Journal of Contemporary Management - latest Issue
Volume 13, Issue 1, 2016
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 1 –26 (2016)More Less
Research has established that an organisation's safety culture plays an important role in its safety performance and that developing safety leadership is one of the key elements of an optimal safety culture. The assessment of safety leadership behaviours forms the basis of safety leadership development strategies. Although several instruments are available to assess leadership behaviours only one measuring instrument was found specifically designed to assess safety leadership.
The main aim of this article is to describe how exploratory factor analysis was applied to establish whether the Leadership Assessment Tool is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of safety leadership. The second aim was to determine if a leadership assessment measure also indicates any progress achieved as a result of development actions. The study was conducted in an organisation in the South African mining industry.
The purposive sample (n = 54) consisted of management, employees, and health and safety representatives. The study followed a pre-test post-test design and data was collected by means of a 360-degree type survey. The data was analysed by means of factor analysis and Cronbach's coefficient Alpha.
Results indicated that the Leadership Assessment Tool is a valid and reliable measure to assess safety leadership.
An empirical investigation into the effectiveness of consumer generated content on the purchase intention of sports apparel brandsSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 27 –54 (2016)More Less
Social media represents a revolutionary new trend that has introduced a substantial change in the way communication takes place. Marketers are therefore converting to consumer-generated content (CGC) to act as an advertising tool in creating awareness and promoting their brands. Although a number of studies have explored this subject, few studies have looked at this topic among the youth in Johannesburg with a focus on sports apparel brands. By means of a conceptual model, brand exposure (to CGC) is the predictor variable, while consumer purchase intention is the outcome variable, and the mediating variables are brand familiarity, brand preference, brand attitude and brand knowledge.
The article undertook a quantitative approach in which 150 self-administered surveys were distributed among students from the University of the Witwatersrand. The findings indicated that eight of the nine hypotheses are supported.
The findings from the article contribute to both academic literature by adding to theory in the field of e-marketing which is a rapidly growing field of interest. From a practical perspective, it will provide marketers with insight into the effectiveness of CGC as an advertising platform.
The influence of Lean thinking on organisational structure and behaviour in the discrete manufacturing industrySource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 55 –89 (2016)More Less
Following a Lean transformation specifically for discrete manufacturing, the organisational structure and behaviour will be profoundly affected. However, how and why this is so has remained unanswered until this research. Lean theory proposes that organisations should restructure along the value stream, however there is no certainty what this implies, and how it can be accomplished. The purpose was to determine new theory that will indicate how and why organisational structures and behaviours will change with Lean transformation. Two discrete manufacturing organisations in South Africa were purposively sampled.
A conceptual framework was utilised at the outset that indicated constructs for the research independent Lean variables and the dependent organisational structure and behaviour variables. Utilising a mixed methodology case study and quantitative multiple linear regression approach, hypotheses and propositions were developed.
The findings confirmed that a flat structure consisting of business units supporting manufacturing cells achieve effective Lean transformations for discrete manufacturing organisations. The components of an effective Lean structure were revealed, as open constructive leadership, an effective Lean champions unit, business units that support linked manufacturing cells led by cell leaders, who cultivate supportive behaviours through cross-functional teamwork and through self-directed work teams who run manufacturing cells or flow support functions.
Author M.J. MalebanaSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 90 –116 (2016)More Less
This article reports on a study that investigates the effect of different entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention and the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention and determines whether or not the knowledge of different entrepreneurial role models varies among the respondents based on their entrepreneurial intention and the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention.
A quantitative survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire among 355 final-year commerce students from a comprehensive university in the Eastern Cape and a university of technology in Limpopo. SPSS was used to analyse the data. While significant relationships were found between entrepreneurial role models and entrepreneurial intention and all its antecedents, the results showed that different entrepreneurial role models vary in their relationship with entrepreneurial intention and the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention.
The findings revealed that the knowledge of entrepreneurial role models differed significantly among the respondents who had high and low entrepreneurial intention; positive and negative attitudes towards becoming an entrepreneur; high and low perceived behavioural control; strong and weak subjective norms; and high and low entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The results have implications for both entrepreneurship educators and policymakers with regard to entrepreneurship education and policy interventions that could stimulate the entrepreneurial career choice.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 117 –143 (2016)More Less
This article reports on a study conducted among virtual office employees (teleworkers) in South Africa. Technological developments drastically changed many traditional office scenarios into virtual offices. The correct use of information and communication technologies at alternative worksites is difficult to manage and to regulate. If ergonomics are not applied, it could result in health problems that could lead to costs for the employer. The problem pertains to the unknown prevalence and extent of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the virtual office and the consequences thereof for managers of teleworkers. Although telework has been practiced internationally for several decades, it is a new concept in South Africa with only a few large organisations embarking on telework.
An empirical study was conducted using two structured questionnaires (one for managers and one for teleworkers) to determine the categories and extent of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the virtual office environment that could result in claims and legal actions against managers and owners of enterprises.
The main findings indicated that managers do not recognise the importance of ergonomics and related illnesses with all its consequences and cost implications in the virtual office environment.
Managerial competencies to enhance performance culture : a fast-moving consumer goods company perspectiveSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 144 –168 (2016)More Less
The primary objective was to investigate the perceptions of middle-level and first-line managers regarding certain managerial competencies to enhance the performance culture at a large fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) company. This was done by focusing on communication and teamwork as managerial competencies conducive to managerial effectiveness to enhance a performance culture.
In the current era, managers often tend to neglect their business's organisational culture although it has been noted that businesses, which deliberately manage their organisational cultures, outperform others that do not.
Data was collected by means of descriptive research in the form of quantitative, self-administered questionnaires. A total of 186 viable responses, which targeted 73 middle-level manager and 113 first-line manager respondents, were analysed.
The research indicated that middle-level managers who practice certain communication and teamwork-related skills contribute to a large extent to the creation of a performance culture of a business. The research also revealed that discrepancies existed in the perceptions of managers' own competencies versus those of others (peers/subordinates). It is therefore recommended that managers at different levels in the business should be included when measuring managerial competence.
The research contributes to existing related scholarly findings and is of value to the individuals and organisations working in the fields of business and human resource management.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 169 –189 (2016)More Less
Existing literature confirms that effective leadership contributes to motivation in a way that enhances organisational performance. This article confirms this view and reports on research that was conducted in a pharmaceutical organisation in South Africa that investigated the relationship between leadership behaviour of sales managers and the motivation of sales teams. A quantitative dominant mixed methods approach was used for this research with a correlational design and the inclusion of content analysis.
Data were collected from a population of 60 respondents in a multinational pharmaceutical organisation, using a survey questionnaire. Factor analysis on the questionnaire confirmed four leadership behaviours, namely team, supportive, autocratic and directive leadership.
The findings showed that Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) for autocratic leadership and motivation was the highest with an r-value of 0.574, indicating that during the implementation of a strategic alliance strategy, the strongest relationship existed between autocratic leadership behaviour and motivation.
Furthermore, the findings of the content analysis of the open ended questions indicated that task-oriented leadership behaviour could be the strongest motivating behaviour for sales team members when they implement strategies.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 190 –221 (2016)More Less
This research examines the inhibitors of effective customer-supplier relationship between big businesses and SMEs in South Africa. Conceptual analysis as a qualitative research technique was applied using three main steps; (1) analysis of the models on customer-supplier relationship, (2) evaluation of the strategies for building customer-supplier relationship between big businesses and SMEs in South Africa, and (3) comparison of the theories on customer-supplier relationship management with the approach used by the big businesses and SMEs in South Africa.
Due to high failure rates and limited capacity of SMEs, findings imply that most customer-supplier relationships are modelled a long traditional relationships or type 1 partnerships that are often characterised by short-term contracts in which based on pricing, buyers switch from one supplier to another. Such approach limits the ability of SMEs to take advantages of the deeper level of strategic partnerships and alliances that are often latent in supply chain optimisation and improvement of a firm's competitiveness.
The research concludes with a framework emphasising a blend of customer-supplier relationship with corporate social responsibility to enable larger businesses use customer-supplier relationships to improve the capacity of SMEs whilst at the same time also enhancing the attainment of their strategic goals and objectives.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 222 –245 (2016)More Less
Background: The article empirically investigates the extent to which various enterprise skills are related to smallholder farming enterprise performance. These skills encompass management skills, marketing skills, production skills, infrastructural utilisation skills, ICT skills, financial management skills, as well as attitudes towards business.
Methods: A quantitative and cross-sectional design was used with a structured survey to collect data. The target population was smallholder farmers in the Zululand District Municipality of Kwa-Zulu Natal Province of South Africa. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.
Findings: The results indicate that the respondents recognise the importance of various skills associated with agribusiness performance which include the value of investing in infrastructure, the importance of developing a brand for their business, and the importance of hiring a financial manager to ensure sustainability.
Conclusions: Gaining proficiency in the skills identified remains one of the key challenges in promoting commercial farming in rural areas in South Africa. Skills development should be grounded in the context and in the task environment of the farmers' operations. To carry out a job or task skilfully is to do it proficiently, that is competently. This suggests practical standards of proficiency, and the need for standards to be developed for smallholder farming enterprises.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 246 –270 (2016)More Less
Professionals, such as accountants and lawyers, and their professional associations (PAs), serve organisations such as business firms, educational institutions courts of law. Without professional associations, these organisations and the economy would not operate effectively.
PAs are regularly confronted by rapid and unpredictable changes (for example, in labour and company legislation), which require them to adapt quickly in order to provide relevant services to their members. Globalisation compels professionals in companies to be more innovative in delivering goods and services to local and international markets. If PAs do not grow and are not effectively and efficiently run, businesses, society and the economy will suffer. On a sample of 32 senior officials of 25 South African PAs, this study investigates how membership growth in PAs can be achieved and how their organisational effectiveness can be improved.
The empirical results show that being an effective learning organisation (ELO) and membership growth are important measures of a PA's organisational effectiveness. The results revealed that access to funding correlated positively with a PA being an ELO, while membership growth is driven by a PA's competitive characteristics and it being an ELO and a first-mover in its industry.
Green supply chain management constraints in the South African fast-moving consumer goods industry : a case studySource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 271 –297 (2016)More Less
Organisations, including those within the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods industry, are recognising the relevance of implementing green supply chain management practices in their operational activities. Within this context, the purpose of this article is to identify the green supply chain management constraints that an FMCG's factory in Durban faces, and to report on the remedies that it has in place to overcome these constraints.
This is article is exploratory by nature. Primary data were gathered through eight semi-structured interviews atthe factory, based on a purposive sampling technique. The article reveals that the constraints can be categorised into green procurement, green manufacturing, green transportation, and product recovery. Remedies that the factory has in place to overcome these constraints include the alignment of green supply chain objectives with its business objectives, and focusing on reducing waste. Recommendations include the improvement of supplier relationships and to encourage and motivate employees to embrace greening initiatives.
Studies on green supply chain management constraints in the South African FMCG Industry are limited. Therefore, the findings and recommendations of this article contribute to the existing body of knowledge by identifying areas through which green supply chain management in the FMCG industry in South Africa can be improved.
A practitioner's guide to establishing and managing a project management office at a South African parastatalSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 298 –329 (2016)More Less
Project management offices (PMOs) are established to support organisations in realising their strategic objectives by aligning project initiatives with organisational goals. This is achieved through standardising their project management (PM) practices, methodologies, tools and techniques. While PMOs can be beneficial, indications are that many organisations struggle to set them up optimally. Consequently, this study investigated the unique challenges encountered when setting up and managing PMOs at South African parastatals, and how those challenges were prioritised and overcome. The study followed an in-depth interview method were qualifying participants were identified and asked to participate in the research. It was found that the people and organisation-related challenges contributed to the six top most challenges encountered when establishing and managing PMOs at the South African parastatals. In general, the study contributed to the limited body of knowledge relating to the PMO topic in South Africa. Moreover, the study provided an alternative and practical guideline for the PMO establishment and management processes. This will benefit the parastatals with established PMOs as they can utilise the setup model as a guideline to re-engineer their existing PMO processes. In addition, the PMO establishment guideline was developed, especially, for those parastatals without a PMO, but wanting to establish one.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 330 –356 (2016)More Less
The principal aim of this study was to evaluate passengers' perception on service quality in South African owned airlines. The Servqual and Gaps models were the theoretical concepts underlying this study. The method used for this study was quantitative research leaning on cross-sectional analysis (sample survey). Primary data was collected from 700 passengers at O.R. Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg and King Shaka International Airport in Durban. In all, 684 questionnaires were completed and returned by respondents', therefore the data-collection response rate was 97,7%.
The findings of the study revealed that: First, passengers expected high standard service quality from South African owned airlines. Second, significant statistical gaps existed between passengers' expectations and perceptions of service quality delivered to passengers. Third, service delivery by South African owned airlines in the area of staff empathy towards passengers was weak and needing some improvement. Fourth, passengers were satisfied that South African owned airlines operated in an accident-free and safe environment, thus boosting passengers' confidence to continue flying with these airlines despite significant gaps in the service delivery.
Managerial implications of the study and recommendations to close service quality gaps in South African owned airlines are highlighted in this study.
The impact of demographic variables on organisational culture and employee motivation : evidence from a health insurance company in BotswanaSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 357 –384 (2016)More Less
Global changes impacting on the work environment including, increased competition and new technologies, are also felt in developing countries, but their impact has not been investigated to the same extent as in develop countries. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of demographic variables on organisational culture and employee motivation in a health insurance company in Botswana that faced considerable competition because of environmental changes.
The Corporate Culture Questionnaire Lite and the Motivation Questionnaire were used to measure the two constructs and the impact of demographic variables on each construct. One hundred employees participated in the survey.
The results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that age and education affect employees' perception of organisational culture. The results of the D-statistics further indicated significant differences between employees from different educational levels and age groups in terms of their perceptions of organisational culture. Significant positive relationships were found between employees' motivation, their level of education and seniority, and a significant negative relationship was evident between employees' motivation and their length of service. The results indicate somewhat different results from similar studies in South Africa suggesting that the national cultures differ in the two countries.
The chairperson's statement : understanding prioritisation of discretionary disclosures by Johannesburg Security Exchange listed companiesAuthor N. MmakoSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 385 –408 (2016)More Less
Research question/Issue: This article set out to determine and describe themes contained in chairperson's statements of 100 high- and poor-performing companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) in South Africa. This was done to shed light on information the chairpersons prioritised in their address to stakeholders.
Research findings/Insights: Findings suggest that the main differences between the chairperson's statements of high-performing companies and those of poor performing companies were the emphasis placed on aspects such as adherence to corporate governance, where high-performing companies were better able to address many of the content elements of an integrated report in their chairperson's statement, and the reactive or proactive responses to the companies' performance.
Theoretical/Academic implications: In the evaluation of the content of the chairperson's statements of selected companies, theory provided a useful conceptual framework for determining the themes contained in these statements. However, theory does not inform beyond adherence which themes to prioritise above others as annual reports become more integrated.
Practitioner/Policy implications: South Africa's annual reporting is integrated to provide a holistic representation of company performance and activities. This study will be useful in helping chairpersons and board advisors to enhance their communication efforts with stakeholders in their integrated annual reports.
Perceptions of local businesses on the Employment Tax Incentive Act : the case of the Vaal Triangle regionSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 409 –432 (2016)More Less
South Africa is facing the reality of extremely high youth unemployment rates. The problem poses a threat to the country's economic development and future labour force projections. In response, the South African government has promulgated the Employment Tax Incentive Act (Act 26 of 2013), a targeted employer-side supply wage subsidy which requires a significant degree of public-private sector co-operation.
The purpose of this study is to determine perceptions of local businesses regarding youth unemployment and the aforementioned act to determine its feasibility as an appropriate tool to address this problem. A qualitative research approach was used to collect data. A total of 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with business representatives in the Vaal Triangle region, Gauteng
Results of the study indicated that 92 percent of the interviewed business representatives support the act. However, its effectiveness in contributing to the employment of the youth is impeded by supply side issues of the said crisis that make businesses reluctant to hire young people. Strict labour polices and laws also induce difficulties restricting its implementation.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 433 –460 (2016)More Less
In an attempt to stay competitive in customer-driven markets, many industries have morphed to include internet-enabled services as part of their day-to-day business. Grocery retailing is one such industry.
The aim of this study was to firstly, explore the role of time in online grocery retailing. Secondly, the study investigated whether time-based competition (TBC) (i.e. when an organisation achieves a significant competitive advantage through the effective utilisation of time) could be a feasible competitive strategy for online grocery retailers to gain a competitive advantage.
A qualitative methodology was used to collect empirical data for this study. An interview and two focus group discussions were analysed by means of thematic analysis.
The findings suggest that time is an important issue in online grocery shopping and that online grocery retailers could gain a competitive advantage through effective time management, since one of the main motivations for consumers to participate in online grocery shopping is the perceived time-saving characteristic of purchasing groceries online. However, saving time along a grocery supply chain is challenging, and further research could focus on determining what constitutes time saving along the online grocery supply chain.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 461 –481 (2016)More Less
According to literature, employees who display vigour, dedication and absorption in their work are deemed to be engaged, resulting in increased productivity. Engagement, as well as the unbiased measurement thereof, may therefore be considered as a matter of interest and importance in the workplace. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) is the most widely used self-report measure of engagement and has been validated in many countries. However, no empirical studies aimed at identifying sex-specific outcomes associated with the UWES-9 could be found.
The aim of this research was to determine whether sex differences in work engagement exist, including sex-based differences in the psychometric properties of the UWES-9. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected independently on two occasions, as to assess whether the findings can be replicated. Initially, employees from 10 companies (N1=750) were surveyed. During the second research session, employees from 17 companies (N2=864) participated. In both cases men and women were almost equally represented.
In the case of the first sample, at an item level, sex bias was detected in four of the nine items of the UWES-9. However, the factorial structure of the UWES-9 for men and women appeared similar. Correlation coefficients between UWES-9 scores and other related constructs differed along sex lines. Men obtained practically significant higher mean scores than women on the UWES-9. Similar, but not identical, findings were reported with the second sample.
The results indicated sex bias at item level, but structural equivalence at scale level was found. Men scored higher than women on the scale and the overlap between UWES-9 scores and other measures taken at the same time was statistically larger for women compared to men. Users of the UWES-9 are cautioned against conducting mean score comparisons across gender lines and using the instrument in correlative studies as the measured constructs may have different meanings for men and women.
Author L. Van HoekSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 482 –505 (2016)More Less
The continuous recession in Africa, and the influence it has on the mining industry, has many challenges due to the inimitable conditions in Africa.
The purpose of the study was to identify the unique talent management expectations of millennial engineers in an African mining company. The population for this included all engineers employed in the company. Different commodities are mined and consist of copper, cobalt, coal, platinum, fluorspar, bauxite and other non-ferrous divisions. The countries under study were Malawi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique and South Africa.
A total of 487 questionnaires were distributed to the different mines via the SurveyMonkeyTM website with a response rate of 51%. 56% were employees under the age of 36 years old which are considered as the millennial generation.
A principal axis factor analysis was conducted to determine the most important factors regarding the needs and expectations of the millennial generation. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess whether there were differences between subgroups on the different factors.
The results specified the importance of work values, motivation and retention in the company under study. Suggestions are drawn to address the needs and expectations as identified by the millennial generation.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 13, pp 506 –530 (2016)More Less
The underlying study was necessitated by the realisation that whereas national statistics indicated an increasing trend in injuries and fatalities in the construction industry and consequently excessive claims from the workman's compensation fund, there were no records of registered manufacturers and on occupational health related accidents at the provincial offices of the Department of Labour in the North West (NW)) province of South Africa.
The study therefore undertook to establish whether manufacturers of cement-based intermediate goods in Ngaka Modiri Molema District (NMMD) complied with occupational health and safety (OHS) standards. A mixed method approach was adopted. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 50 respondents and through observation of the activities and the physical environments in workplaces.
The level of compliance was established to be below par due to factors that included: unwillingness by manufacturers to pay sufficient attention to health and safety; inability to employ well educated individuals; managers opting to employ individuals who out of desperation would work under unacceptable conditions; a good supply of individuals that were ready to compromise OHS standards for pittance; lack of effective enforcement of OHS standards by inspectors; and substance abuse. Recommendations for improvement of OHS standards were suggested.