crucial for long-term poverty reduction, and that for growth to be effective in reducing poverty it must be broad-based, targeting the poor or those formerly bypassed by development. Although most regions of the world are achieving rapid economic growth, poverty, unemployment and food shortages seem to be persisting. Inequality and social exclusion are even rising in many countries. Women remain most affected globally in all forms of afflictions. Despite the global advocacy for inclusive growth by the World Bank, IMF, WTO , WHO and OECD, many developing countries are yet to appreciate the concept and to achieve holistic sustainable growth that benefits all people. Asia seems to have witnessed more stable and inclusive growth than other developing regions in the past four decades.
Musician as culture hero : exploring male-female relations in Pachihera's and Simon Chimbetu's selected songsSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 129 –142 (2015)More Less
This article is a comparative exposition of positive male-female relations in lyrical compositions of selected Zimbabwean singers. Particular attention is on one female voice, Pah Chihera and a male voice, Simon Chimbetu. The argument avowed in this article is that the selected musicians are sober in their appreciation of gender relations in African ontological existence. It further argues that, unlike feminists who view male-female relations as antagonistic, the two musicians celebrate cordial and mutual cohesion, which is part of Shona or African heritage. Against that background, the musicians are regarded as 'culture heroes' who connect Shona and other peoples of Africa with their rich and life-furthering heritage. We therefore advance the view that the selected artists' social vision reflects women who are family centred and in concert with males in struggle, which is to provide a platform for promoting solidarity rather than schism. Critical appreciation of the music renditions of the selected musicians is guided by and oriented towards the Africana womanist paradigm.
Author Ghazala Begum EssopSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 13, pp 143 –152 (2015)More Less
Throughout the business world, leaders of the most successful firms have begun to understand the importance of analysing every activity, system and process in their operations to make absolutely sure that they function efficiently and effectively. In the course of this assignment an attempt to understand total quality management will be made, along with an examination of the different schools of thought regarding total quality management and the effect this concept has on production.