Commonwealth Youth and Development - latest Issue
Volume 14, Issue 1, 2016
Staunching Niger Delta’s oil curse : stemming the tide of youth restiveness in Chimeka Garricks’s Tomorrow Died Yesterday (2010)Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 1 –16 (2016)More Less
An attempt to illustrate how the environment has a far-reaching, marked impact on literature in respect of Chimeka Garricks’s Tomorrow Died Yesterday (2010) entails an eclectic, cross-disciplinary preoccupation. It is an initiative that considers why Niger Delta’s youths have to contend with not only enduring economic disenfranchisement but also environmental degradation emanating from regular oil spillages in the region. Often in a particular ecocritical literary work, a writer has to present a balanced view. For Garricks, artistic, political, economic and environmental concerns raised in the novel are inextricably interwoven with Niger Delta’s youth restiveness. The article reassesses how this novel portrays the interaction between environmental degradation and youth marginalisation in the oil-bearing Delta region in contemporary Nigeria. It further examines the way Garricks explores the theme of environmental devaluation of his Niger Delta society as it impinges on the youth restiveness in Tomorrow Died Yesterday. The paper interrogates the power of imagination in its appropriation of word, imagery and symbolism to represent the debilitating problematic of environmental concerns in the oil-bearing region of Nigeria. Ecocriticism is utilised as the theoretical framework to argue that socioecological issues of the Niger Delta constitute the major focus of the novel as they underpin the economic emasculation of youths from the region, underlined in the lives of the characters portrayed in the novel. The paper concludes that the radical transformation of the Niger Delta from a peaceful littoral haven into the ransomtaking enclave of the present is grounded in Garricks’s creative depiction of the youths’ debilitating economic marginality, derived from the perilous environmental degradation of that region in the past decades.
Author Barbra C. ManyararaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 17 –35 (2016)More Less
The paper surveys parental attitudes to secondary school students’ use of cellphones in Zimbabwe after a ministerial pronouncement caused a media storm that even parliament failed to resolve, especially since parents as stakeholders had not been consulted on what could become policy. The current paper sought to fill this information gap by briefly surveying parental attitudes and motivations for accepting or rejecting the use of cell phones at school by adolescents. A descriptive survey research design was used and the researcher accessed her research population through the WhatsApp application of her smartphone. The interactive nature of the WhatsApp messaging platform merged several forms of data gathering and resulted in semi-questionnaires, minor document analysis, and a loosely scripted interview. Feedback and clarifications between the researcher and respondents were almost immediate. The data were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analyses and showed that the majority of parents do not want adolescents to take cell phones to school for various reasons. The most serious were: distracting learners because they are addictive; promoting pornography; and cyber-bullying. A few believed cell phones were useful in emergencies; and can enhance learning. Short of ministerial imposition, parents have rejected the use of cell phones at school by adolescents.
Author Washington MushoreSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 36 –53 (2016)More LessThe main purpose of the indigenisation policy in Zimbabwe, according to
Masunungure and Koga (2013), was to empower the historically disadvantaged groups in Zimbabwe after the nationalist government had recognised that the inherited colonial systems were unsustainable and a sure recipe for future social and political instability. Although the indigenisation policy was a very noble idea, there was no consensus – especially at the political level – on how empowerment was going to be achieved. The ruling party (ZANU-PF) saw empowerment as being best achieved through the compulsory takeover of foreign-owned businesses in order to benefit the indigenous blacks, and the main opposition party (MDC-T) perceived empowerment as the creation of more jobs for the multitudes of unemployed Zimbabweans, especially the youth. This article, however, argues that the use of nationalistic language, such as ‘the black majority’, in political discourse by politicians in most cases obscures who the real beneficiaries are or will be. In view of the above, the aim of this study is to critically explore, with the aid of framing theory, how the Zimbabwean print media have reported on the issue of youth and indigenisation in stories purposively sampled from The Herald, The Zimbabwean and The Standard newspapers.
Author Anthony BrownSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 54 –64 (2016)More Less
Measuring the prevalence of violence and/or bullying in schools in Namibia has become a recent concern, with little available data. The purpose of the article is to uncover the causes and manifestations of gender-based violence in Namibian schools. This study employed a mixed methodology that included in-depth interviews with key stakeholders and quantitative methods of data collection such as a self-administered questionnaire targeting learners and educators. The evidence emerging from this study indicates high levels of violence and/or bullying in schools and that this violence and/or bullying is frequent, takes specific forms, and targets particular groups of learners, such as girls and those who are perceived as different in terms of their gender. It is hoped that findings will assist relevant ministries and others in the education sector in engaging further with the issue of violence and/or bullying in school and in providing support to those learners who are targeted.
Gateway to national economic and social development? an analysis of the uses and abuses of the Zimbabwe national youth service in relation to the African youth charterSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 65 –77 (2016)More Less
This study looks at the uses and abuses of the National Youth Service (NYS) as a vehicle to attain national economic and social development for the youth in Zimbabwe. Started in 2001, the NYS has in its short life span attracted both admirers and enemies locally and externally. Whilst proponents of the NYS argue that it is the best way to integrate the youth fully in all aspects of the economy, in line with the dictates of the African Youth Charter, enemies have argued that the NYS has been nothing but an attempt to sacrifice developmental aspirations on the altar of political expediency. This study looks at the politics surrounding the implementation of the African Youth Charter, particularly article 15, which states that member states should institute NYS programmes to engender community participation and skills development for entry into the labour market. This article asserts that the NYS in Zimbabwe was implemented before the adoption of the African Youth Charter in 2006 and that this has raised concern among the youth that no attempts have been made to harmonise the two. As a result, instances of the NYS being abused for partisanal ends have been rife, leading to calls to rebrand the NYS in line with the provisions of the youth charter. Therefore, besides the issue of perception, this article argues that lack of resources and discord within the unity government led to the failure by the government to fully implement the African Youth Charter in the Zimbabwean context.
Author Ghazala Begum EssopSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 78 –87 (2016)More Less
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) may be defined as the actions of an organisation that are targeted towards achieving a social benefit over and above maximising profits for its shareholders and meeting all its legal obligations (Ghillyer 2009). This definition only scratches the surface of a very complex and often elusive topic that has presented organisations as being the image of unchecked greed. CSR is a phenomenon that is growing in prominence and popularity as organisations find themselves in the limelight due to consumer evolution.
Author Khatija Bibi KhanSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 88 –96 (2016)More Less
The documentary film Prisoners of Hope (1995) is a heart-rending account of 1 250 former political prisoners in the notorious Robben Island prison in South Africa. The aim of this article is to explore the narratives of Prisoners of Hope and in the process capture its celebratory mood and reveal the contribution that the prisoners made towards the realisation of a free South Africa. The documentary features interviews with Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, Ahmed Kathrada and other former inmates as they recall and recount the atrocities perpetrated by defenders of the apartheid system and debate the future of South Africa with its ‘new’ political dispensation led by blacks. A textual analysis of Prisoners of Hope will enable one to explore the human capacity to resist, commit oneself to a single goal and live beyond the horrors and traumas of an oppressive and dehumanising system.
Author Innocent Tonderai MahiyaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 97 –117 (2016)More Less
The attainment of independence in Zimbabwe in 1980 was met with a mounting problem of rural to urban migration by people who had long been constrained by the colonial administration (Bond 2003). The influx of migrants into the urban areas quickly swallowed the available jobs that the urban areas could offer to the new urbanites. From the year 1980, urban unemployment has been on the increase and, notably, has been dominated by the youths because of the high mobility that characterises this age group against a shrinking economy and a productive base. Today, urban youth unemployment in Zimbabwe has reached 42 per cent among the urban unemployed, which is among the highest on the continent (Feresu, Chimhowu and Manjengwa 2010).
Youth expectations of Smart city living : an importance-performance analysis of young residents’ perspectives of city governmentSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 118 –128 (2016)More Less
Young people are important to cities, bringing skills and energy and contributing to economic activity. New technologies have led to the idea of a smart city as a framework for city management. Smart cities are developed from the top-down through government programmes, but also from the bottom-up by residents as technologies facilitate participation in developing new forms of city services. Young people are uniquely positioned to contribute to bottom-up smart city projects. Few diagnostic tools exist to guide city authorities on how to prioritise city service provision. A starting point is to understand how the youth value city services. This study surveys young people in Braamfontein, Johannesburg, and conducts an importance-performance analysis to identify which city services are well regarded and where the city should focus efforts and resources. The results show that Smart city initiatives that would most increase the satisfaction of youths in Braamfontein include wireless connectivity, tools to track public transport and information on city events. These results identify city services that are valued by young people, highlighting services that young people could participate in providing. The importance-performance analysis can assist the city to direct effort and scarce resources effectively.
Curriculum renewal as a transformational project at the Durban University of Technology : what do the existing data say?Author Kudayja Mahommed ParkerSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 129 –143 (2016)More Less
As one of the cornerstones of transformation at the Durban University of Technology (DUT), the curriculum renewal project (CRP) identifies desired graduate attributes that serve to inform the revitalising of the university’s academic programmes. A critical component of the renewal process is the introduction of General Education (GE) modules that are designed to address the deficiencies of poor schooling, enshrine the values of the university and complement programme content so that DUT graduates leave the university with the life skills and attributes needed to function successfully in society. As such, GE aims to provide a holistic education that goes beyond discipline-specific knowledge. One of the premises of the CRP therefore is that some DUT graduates leave university without achieving those ‘graduate attributes’ to the extent desirable. But how has DUT fared in terms of developing the desired graduate attributes in so far as students are concerned? This study uses the 2010 South African Survey on Student Engagement (SASSE) to examine student perceptions of their growth in career-related and general life skills, prior to the formal implementation of the CRP. As such, it could serve as a benchmark for assessing the efficacy of GE, subsequent to its formal integration into the academic programme across all faculties in the future.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 144 –155 (2016)More Less
In the aftermath of the Marikana massacre in 2012, a number of observers raised questions about young men’s traditional beliefs. Did young miners apply muthi on their bodies believing that they would be invincible in the face of police bullets? How do young men generally, in the course of wrestling everyday challenges, draw on ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ medicine? The findings in the literature seem to be contradictory and mediated by age differentials, educational levels, and place of residence. In this article, both qualitative and quantitative evidence is drawn upon to offer insight into the views of young men in a particular site: Chiawelo, in Soweto. The study suggests that while young men do not hold a special place for traditional healers in their lives, their insecure life circumstances and the dynamics of the groups to which they affiliate, lead them when necessary to consult traditional healers for immediate or out-of-the-ordinary help, particularly if trusted institutions do not provide satisfactory assistance. The study links and uses the theoretical constructs, ‘socialisation’, ‘habitus’ and ‘anomie’.
Sustainable livelihood through skill development among rural youth : role of micro-finance in the developmental paradigmAuthor Vikram SinghSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 156 –173 (2016)More Less
This article attempts to analyse the process of sustainable livelihood through skill development and its conceptual and theoretical understanding in India with reference to rural youth. In India skill development is demanded for economic growth and inclusive development; hence the rural population cannot be overlooked. Employable skills alone have not been able to generate sufficient employment among rural youth or address/promote well-being and sustainable livelihood. Various frameworks associated with skill development leave scope for reforms to strengthen the implementation of various policy shifts in respect of rural development and government/non-government organisations. The process of skill development for rural youth through the establishment of institutions, launch of policy/programmes and their linkages with micro-finance institutions are considered as the distinctive nature and features of micro-finance in relation to the forces of societal structure, social relationships, and social interactions leading towards collective interests and norms that shape the lives of rural youth. Lastly, analysis is done and conclusions drawn on the basis of discussion.
A proposed evaluation plan to assess the impact of a youth development programme facilitated by the State Information Technology Agency (SITA) in rural south africaAuthor Maura Mbunyuza-deHeer MenlahSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 14, pp 174 –181 (2016)More Less
This article reports on a proposed evaluation plan that has been developed to assess the work done by the State Information Technology Agency (SITA). The SITA programme was implemented in response to the South African government’s call to improve the lives of the populations in some rural areas through technology. The programme was meant to address slow development in rural areas that lack technological innovations and advances. In the proposed evaluation plan a review is made of secondary data, deciding how strategic priorities are to be determined, as well as analysis of the rural context environment. The researcher gives an account of how the evaluation strategies are to be piloted and rolled out thereafter. Lessons learnt are recorded and reported upon. A proposed evaluation plan will be developed, based on the lessons learnt in line with the objectives of the project.