Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa - latest Issue
Volume 28, Issue 1, 2016
Author Candice ChristieSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 28, pp 1 –2 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/esa.v28i1.1More Less
Academic dishonesty is not new and has been shown to occur from school level all the way through to tertiary institutions. Furthermore, it is not just scholars/students who are guilty but more concerning, academic staff. Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct can include plagiarism, deception, fabrication, cheating, sabotage, bribery and/or impersonation. In an attempt to promote principles of best practice for publishing, The International Journal of Cardiology published a set of guidelines which should be applied to all submissions to this journal.
User-centric design considerations for women's functional protective wear for the construction industry in southern AfricaSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 28, pp 3 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/esa.v28i1.2More Less
This discussion paper highlights the preliminary findings of an investigation into ergonomic considerations in the design of women's protective clothing. The study investigates the assumption that there is a dearth in the product offerings of the women's protective wear that are empathic, ergonomically designed with good fit, and offer acceptable levels of comfort for women working in the construction trade. The research employs a qualitative research method - including interviews with key actors such as women working in the construction industry, manufacturers, and suppliers. The unique morphological features associated with steatopygia that are common in the sub-region, and yet not fully accommodated in the design of context-responsive work wear, are discussed in this paper.
The paper explores prevailing attitudes amongst manufacturers and suppliers to motivate them to offer superior products for women in the construction industry. A higher adoption rate of the redesigned women's protective wear could correlate to reductions in downtime associated with general occupational health and safety issues, as well as the nugatory impact of low levels of comfort, protection and garment fit. Subsequently, a boosted self-confidence and higher levels of motivation occasioned by a positive body image would validate the efficacy of the intended ergonomic design intervention.
A comparison between skinfold callipers and ultrasound imaging for assessing body composition in recreationally active studentsSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 28, pp 12 –24 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/esa.v28i1.3More Less
The measurement of skinfold thickness by means of skinfold callipers (SC) is a widely accepted method to assess subcutaneous fat thickness and percentage body fat (%BF). Ultrasound imaging (USI) is a more recent technology that is becoming accessible for the same application. The objective of this study was to compare measurements recorded by SC and USI for the assessment of subcutaneous fat thickness in order to estimate %BF. Thirty adults volunteered for the study. Body mass, stature and subcutaneous fat thickness for seven sites were measured. Strong (p<0.01) correlations were found between SC and USI measurements for all the sites except for the abdomen. Despite significant (p<0.05) differences for fat thickness of all sites, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference between the %BF determined by the two methods (SC=19.5±6.4 %BF and USI = 19.0±6.3 %BF). However, levels of agreement indicated that the USI could over- or underestimate %BF by ±10%. This resulted in %BF estimation errors which are deemed too large from a clinical perspective. Additional studies are recommended to investigate the lack of agreement and bias highlighted between the two methods.
Prevalence and associated risk factors of work-related muscoskeletal disorders among road construction workers in a Nigerian communitySource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 28, pp 25 –37 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/esa.v28i1.4More Less
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) represent a significant occupational problem among road construction workers. This study conducted a prevalence and symptom survey of WRMDs among road construction workers in a Nigerian community and its relationship with risk factors over a twelve month period.
The study involved 100 consecutively sampled respondents from construction workers in a Nigerian community. The short version of the Dutch Musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, 12 months' prevalence, risk factor and health seeking behavior of respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while spearman rank correlation was used to test correlation at 0.05 α level.
A high WRMDs prevalence of 66% rate was reported, with low back (55%) being the most frequently reported body part for symptoms, followed by neck at 45%, while the least prevalent was the left hip/thigh (8%). Significant correlations existed between WRMDs and BMI (p = 0.003), work hours per week (p = 0.018), work exertion (p = 0.004), risk factors (p = 0.001). Logistics regression analysis showed that work organizational factors were significant predictors of WRMDs report of symptoms. Meanwhile, self-medication was the major means adopted by the respondents to alleviate musculoskeletal pain.
It is recommended that preventive strategies be adopted to minimize occurrence of WRMDs among these workers in Nigeria.
Regression models for predicting anthropometric measurements of students needed for ergonomics school furniture designSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 28, pp 38 –56 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/esa.v28i1.5More Less
This paper deals with the development of models that make use of some easy-to-measure anthropometric dimensions to predict difficult-to-measure dimensions required for ergonomic design of school furniture. A total of 143 students aged between 16 and 18 years from eight public secondary schools in Ogbomoso, Nigeria participated in the study.
In a bid to avoid model complexity, a brute-force search implemented in Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was employed to select the two most influential of the five input measurements. This search was separately conducted for each of the output measurements.
Regression models were developed from the collected anthropometric data. Also, the predictive performance of these models was examined using ANOVA. The best models are the ones with no/non-significant lack of fit and highest coefficient of determinations. Nine out of the 12 developed models exhibit nonlinear relationship. The ANOVA results show that the models satisfactorily predict the difficult-to-measure dimensions from the easily measured ones.