Health SA Gesondheid - latest Issue
Volumes & issues
Volume 21, Issue 1, 2016
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.003More Less
The challenges of caring for people living with HIV (PLWH) in a low-resource setting has had a negative impact on the nursing profession, resulting in a shortage of skilled nurses.In response to this shortage and perceived negative impact, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study to describe the level of knowledge and psychosocial well-being of nurses caring for PLWH at a regional hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 233 nurses, the majority being female, participated and were stratified into professional nurses (n = 108), enrolled nurses (n = 58) and enrolled nursing auxiliaries (n = 66). Data were collected using HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory; AIDS Impact Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory. The total knowledge score obtained by all the participants ranged from 2 to 16, with an average of 12.93 (SD = 1.92) on HIV/AIDS knowledge. Depersonalization (D) (83.7%) and emotional exhaustion (EE) (53.2%) were reported among participating nurses caring for PLWH. Burnout was higher among professional nurses as compared to both enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing auxiliaries. There was a moderate negative significant correlation between HIV knowledge with the nurses' emotional exhaustion (r = 0.592), depression (r = 0.584) and stigma and discrimination (r = 0.637). A moderate to high level of burnout was evident among all levels of nurses. These findings lead to the recommendations for support of nurses caring for PLWH that include structured nursing educational support, organisational support with respect to employee wellness programmes that address depression and work burnout, as well as social support. The provision of these support mechanisms has the potential of creating a positive practice environment for nurses in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province in particular, and South Africa in general, and in improved care for PLWH.
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 11 –20 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.05.005More Less
Background: The GAMMA nursing measure was developed to routinely score a person's ability to independently perform activities of daily living. The nursing utility of the scale has been established as being satisfactory and it has been recommended that its use be extended to home-based care where restorative nursing is required for rehabilitation and elderly care.
Purpose: To subject the GAMMA nursing measure to the Rasch Measurement Model and to report if the measure can function as an interval scale to provide metric measurements of patients' ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living.
Method: A quantitative design was followed whereby GAMMA raw scores were collected from persons (n = 428) living in seven retirement villages and patients (n = 334) receiving home-based care after an acute or sub-acute nursing episode. In most of the retirement villages only cross-sectional data were collected; however, in the home-based care patients both admission and discharge data were collected. The data were prepared for Rasch analyses and imported into WINSTEP® Software version 188.8.131.52 (2010). Persons with extreme scores were eliminated, resulting in a final sample of 570 persons. The calibration and analyses of the final reports are illustrated with figures and graphs.
Results: The Rasch analyses revealed that the GAMMA functions optimally as an interval scale with a four-category structure across all eight items, rather than a seven-category structure as originally intended. Overall, the GAMMA satisfies the Rasch Model with a good to excellent fit.
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 21 –32 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.08.001More Less
Background: Recent recommendations made by ILCOR have de-emphasised the role of advanced airway management such as "endotracheal intubation" (ETI) during cardiac arrest in favour of maximising the number of chest compressions performed by rescuers. Maximising time available for compressions is achieved by minimising hands-off time (HOT). This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications potentially resulting in increased ventilation times. More time spent on ventilations in the single rescuer scenario naturally leads to an increase in HOT and less time being available for compressions. It is postulated that the use of an appropriate supraglottic airway device (SAD) may decrease the time spent on the ventilation component of CPR and result in a decrease in HOT.
Objectives: This pilot study evaluated how interruptions to chest compressions or hands-off time (HOT) are affected by the placement of an i-gel® airway vs. simple BVM ventilation during single rescuer CPR.
Method: 16 participants performed two, ten-minute single rescuer CPR simulations, firstly using the BVM and later the i-gel® airway for ventilation. Data pertaining to ventilations and HOT in each scenario was statistically analysed and compared.
Results: The i-gel® airway demonstrated a superior ease of ventilation compared to BVM alone and resulted in a reduction of time spent on ventilations overall. The i-gel® however took a mean of 29 s, ± 10 s, to secure which contributes considerably to HOT.
Conclusion: The use of the i-gel® airway resulted in a considerable decrease in the amount of time spent on ventilations and in more compressions being performed. The overall reduction in HOT was, however, offset by the time it took to secure the device. Further investigation into the use and securing of the i-gel® airway in single rescuer CPR is recommended.
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 33 –45 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.05.003More Less
Reform in the South African healthcare and educational system were characterized by the ideals that the country needs to produce independent, critical thinkers. Nurses need to cope with diversity in a more creative way, defining their role in a complex, uncertain, rapidly changing health care environment. Quality clinical judgement is therefore imperative as an identified characteristic of newly qualified professional nurses. The objective of this study was to explore and describe clinical judgement through various data sources and review of literature to clarify the meaning and promote a common understanding through formulating the characteristics and developing a connotative(theoretical) definition of the concept. An explorative, descriptive qualitative design was used to discover the complexity and meaning of the phenomenon. Multiple data sources and search strategies were used, for the time frame 1982-2013. A concept analysis was used to arrive at a theoretical definition of the concept of 'clinical judgement' as a complex cognitive skill to evaluate patient needs, adaption of current treatment protocols as well as new treatment strategies, prevention of adverse side effects through being proactive rather than reactive within the clinical nursing environment. The findings emphasized clinical judgement as skill within the clinical nursing environment, thereby improving autonomous and accountable nursing care. These findings will assist nurse leaders and clinical nurse educators in developing a teaching-learning strategy to promote clinical judgement in undergraduate nursing students, thereby contributing to the quality of nursing care.
Seven year overview (2007-2013) of ethical transgressions by registered healthcare professionals in South AfricaSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 47 –53 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.004More Less
A move has taken place internationally in the delivery and "consumption" of health care where if clients and patients (health care consumers) hold the opinion that the health care professionals/providers' behaviour has had a negative effect, impact or outcome on them, they may lodge a complaint with the relevant health professional regulatory body. Ethical transgressions of health care providers can generally be clustered into the following three categories: a) Competence and conduct with clients (e.g. abandonment, sexual intimacies, dishonesty, disclosure of information); b) Business practices (e.g. billing, reports, documentation);and c) Professional practice (e.g. referral upon termination, obtaining appropriate potential employment opportunities, nonprofessional relationships). The primary objective of this study was to analyse the ethical transgressions of registered members of the twelve professional boards in the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) in the period 2007 to 2013. A mixed methods approach was followed in this study which specifically focused on a historical research approach. The results indicate that the boards with the highest number of transgressions per the registered practitioners were firstly the Medical and Dental practitioners, closely followed by the Optometry and Dispensing Opticians Board. The predominantly complaint made against members of both these boards was for fraudulent conduct (collectively totalling to 85% of all fraudulent cases during the period) and included actions such as charging for non-rendered services, issuing false statements and submitting fraudulent medical aid claims. Cognisance needs to be taken that the South African public will increasingly demand better services and that since they are being better informed via the media of their rights and have access to a broader database of knowledge (rightly or wrongly so the internet) practitioners' opinions will not necessarily be accepted outright and that they (the public) will challenge it accordingly. This raises the concern that practitioners need to take on the responsibility to communicate with their patients/clients in order to educate them and keep them informed.
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 54 –59 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.001More Less
When suicide occurs, it is regarded as an adverse event. Often, little attention is given to the nurses who cared for the patients prior to the adverse event. Instead the affected nurses are expected to write statements and incident reports about the adverse event. The aim was to explore the experiences of nurses who cared for patients who successfully committed suicide whilst admitted at a specific general hospital in Gauteng Province, South Africa. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of six nurses and content analysis was done. Nurses experienced feelings of shock; blame and condemnation; inadequacy and feared reprisal. This study suggests a basis for development of support strategies to assist the nurses to deal with their emotions following experience of adverse events.
Has the increase in the availability of generic drugs lowered the price of cardiovascular drugs in South Africa?Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 60 –66 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.004More Less
Background: This research focuses on pharmaceutical competition in South Africa where concurrent pricing legislation is being implemented without monitoring the consequences on generic drug competition and usage.
Objective:To examine the relationship between originator drug prices and the number of generic brands within the cardiovascular class of drugs and to compare South African prices with international reference prices.
Method: Data on private sector drug prices was sourced from the South African Medicine Price Registry. The relationship between the median proportional price and the number of brands in the therapeutic class was analysed using correlation analysis. International reference prices were obtained from the Management Sciences for Health International Drug Price Indicator Guide (2012 edition).
Results: A weak correlation between originator and generic drug prices and the number of available brands was observed, the exception being diuretic drugs. The median prices per strength of the originator generic were still higher than the most expensive generic version manufactured by any other company, the exception being telmisartan. Comparison of price ratios between the originator drug, lowest priced generic and international reference price values revealed that the originator drug prices had a median price ratio of 20.99 (interquartile range 7.31-53.46) and the lowest priced generics had a median price ratio of 4.28 (interquartile range 2.10-8.47).
Conclusion: Increased generic competition is not a predictor of lower drug prices. The study also concludes that the current South African pharmaceutical policies have not yet achieved the lowest prices for drugs when compared internationally.
The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in TshwaneSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 67 –76 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.05.002More Less
Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 77 –85 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.08.003More Less
An exploratory qualitative research approach was selected for this study aiming to explore how people living with breast cancer related lymphedema experience this complication. Unstructured interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected participants. Living with breast cancer related lymphedema was not easy. Participants were not informed of the possibility of developing lymphedema and felt let down by the medical professionals they consulted. They had to face the physical, psychological and practical consequences without the continuous support of a knowledgeable therapist. Managing the lymphedema was a challenge as they could not afford the necessary treatment and the self-care items. In addition, treatment failure resulted in them feeling exploited and using various treatment options. Nurses should maintain a high level of suspicion of breast cancer related lymphedema, assess patients for lymphedema and refer them to a therapist specifically trained in the management of this debilitating condition.
Barriers and facilitators associated with HIV testing uptake in South African health facilities offering HIV Counselling and TestingSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 86 –95 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.001More Less
Background: The scale-up of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) in South Africa to 4500 public health facilities and the service's provision in mobile and non-medical sites was aimed at increasing HCT uptake. However, some people still have never had an HIV test.
Objective: An HCT survey was carried out to ascertain barriers and facilitators for HIV testing in South Africa.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 67 HCT-offering health facilities in 8 South African provinces was undertaken. Individuals (n = 489) who had not tested for HIV on the day of the site visit were interviewed on awareness of HCT services, HIV testing history and barriers to HIV testing. Frequencies were run to describe the sample characteristics, barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the association between never tested for HIV with socio-demographics, awareness of HCT services and type of HCT facilities.
Results: In all 18.1% participants never had an HIV test. Major barriers to HCT uptake comprise being scared of finding out one's HIV test result or what people may say, shyness or embarrassment, avoidance of divulging personal information to health workers and fear of death. In multivariate analysis the age group 55 years and older, and not being recommended to have an HIV test were associated with never had an HIV test. Potential facilitators for HIV testing include community or household HIV testing, providing incentives for those who test for HIV, mandatory HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status by those who test HIV positive.
Conclusion: The benefits of HCT which include the reduction of HIV transmission, the availability of HIV care and treatment needs to be emphasized to enhance HCT uptake.
Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa : considerations for resource-limited contextsSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 96 –102 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.003More Less
Background: School-based hearing screening is likely to be the first opportunity to identify childhood hearing loss in South Africa. Criteria for school-based hearing screening requires balancing the targeted degree of hearing loss while ensuring that referral rates are sufficiently low for a cost-effective and sustainable programme. The study aim was to investigate the effect of screening intensity (loudness) levels on the referral rate and to establish the effect of an immediate rescreen in reducing the referral rate.
Methods: A within-subject study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1: compared the referral rate in a counterbalanced sequence at screening levels of 20 dB HL, 25 dB HL and 30 dB HL across 1, 2 and 4 kHz for 135 children. Phase 2: determined the effect of an immediate rescreen on referral rate for 337 children screened at 25 dB HL. If a further referral was obtained on rescreen, diagnostic audiometry was subsequently conducted.
Results: Referral rate was reduced to 6.7% from 17% when using 25 dB HL as opposed to 20 dB HL as screening intensity. Referral rate was reduced to 4.4% when employing 30 dB HL as screening intensity. An immediate rescreen reduced the overall referral rate by more than one-third. Diagnostic audiometry confirmed that almost half (47%) of the referred children had a hearing loss.
Conclusion: A screening intensity of 25 dB HL and immediate rescreen reduces the referral rate significantly and will limit the burden of the screening programme on health care resources.
Paramedics' experiences of financial medicine practices in the pre-hospital environment. a pilot studySource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 103 –109 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.12.003More Less
Background: The term "financial medicine" refers to the delivery of health-related services where the generation of financial gain or "profit" takes precedence over the provision of care that is reflective of evidence-based best practice. The practicing of financial medicine includes over-servicing and over-billing, both of which have led to a sharp rise in the cost of health care and medical insurance in South Africa. For this reason, the practicing of financial medicine has been widely condemned both internationally and locally by the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) and allied Professional bodies.
Objectives: This qualitative pilot study explored and described the experiences of South African Paramedics with regard to the practicing of financial medicine in the local pre-hospital emergency care environment.
Method: A sample of South African Paramedics were interviewed either face-to-face or telephonically. The interviews were audio recorded and transcripts produced. Content analysis was conducted to explore, document and describe the participants' experiences with regard to financial medicine practices in the local pre-hospital environment.
Results: It emerged that all of the participants had experienced a number of financial medicine practices and associated unethical conduct. Examples included Over-servicing, Selective Patient Treatment, Fraudulent Billing Practices, Eliciting of kickbacks, incentives or benefits and Deliberate Time Wasting.
Conclusion: The results of this study are concerning as the actions of service providers described by the participants constitute gross violations of the ethical and professional guidelines for health care professionals. The authors recommend additional studies be conducted to further explore these findings and to establish the reasons for, and ways of, limiting financial medicine practices in the South African emergency care environment.
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 110 –119 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2016.01.001More Less
There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers. The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, "Tell me your life story". Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186), along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.
Author Wilma ten Ham BaloyiSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 120 –128 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.08.002More Less
In South Africa, there appears to be poor understanding about using a systematic review as an acceptable research method in post-graduate nursing education. The lack of understanding may result in research supervisors being unable to guide post-graduate students, such as masters and doctoral students, in using the systematic review methodology in the completion of an academic qualification. Furthermore, they might not be able to assist post-graduate students in completing their studies, or conducting studies, in particular systematic reviews, which are of high quality. Valuable opportunities can thus be missed that might add to the body of knowledge to inform and improve research, education, and clinical practice. This article may set the field for an informed debate on systematic reviews as a useful and acceptable research method to be used by post-graduate nursing students in South Africa. We conclude that a systematic review could be a useful and acceptable method for research in post-graduate nursing education. However, the method's benefits and disadvantages should be considered before a post-graduate student embarks on such a journey.
Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to infant feeding in the context of HIVSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 129 –136 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.12.001More Less
Background: The importance of healthcare workers' guidance for women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regarding infant feeding practices cannot be overemphasised.
Objective: To determine the knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers inmaternity wards in a regional hospital in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa, regarding infant feeding in the context of HIV.
Methods: For this descriptive cross-sectional study, all the healthcare workers in the maternity wards of Pelonomi Regional Hospital who voluntarily gave their consent during the scheduled meetings (n = 64), were enrolled and handed over the self-administered questionnaires.
Results: Only 14% of the respondents considered themselves to be experts in HIV and infant feeding. Approximately 97% felt that breastfeeding was an excellent feeding choice provided proper guidelines were followed. However, 10% indicated that formula feeding is the safest feeding option. 45% stated that heat-treated breast milk is a good infant feeding option; however, 29% considered it a good infant feeding option but it requires too much work. Only 6% could comprehensively explain the term "exclusive breastfeeding" as per World Health Organisation (WHO) definition. Confusion existed regarding the period forwhich an infant could be breastfed according to the newest WHO guidelines, with only 26% providing the correct answer. Twenty per cent reported that no risk exists for HIV transmission via breastfeeding if all the necessary guidelines are followed.
Conclusion: Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.
Author Kebogile MokwenaSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 137 –142 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.09.001More Less
Nyaope is a relatively new drug which until recently was not classified as illegal. It is widely used by many young and poor people in predominantly Black townships and users can be easily identified as they usually assemble in open spaces such as parks and taxi ranks and have formed a community through which they support one another in the habit. In addition to this, users often display poor personal hygiene and often resort to stealing and selling stolen goods in order to sustain their habit. There is a paucity of literature on nyaope and its use and impact, and the present study is a qualitative exploration of the experiences of nyaope users in three provinces, namely Gauteng, Mpumalanga and North West. The findings highlight the strong addictive nature of the drug, the ease of access, and the unfavourable social environment which promotes initial use and difficulty in quitting. Nyaope users typically express a desire to find and utilise help in order to overcome their current circumstances.
Nyaope is 'n relatiewe nuwe dwelmmiddel wat algemeen gebruik word deur die meerderheid jong, hoofsaaklik arm mense wat in swart buurte woon. Dit is eers onlangs dat diedwelmmiddel as onwettig geklassifiseer is. Gemeenskappe wat mekaar ondersteun in die gewoonte van die dwelm misbruik kom gewoonlik saam in oop areas in dorps gebiede soos parke en huurmotor staan plekke. Gebruikers kan maklik uitgeken word aan swak persoonlike higiene en die neiging om enigiets te steel om geld te kry om hulle gewoonte teondersteun. Literatuur oor nyaope, die gebruik daarvan en die impak op die verbruiker is relatief skaars. Hierdie studie was 'n kwalitatiewe eksploratiewe ondersoek oor die ondervindinge van nyaope gebruikers wat uitgevoer is in drie provinsies naamlik Gauteng, Mpumalanga en Noord Wes. Die bevindinge beklemtoon dat nyaope hoogs verslawend enmakilik bekombaar is en 'n ongunstige sosiale omgewing dra by tot die gebruik. Nyaope gebruikers is ongelukkig met die toe stand waarin hulle hulle bevind en vra vir hulp aangesien hulle dit moelik vind om die gewoon te op te gee.
Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 143 –154 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.002More Less
Background: Survival rates of premature infants have increased due to advances in medicine. Premature infants however, remain at risk for developmental delays including communication difficulties. The bonding and attachment experiences of premature infants and their parents are often challenged, further placing these infants at risk for communication difficulties. This study firstly aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of their premature infants' communication. The second aim was to explore the mothers' perceptions of their own role in the communication development of their infants.
Methods: A descriptive, longitudinal study was conducted with two mothereinfant dyads. Three visits took place in the first year of life. Subjective maternal reports were obtained through semi-structured interviews.
Results: Differences in the two mothers' perceptions were noted. The mothers described helping their infants to communicate through physical contact and talking. Risk and protective factors for early communication development are discussed in relation to the findings.
Conclusion: The findings support the need for a healthy mothereinfant relationship in the first few months of life. Health professionals should support premature infants and their families after discharge in order to help them interact with their infants and encourage attachment and bonding.
Relation of socio-economic status to the independent application of self-care in older persons of South AfricaSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 155 –161 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.02.007More Less
Background: Many older persons in South Africa (SA) are affected by a poor socio-economic status, leading to an increase in the use of the public healthcare sector. However, the public healthcare sector is burdened by high volumes of patients and long waiting periods. As a result, professional nurses in primary healthcare (PHC) facilities are not able to spend enough time on proper physical examinations and assessment of needs, including health education and support to older persons to help them apply independent self-care.
Aim: To determine if the socio-economic status of older persons affects their ability to apply self-care independently without support from professional nurses in the PHC facility.
Design: Quantitative, descriptive research design.
Methods: Older persons (N = 198; n = 192 respondents) were asked to complete theAppraisal of Self-care Agency (ASA-A) and Exercise of Self-care Agency (ESCA) questionnaires. Seven self-care deficits were identified through deductive logic after analysis of the two questionnaires. These seven self-care deficits were compared to the socio economic status of the same sample.Results: Seven self-care deficits were identified after analysis of the ASA-A and ESCA questionnaires. One self-care deficit was found to have a relationship with the socioeconomic status of the older persons.
Conclusions: Low literacy levels of older persons with a low socio-economic status affect their ability to apply self-care independently without the support from a professional nurse in the PHC facility. Data analysis of the ASA-A and ESCA revealed that these older persons suffer from a "lack of knowledge and ability to acquire knowledge with regard to self-care" which had a relationship with the socio-economic status of older persons with specific reference to low literacy levels and poverty.
Implications for practice: More attention should be given to older persons with a low socioeconomic status as their ability to apply self-care independently without the support from a professional nurse is limited. This would lead to less frequent visits to PHC facilities by older persons for minor ailments, decrease healthcare costs, relieve overcrowding in PHC facilities and prevent possible unintentional self-neglect.
Perception and attitude of healthcare workers towards the use of a female condom in Gaborone, Botswana : special issue : topic 1Source: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 162 –170 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2015.12.002More Less
Background: Although the female condom (FC) is viewed as an effective female controlled barrier contraceptive device that can be used by women to prevent them from contracting the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted or unintended pregnancy, the perception and attitude of healthcare workers (HCW) plays a key role in its effective use and distribution amongst women.
Objectives: To identify and examine factors that influences the perception and attitude of HCWs towards the use and distribution FCs.
Method: A quantitative, explorative and descriptive design was used to conduct the study based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a conceptual framework. A pre-tested questionnaire was utilised in June 2013 to collect data from a convenience sample of 164 HCWs with a 100% return rate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) version 9.2.
Results: The results showed that 64.0% (n = 105) of the respondents perceived unavailability of FCs as contributing to lack of adequate use. Only 31.7% (n = 52) [95% CI: 24.7e39.4] of them reported to be using the FC. There was an association with increasing use of a FC with age (Fischer's exact = 0.05), marital status [Fischer's exact = 0.037] and training [c2 = 53.3;p < 0.05]. The results revealed that lack of knowledge and training on the use of a FC might prevent its effective use and distribution.
Conclusion: The results showed evidence that the FC was a safe method of contraception and protection against STIs and that it empowers women to make decisions related to sexuality. However, awareness campaigns, increased availability of FCs and training of HCWs are essential to enhance positive perception and attitudinal change to reduce sexual risks related infections and poor quality of life for women.
Knowledge and attitudes about HIV infection and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in an urban, low income community in Durban, South Africa : perspectives of residents and healthcare volunteersSource: Health SA Gesondheid 21, pp 171 –178 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2016.02.001More Less
Background: HIV prevalence is high among South African women of reproductive age and transmission of HIV from mothers to children is a concern. This study ascertained the level of knowledge about HIV infection and prevention, particularly prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) amongst South African women from a low income community. It also established the challenges in delivering HIV education from the perspectives of health care volunteers.
Method: Female residents (n = 67) from Kenneth Gardens, a low income community in Durban, South Africa were interviewed. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 health care volunteers who were either health care workers or residents who provided some form of social support in the community.
Results: The majority of respondents indicated that a mother could transmit HIV to her child but were unable to specify how. Many women had general HIV/AIDS knowledge but were unable to identify essential prevention behaviours and were not very receptive to more information on HIV/AIDS. They were supportive of routine testing procedures and child bearing amongst HIV positive women. Health care volunteers indicated a need for a community clinic in the area.They also had limited knowledge of PMTCT and indicated that there was a need for more education on HIV, particularly to encourage the youth and men to use preventative measures.
Conclusion: Innovative ways to impart knowledge particularly of PMTCT and updated standards of practice are essential. It is important that the community understands how transmission occurs so that prevention can follow.