Gender and Behaviour - latest Issue
Volume 14, Issue 2, Oct 2016
Author Victor OjakorotuSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp ii –ii (Oct 2016)More Less
One tradition that has remained enduring in, and around the Gender and Behaviour journal is deep intellectual provocation, and the current special edition has not delinked from it. This time, focus is on the general roles of women within and outside Africa, in the plethora of social crises that have confronted the continent and her people since independence. This is necessarily so because African countries have continued to struggle with these social crises, and, rather than getting close to solutions, the situation appears to be aggravating, with new problems creeping in. The crises indeed cut across sectors, and continually threaten to frustrate all internal and external efforts made so far towards resolving them, but the gender dimension to them is necessary in a bid to specifically locate who does what when and where, rather than address and intellectualize the issue from generic, sacrosanct and monolithic viewpoints.
FeesMustFall : the 'inner' gender dimensions and implications for political participation in South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7185 –7190 (Oct 2016)More Less
Mostly, there are four stages in the cycle of an issue-based protest like the FeesMustFall, and each of the stages attract male and female participation for different, yet complementary reasons; in different degrees too, though most times 'inner' and unknown to the participants in the protest. What is more, the phenomenon has extended implications on the polity but scholars hardly focus on it. Survey conducted among selected students of University of Witwatersrand and University of Johannesburg who participated in the FeesMustFall reveals that the female, her body, the male and his ego, among other gender related issues, influenced participation at different levels of planning, action, sustenance and retrieval of the protest. Key Informant Interview sufficiently corroborates it. The general implication is that when it comes to political actions and participation, the male and female genders may, in practice, be less competitive than scholarship already acknowledged. In fact, they are complementary and not competitive as found by this study, and the findings challenge existing competitive discourse that is dominant in gender scholarship.
Selected theories in gay and lesbian studies : a sociological inquiry into homosexual identity and same-sex intimacyAuthor Oluwafemi Atanda AdeagboSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7191 –7199 (Oct 2016)More Less
Social scientists have been developing the area of gay and lesbian studies over the past four decades, perhaps since the publication of Mary McIntosh’s seminal article in 1968. Whilst McIntosh’s article addressed the homosexual role in England and described homosexuality as a social role (not a condition) that is outside of a recognised role (heterosexuality), gay and lesbian sociology has received little recognition as a distinctly sociological sub-discipline. A thriving field of ‘family sociology’ has developed internationally, but scholars in this field tend to focus more on heterosexual familial arrangements, issues and concerns. This is not to say that family sociologists have excluded gay and lesbian studies from the mainstream of family sociology. Despite the comparatively fewer studies on gay families, households and child-rearing (amongst other topics) across the globe, particularly in Africa, the importance of those studies cannot be discounted as they continue to shape and influence further research and reflection on this group in order to better understand them. Also, the ambiguity of some theories within the field of gay and lesbian studies further renders homosexual identity and same-sex unions problematic. It is against this backdrop that this paper examines some selected theories in gay and lesbian studies through sociological lens.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7200 –7204 (Oct 2016)More Less
The study aimed at determining existing knowledge related to mainstreaming of IKS into education system. The qualitative research methodology was appropriate for this study to explore and describe the mainstreaming of IKS into the existing education system. The study included 10 school teachers (5 male and 5 females) in a secondary school of Limpopo Province. Furthermore, 12 respondents (6 males and 6 females) which are learners at the same secondary school in Grade 10 to 12 were included. The results revealed that there is knowledge related to mainstreaming IKS into existing education system, marked relationship between IKS and school subjects and anticipated benefits in education. The study recommends that funds be allocated to IKS related activities in the education system, as this might be of assistance during the development of school material for the mainstreaming of IKS into education system.
‘For a reclamation of our humanity’ : neoliberalism and the decolonization of gender praxis – an analysis of the UCT Trans CollectiveAuthor Chantelle Gray van HeerdenSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7205 –7213 (Oct 2016)More Less
Following the recent #RhodesMustFall movement, the UCT Trans Collective’s actions, in particular, have shown the necessity for decolonizing gender praxis, relations and expressions in South Africa and how this is related to ways in which we might break free from the structural violence inherited from the apartheid regime. As demonstrated by the actions of this collective, I will argue that gender relations should be central to social transformation, rather than a postscript to social struggles, as has often been the case historically. However, when thinking about decolonization and structural violence in general, I would further argue that cognizance needs to be taken of how gender and decolonization mainstreaming may become co-opted by neoliberal ideology to become commodified. Here the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari can make an important contribution, especially in terms of their notions of micropolitics, nomadology and the war machine and how these relate to capitalism.
Mothering the ‘other’ : the sacrificial nature of paid domestic work within Black families in the post-Apartheid South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7214 –7224 (Oct 2016)More Less
Domestic labour, in South Africa, is one largest single-sector where African women remain ‘quintessentially’ oppressed. Even after the democratization of South Africa paid domestic labour has remained undervalued because of its link to ‘unproductive’ work. This study draws from 37 interviews and participant observations of three households to investigate the work experiences and conditions of domestic workers within black, peri-urban, African, middle-class families in the Limpopo Province. The article affirms and provides evidence that race is not necessarily a ‘core axis’ along which domestic workers exploited but that paid domestic workers experience oppression along various intersectional lines, among other, race, class and gender. The study reveals that paid domestic labour remains exploitative even within the single race. It demonstrates that domestic workers continue to be oppressed within the black, middle-class, African families. The article reveals that despite the legislative reform, paid domestic labour remains oppressive, exploitative, and fraught with hierarchical power relations between domestic workers and their African female employers.
Changing motherhood and the shifting social networks-of-care within Black families in the post-Apartheid South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7225 –7234 (Oct 2016)More Less
Although motherhood differs from one context to another along, among others, cultural, racial, class, time lines, or an intersection of one or more of these, the hegemonic Western social construction and conceptualization of motherhood remains dominant. This paper draws from 37 feminist interviews and observations of both mothers and fathers who are managers in a government department and a parastatal. It seeks to address the following question: “how has mothering practice evolved among black, indigenous, middle-class, Limpopo Province families in the post-apartheid era”? The study demonstrates that the practice of mothering is not necessarily limited to the mother but is performed within a ‘network-of-care’. It reveals the changing patterns of mothering practices and networks of care with the rise of black-middle-class families and their movement from cohesive to mobile society. Alongside the dis-embedment of families from their networks of care has been an unprecedented increase in paid domestic labour among black African families, as an alternative coping strategy for employed mothers. However, the kinship system remains a useful resource alongside paid domestic labour in facilitating work-family reconciliation. Therefore this article shows the collaboration of familial support and paid domestic work in the facilitation of work-family reconciliation for working mothers. Furthermore, the article also demonstrates a crossover or convergence of domestic work and family support, where some members of the kinship system are paid to do house-chores and childcare. Moreover, the data illuminates the genderedness and reciprocity in such support between mothers and their extended families.
A radical feminism assessment of women's recant of the male symbolic order in the name of differenceAuthor Theophilus MukhubaSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7235 –7237 (Oct 2016)More Less
Feminism, in general is a belief that women are and should be treated as potential intellectual equals and social equals to men. Though the ideology is commonly and perhaps falsely associated mainly with women, a feminist can be of either sex. There are different strands of feminism that have resulted as a response to both the times and challenges women have been faced with from the pre-colonial to post-colonial eras or for as long as humankind has been. Radical feminism as opposed and set aside from the other strands, takes off from a premise that the basic division in all societies exists essentially because men are the oppressors of women. Patriarchal relations underlie all forms of oppression-class, colour, and imperialistic oppression. This discussion seeks to examine the repudiation and subversion of male symbols and what they stand for in various forms of literature and its effect.
Women as agents of development : an assessment of Modimola Village in the North West Province of South Africa through the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP)Source: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7238 –7245 (Oct 2016)More Less
Women were, in the past, perceived as instruments of development in Africa. This is concretised by the religious roles accorded to them as a gender that can only play a supportive role for men in their communities. They also serve as agents of underdevelopment when contextualised within the South African perspective. The role of women in a selected village, Modimola, North West Province of South Africa is examined in this paper. Due to their participation in EPWP with special focus on the agricultural sector, women were able to earn a living and learn how to embark on subsistence farming in order to alleviate poverty in the village. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 22 female participants during the study and data collected confirm the invaluable roles of women in terms of food production, and engines of sustainable development in the community under study. It is concluded that women in development are indispensable as men are always on the move looking for non-existent jobs in the metropolis. The same explains the futility of ‘determinism’ as agents of role play in society.
Conceptualising Afrocentric-feminism and social constructivism through Alma Ata Declaration (primary health care, PHC) in rural NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7246 –7253 (Oct 2016)More Less
Christian and Islamic scriptures reduced women to a second class in any society. They are subjected to helper and relegated to house chores. In some societies, roles of ritual-making and administration are accorded them, but they would be regulated with the power of men. The Eurocentric system of administration introduced to Africa appears to have been reducing Afrocentrism, as Western education has found new roles for women. With more female enrolment in schools, from primary to higher institutions, it is expected that the old system would pave way for equal opportunity to address sustainable development holistically in Africa. Poverty, unemployment, ignorance, religion and culture are the major obstacles to women empowerment. These social issues have an effect upon health development; they aggravate mortality rate despite government focus on primary health care (PHC) as agreed through the Alma Ata Declaration in Kazakhstan. In addressing these plights, free education and ability to accommodate neglected rural dwellers to quality education would serve as stimuli for service delivery that is eluding the state.
Author H.S. NtuliSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7254 –7262 (Oct 2016)More Less
With regard to recent political conflict in South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) has acquired a reputation as the province where the manifestation of violence was most severe. Violence and its impact have negatively affected the lives of individuals and communities in many ways. This was mainly caused by the stormy relationship between the African National Congress (ANC) and Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) – a struggle that lasted more than a quarter of the century. Today very little is left of this struggle between the parties. However, the patterns of social and economic destruction, which characterise the period of violence are today still evident in the community. This is represented by legacies in the form of crimes such as rape, theft, robbery as well as general poverty and the occurrence of HIV and AIDS in high percentages. This paper will analyse the nature, cause and course of the conflict amongst the major political groupings in KZN in order to test the underlying assumption that the prevailing violence was the result of convergence of local, regional and national political dynamics, in which the political interest of the role-players carried the most weight. Political violence divided Black communities, thereby threatening the ongoing negotiation process in the transit to democracy. Despite the democratic elections which took place in 1994, the situation in KZN remained unsettled and unstable, often culminating in outbursts of violence. The transition from political violence to peace has at times suffered set-backs, owing to serious problems. The establishment of peace in a divided community presented high challenges to those involved as a host of factors continued to halt reconciliation in KZN. These, inter alia, include internal and intra-party dynamics, issues of “unfinished business” and accountability in relation to thousands of past human rights violations. Although the shift to democratic governance has provided meaningful opportunities for synergy between the development and peace processes, it is observable that development at the same time serves to stimulate disagreement and ignite conflicting relations.
KwaZulu-Natal lies on the eastern seaboard of South Africa, stretching from Swaziland and Mozambique borders in the North to the border with the Eastern Cape in the south. The province covers more than 100 000 square kilometres (Injobo Nebandla: 5) (eight percent of the South Africa’s land) and comprises rural, urban and semi-rural areas. KwaZulu-Natal’s estimated population of 9,4 million accounts for 20% of the total South African population. About 80% of the residents speak isiZulu followed by English (16%) and Afrikaans (2%) (Independent Project Trust: 2000). Political violence has negatively affected the province since the early 1980s and according to some sources, has left as many as 20 000 or more dead.
Author ThobejaneSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7263 –7274 (Oct 2016)More Less
This study highlights what people in polygamous marriages face on a daily basis. It argues that there are more disadvantages for women in polygamous marriages than their counterparts in monogamous relationships. The study further suggests that the patriarchal power structure seems to take a powerful and effective role on polygamous marriages in our societies, particularly in Zimbabwe. The study explored the intricacies of polygamous marriages and how these dominances can be resolved. The research is therefore presented through the ‘lived realities’ of the affected women in polygamous marriages in Gutu District located in Masvingo Province of Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in a village called Matizha. In the study, a qualitative research approach was employed to stimulate awareness of the social, cultural, religious and the effect of economic factors in polygamous marriages. This approach facilitates a unique understanding of the experiences of women in polygamous marriages.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7275 –7283 (Oct 2016)More Less
Marriage is conceptualised in a hierarchical and patriarchal manner by the elderly people from KwaZulu-Natal. Men have authority over their wives, children and property. In this paper I grapple with wife battering in traditional Zulu marriage from an African philosophical point of view. I shall draw from the philosophy of Ubuntu and the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault. I shall tease out how the elderly perceive wife battering as love, discipline and punishment. Data used in this paper shall be drawn from structured interviews and focus groups that were conducted in 2015 under the auspices of the NRF-funded ‘Archaeology of Ubuntu’ study. The interviews were conducted among elderly men and women aged between 65 and 80 years in the Greater Kwa-Zulu Natal province. Findings indicate that elderly women conflated wife battering with love and discipline, while elderly men conflated wife battering with discipline and punishment.
Author Claudine Anita HingstonSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7284 –7289 (Oct 2016)More Less
The African woman is a much deliberated subject within the continent as well as globally. A positive image of her is that of a strong, beautiful and proud individual who is caring and protective of her family. This glowing picture of the African woman however is at odds with the status of the majority of African woman. Downtrodden, abused, overworked, violated, disempowered, disadvantaged and poor are just some of the adjectives that could be used to describe a large portion of Africa’s women. Whilst efforts have been made by various entities to improve this status, African women continue to be largely discriminated against and awarded a low status in their societies. The political, cultural, economic, health and religious climate in Africa serves to reinforce this status quo and this in turn hinders the social life of the African woman, thus deeply enmeshing her in Africa’s social crisis. This qualitative study explores how Africa’s social crises impact African women. Written from a feminist standpoint, this article seeks to broaden knowledge and provide an understanding on the role of women in Africa’s social crises.
The social work services need and the significant role of women in the school system of the North West ProvinceAuthor Elizabeth SmithSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7290 –7300 (Oct 2016)More Less
There have been, in recent months, an upsurge in ill-disciple and other untoward behavior across the country’s schools. Events of violence and misconduct in the South African schools at both primary and higher or secondary levels lead much to be desired. These events include amongst others learners’ attitude towards the school system as a whole, behavior towards rules and regulations as well as behavior towards teachers and peers. All these play a role in how the learners conduct themselves ultimately as well as the influence these behavior and attitude have on the other learners. Schools in the North West Province have also been experiencing these embarrassing and unwanted acts. A ripple effect results; truancy, learning of deviant behavior like experimenting with alcohol and harmful substance in the name of conformity, pre-mature sexual activities which in turn could lead to teenage and unwanted pregnancies and health diseases like STD’s and HIV contraction, abortion and even dropping out of the school system. The upshot is failure to secure employment because of lack of scholastic qualification and thus creating a trapped-in feeling in a poor socio-economic environment. The persistence of these social problems and its accompanying challenges obviously shows that schools are not adequately equipped to deal with them. This study concentrated on the need for and existence of experts like social workers, most especially women, to deal with the menace.
The royal ancestor spirit medium of Makopa and the 2008 presidential run-off elections in Chipinge, South-East ZimbabweAuthor Booker MagureSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7301 –7313 (Oct 2016)More Less
Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper sets out to demonstrate that spirit mediums have a role to play in democratisation processes based on a case study from Ngaone, Chipinge - South East Zimbabwe. The aim of this account is to examine the relationship between ecstatic religion and politics in Zimbabwe in the context of democratisation as well as how the relationship between war veterans and traditional leadership changed over time. Using insights from political anthropology, this author argues that ecstatic religion play a significant role in democratic struggles. Spirit mediums significantly influenced political processes both during the colonial and post-colonial epochs in Zimbabwe as both instruments and actors. It was the medium of Makopa who prevented war veterans from setting up torture bases in Ngaone in Mutema Chieftaincy, a development that stopped political violence against opposition supporters in and around Chipinge district. This study concludes that the medium of Makopa positively contributed towards democracy and nation building using the idiom of spirit possession.
The challenge of personal and universal rights when dealing with pregnancy due to rape in rural KwaZulu-NatalAuthor A. Ngubane-MokiwaSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7314 –7320 (Oct 2016)More Less
Ubuntu philosophy promotes communal humanness and shuns individuality. This paper debates the conflict that exists between personal and universal rights. These rights are tested in a single case study of a rape survivor who while dealing with violent trauma is pregnant as a consequence thereof. The survivor loses her inalienable rights to be acknowledged and respected by her community as a result of her pregnancy. Even though she respects the personhood of her unborn child she is marginalised from the communal Ubuntu philosophy. The results reveal a dichotomy that the protection of family honour is salient and sacred, but the traumatised victim is regarded as profane. The victim must heal her ‘wounds’ yet experience humiliation and derogatory name-calling from both family and community members. The work of Leopold Senghor, an African philosopher is used as a lens through which this case is analysed.
Confronting the intersectionality of gender and race : a case study of black girls in two multiracial high schools in post-apartheid South AfricaAuthor Lefatshe A. MoagiSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7321 –7328 (Oct 2016)More Less
Since the introduction in 1994 of a democratic dispensation in South Africa black girls seem not to be constructing their own identities, even though the trajectories of gender identities are central to their social interaction and location. Intersectionality contests the way different societies or groups interact in socially constructed spaces. The majority of the black girls interviewed travel from traditionally black suburbs (townships) to attend mostly white-dominated schools, where they interact with white, coloured and Asian girls. The present paper explores the link between racial identity and the gender roles that black girls develop as a result of their interaction with other races. Intersection in the research conducted was used to show the limits of racial identity in terms of its contribution to the study of contested and confined racial spaces for black girls. The research thus illuminated the controversy surrounding the influences that promote the gender stereotyping of black girls. Lastly showing the limits of racial identity and consequences of multiracialism towards Black girls in a multiracial school.
Masculinization of participation and the absence of female voices on phone-in radio shows in Ogun State NigeriaAuthor Jendele HungboSource: Gender and Behaviour 14, pp 7329 –7335 (Oct 2016)More Less
Radio broadcasting has been hailed as one of the numerous factors contributing to the expansion of participation in public affairs in Africa. Such arguments are more often than not premised on the involvement of listeners in radio programmes through calls made into live shows by the listening public. However, the ‘democratized’ radio space is often dominated by male voices especially in Africa. This paper seeks to unravel the motivation behind the absence of female voices in selected radio shows in Ogun state, Nigeria. Using semi-structured interviews conducted with producers and listeners to two phone-in radio programmes in Ogun state, Nigeria, the paper itemizes reasons behind the muteness of female voices on radio shows in Nigeria. It then proposes that while the preponderance of male voices on live radio shows in Nigeria bespeaks the patriarchal cultural landscape within which media operate in the country, the gendered nature of participation on radio programmes need to be seen as a challenge in the claims to pervasiveness made in favour of radio. The paper concludes that more female voices are needed on phone-in programmes in order to rupture existing power structures which promote the masculinization of the airwaves especially in Africa.