Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management - latest Issue
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2016
Tuk-tuk, 'new kid on the block' in Johannesburg : operational and user travel characteristics, competition and impacts : original researchAuthor Tatenda C. MbaraSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.214More Less
The three-wheeler tuk-tuk, popular in Asian cities is now a common feature in many cities worldwide, across all five continents. Their growth has been attributed to their distinctive flexibility, stylistic simplicity and modest operational costs. In Johannesburg, the tuk-tuk represents a relatively new mode of public transport which stemmed from suggestions made by the local area residents association and other stakeholders to revamp the neighbourhood. The objective of the paper is to determine the operational and user travel characteristics of tuk-tuks as well as assessing their impacts. In Johannesburg, where competition from private transport operators can result in serious confrontation, the paper ascertains whether tuk-tuks pose a threat to other operators. Data was collected through telephonic interviews and electronic questionnaires. The results reveal that the tuk-tuk has filled a public transport gap by providing a much needed 'first mile'/'last mile' service to community members.
The composite supply chain efficiency model : a case study of the Sishen-Saldanha supply chain : original researchAuthor Leila L. Goedhals-GerberSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.209More Less
As South Africa strives to be a major force in global markets, it is essential that South African supply chains achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. One approach to achieving this is to ensure that South African supply chains maximise their levels of efficiency. Consequently, the efficiency levels of South Africa's supply chains must be evaluated. The objective of this article is to propose a model that can assist South African industries in becoming internationally competitive by providing them with a tool for evaluating their levels of efficiency both as individual firms and as a component in an overall supply chain. The Composite Supply Chain Efficiency Model (CSCEM) was developed to measure supply chain efficiency across supply chains using variables identified as problem areas experienced by South African supply chains. The CSCEM is tested in this article using the Sishen-Saldanda iron ore supply chain as a case study. The results indicate that all three links or nodes along the Sishen-Saldanha iron ore supply chain performed well. The average efficiency of the rail leg was 97.34%, while the average efficiency of the mine and the port were 97% and 95.44%, respectively. The results also show that the CSCEM can be used by South African firms to measure their levels of supply chain efficiency. This article concludes with the benefits of the CSCEM.
Author Pandelani Harry MunzhedziSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.197More Less
The article seeks to explore the relationship between procurement in the public sector and corruption. Corruption in the procurement process is one of the biggest challenges facing the South Africa government. Procurement in the South African public sector through the tendering process has been used with a particular aim of addressing the past discriminatory practices and policies by empowering the previously disadvantaged majority. It ought to operate within a certain legislative and regulatory framework. However, the article argues that in the process of implementing the good intentions of the government, corruption illegitimises the process. There are also challenges that are associated with public sector procurement, with corruption being the main protagonist. The article also seeks to suggest possible solutions that could be used to address the anomalies. The article further concludes that the main reason for the rife corruption in the public sector is that there is non adherence to policy prescripts including the Public Finance Management Act, 1999 (Act 1 of 1999) and the Municipal Finance Management Act, 2003 (Act 56 of 2003). This enormous predicament may only be addressed if the government were to show will and commitment by punishing offenders who do not comply with the said legislative framework.
Supply chain integration : a qualitative exploration of perspectives from plastic manufacturers in Gauteng : original researchSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.223More Less
Background : Supply chain integration was identified as a tool to assist an organisation to survive in a competitive marketplace. It was unclear how plastic manufacturers in Gauteng perceived supply chain integration efforts between themselves and their suppliers.
Objectives : This study's main purpose was to investigate the nature and extent of supply chain integration between 10 plastic manufacturers in Gauteng and their suppliers. The focus was on these manufacturers' commitment to and perceptions of supplier integration efforts.
Method : The study was conducted with plastic manufacturing organisations in Gauteng, over a period of 2 months. A total of 10 participants were engaged through semi-structured interviews.
Results : The main findings of the study revealed that commitment and trust were found to be the antecedents of supplier integration and closer collaboration, while customer price pressure and limited available resources served as motivating factors for integration efforts.
Conclusion : It is recommended that organisations must revisit integration efforts when new markets are penetrated and top management support must be revisited using a strategic framework.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.211More Less
Background : Although conveyancing is a legal term, business management and specifically operations management principles also apply to the processes involved in conveyancing. From a business perspective, each organisation is usually concerned with its own profit margins and processes. In our global market, however, organisations now realise that they can no longer compete successfully on the basis of their internal operational efficiencies alone. They are therefore constantly aware of the need to improve not only their internal processes but also their alignment with other supply chain linkages in an effort to optimise the performance of the whole supply chain. Such alignment, in the conveyancing environment, includes government departments that are generally less willing to adopt business principles, which in turn makes optimisation of the whole supply chain more difficult.
Objectives : The article describes a supply chain perspective of the conveyancing processes in South Africa and reports some of the factors that influence and delay conveyancing transactions. It explores possibilities of collaborative relationships between different role players in the conveyancing supply chain. It aims to show that a supply chain approach, as opposed to a singular organisational approach, can help to reduce process bottlenecks and delays in order to improve overall process efficiency.
Method : The research, on which the findings are based, was exploratory in nature and followed a mixed-methods (quantitative or qualitative) approach and included both structured questionnaires and personal interviews.
Results : The results of the study revealed that many different types of delays occur at various entities across the whole supply chain involved in property transfers. These delays are presented in a table and diagram.
Conclusion : It is recommended that greater adoption of electronic technology across the whole supply chain would improve overall efficiency, eliminate bottlenecks and contribute towards efforts to optimise the conveyancing supply chain in South Africa. In addition, it is also recommended that the South African deeds registry implement an electronic system which would allow for the electronic lodging of property transfers.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.213More Less
Background : In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs) in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.
Objectives : The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.
Method : Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM).
Results : The total interpretive structural modelling-based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to follow environmental norms. This helps in reducing wastage and developing alternate raw materials, which are eco-friendly in nature. Environmental certifications of suppliers help in improving the image of the buyer firm in the business environment and attract more customers.
Conclusion : It is found that FPSs have a positive relationship with supply chain sustainability. In the end, the author highlights implications for supply chain practitioners and researchers.
Determinants of satisfaction with campus transportation services : implications for service quality : original researchSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –14 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.203More Less
Background : In a number of countries, buses are a critical element of public transportation, providing the most inclusive and sustainable mode of transportation to all forms of citizenry, including staff and students of universities.
Objectives : The study examines the determinants of satisfaction with campus bus transportation. The article is primarily discursive and based on the synthesis of existing service literature supported by data obtained from a survey of 847 respondents.
Method : Structural equation modelling is undertaken using AMOS 19, allowing for the examination of compound relationships between service engagement variables.
Results : Results show statistically significant differences between perceived service quality and travel routes. The authors argue that managerial attention to service user experiences does not only hold the key to ongoing competitive success in campus transportation services but also that those services can be significantly enriched through greater managerial attention to the interface between risk of financial loss (which increases when the campus bus transportation service provider becomes less able to compete) and service quality.
Conclusion : The authors argue that if providers of campus bus transportation services are to rise to their service delivery challenges and also maintain or improve upon their market positions, they must conceptualise their services in a manner that takes into consideration the two-way interrelationship between risk of financial loss and service quality. It must also be noted that, although this study may have relevance for firm-firm scenarios, its focus is primarily on service supplier firm-customer service engagements.
The latest 'big thing' for South African companies : enterprise and supplier development - proposing an implementation framework : original researchAuthor R.I. David PooeSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.234More Less
Background : Although enterprise development and supplier development are two distinct concepts in the organisational and management literature, the Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE) legislation refers to the enterprise development and supplier development as a single concept. As a result, many companies have a single policy, strategy and structural arrangements to manage enterprise development and supplier development programs and activities, thereby conflating the two concepts.
Objectives : The aim of this conceptual article was to propose an implementation framework for enterprise and supplier development and to show the rationale of keeping enterprise development and supplier development as two distinct but related activities.
Method : The conceptual article provided an overview of the policy context regarding enterprise development, followed by a discussion on enterprise development and its complexities. The article drew from the literature on supplier development and from the supplier adaptation, relational view, and learning and knowledge perspective theories in the development of its argument.
Results : The article presented an implementation framework for enterprise and supplier development and then concluded with some recommendations and direction for future research.
Conclusion : The implications of this research have great value for organisations as they prepare to implement Enterprise and supplier development (ESD) programmes. The proposed framework will also contribute to a better understanding of the ESD process and the link between enterprise development and supplier development processes.
Supply chain management best practices : a case of humanitarian aid in southern Africa : original researchSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.242More Less
Background : A key contemporary issue in the southern African region is the increased frequency of the number of natural disaster occurrences. Because of the extent of the damage as a result of these disasters, beneficiary needs have to be met to mitigate against consequent hardships and the loss of lives in the affected communities.
Objectives : This article reports on a study that investigated supply chain management best practices that are employed by the United Nations World Food Programme's (UNWFP) when dealing with disasters.
Method : This exploratory study consisted of five in-depth interviews with voluntary participants at the UNWFP regional office in Johannesburg to determine the various initiatives adopted by the UNWFP that ensure successful disaster relief operations. Thematic analyses were used to analyse the collected data.
Results : Based on the themes generated from the in-depth interviews, supply chain best practices were mainly linked to the concepts of agility, responsiveness and flexibility.
Conclusion : The main findings revealed that the strategic planning, implementation and controlling of agile, flexible and responsive supply chain practices can contribute to the success of logistical operations supporting humanitarian efforts in southern Africa.
Prioritising the implementation of practices to overcome operational barriers in reverse logistics : original researchAuthor Amanda BadenhorstSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.240More Less
Background : Reverse logistics is a complex process, and many organisations experience operational barriers that prevent them from successfully managing the process. This study overcomes the gap in research regarding the most important practices that organisations can implement to overcome operational barriers in reverse logistics.
Objectives : The study aims to identify operational barriers preventing the efficient performance of the reverse logistics process, matching them to applicable practices by means of a theoretical framework and prioritising the implementation of appropriate practices with the inputs of practitioners.
Method : The study used a survey method, and data were collected by means of a questionnaire based on a theoretical framework that was sent to organisations that offered reverse logistics as a service or specialised in reverse logistics in South Africa. The study used descriptive statistics to conduct a gap-and-opportunity analysis.
Results : Respondents were asked to indicate the importance of the practices and how difficult they would be to implement. Results showed that all the practices are important to at least a moderate extent but some are more difficult to implement.
Conclusion : The framework developed in this article will enable organisations to identify the operational barriers they experience in reverse logistics and the practices they can implement on a priority basis to overcome these barriers.
Transportation decisions of small businesses in Soweto : balancing responsiveness and efficiency : original researchSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.238More Less
Background : The performance of small businesses makes an important contribution to the South African economy. Although the South African government implemented various initiatives for the development of small businesses in townships, the full advantage of such initiatives has not yet been experienced.
Objectives : To investigate how formal, independent small retail businesses operating in Soweto manage transportation as a logistical supply chain driver to be financially sustainable.
Method : During 2014, a survey was conducted among a sample of 556 formal, independent small retail businesses in Soweto to determine if these retailers focused on responsiveness or cost-efficiency when managing their logistical supply chain driver of transportation.
Results : The results showed that the retailers manage transportation decisions by focusing on either cost-efficiency or responsiveness, depending on the type of transportation decision and the industry in which the retailer operates. In terms of the profile of the older businesses (5 years and older) that showed a growth pattern in income (turnover) over the past year, responsive transportation decisions based on having inventory available (either by direct delivery by suppliers or by using own transportation) was a higher priority than considering cost.
Conclusion : The type of transportation decisions made by the older, growing businesses could serve as an example to younger businesses showing a stagnating or contracting growth pattern.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.228More Less
Background : South Africa has a disproportionately high freight transport demand owing to industrial development far from ports, low domestic beneficiation and improper modal use. Historical freight transport policy supported primary economic development, failing to preempt the changing economic structure and the resulting freight transport needs, resulting in excessive transport costs and externalities.
Objectives : To share the macroeconomic freight transport challenges revealed by South Africa's Logistics Barometer, and to identify key interventions to address these.
Method : Freight flows are modelled by disaggregating the national input-output model into 83 commodity groupings and 372 geographical areas, culminating in a 30-year forecast at 5-year intervals for three scenarios, followed by distance-decay gravity modelling to determine freight flows. Logistics costs are calculated by relating these flows to the costs of fulfilling associated logistic functions.
Results : Long-distance transport remains the largest general freight typology and is, due to inefficient macro logistics design, extremely costly, both in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic costs.
Conclusion : South Africa's freight task will grow 2.5-fold by 2043. Logistics and externality costs are already untenable at current levels. The development of domestic intermodal solutions will support the drive towards sustainable freight mobility.
Challenges faced by small-bus operators in participating in the formal public transport system : original researchSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.227More Less
Background : Small-bus operators (SBOs) in South Africa operate on the periphery of the economic mainstream of scheduled subsidised commuter transport, and little progress has been made in getting these operators into the more formal subsidised industry. There is also a lack of information about the challenges these operators face in participating in the public transport industry.
Objectives of the research : The main objective of the research was to conduct a survey among SBOs to obtain a better understanding of the challenges that they face in participating in the public transport industry.
Method : A telephone survey of operators was undertaken to ensure an adequate response to a structured questionnaire. In analysing the data, we made use of Factor Analysis and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to undertake general statistical analysis.
Results : The main results of the survey indicate that SBOs face significant financial and operational challenges. There is also a perceived lack of government support for SBOs. Major conclusions are that the Department of Transport (DoT) ought to address issues related to the complex governmental reporting and legal requirements for small business. In addition, government ought to be creating 'space' for SBOs in the design of contracts and actively encouraging the formation of consortia's or partnerships, among the SBOs and/or between SBOs and established bus companies. Government, and especially the DoT, ought to more actively market the governments' small-business support systems and procedures together with financial aid schemes to assist SBOs in acquiring or replacing buses.
Fuzzy VIKOR approach for selection of big data analyst in procurement management : original researchSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 10, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.230More Less
Background : Big data and predictive analysis have been hailed as the fourth paradigm of science. Big data and analytics are critical to the future of business sustainability. The demand for data scientists is increasing with the dynamic nature of businesses, thus making it indispensable to manage big data, derive meaningful results and interpret management decisions.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to provide a brief conceptual review of big data and analytics and further illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision-making technique in selecting the right skilled candidate for big data and analytics in procurement management.
Method : It is important for firms to select and recruit the right data analyst, both in terms of skills sets and scope of analysis. The nature of such a problem is complex and multicriteria decision-making, which deals with both qualitative and quantitative factors. In the current study, an application of the Fuzzy VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje (VIKOR) method was used to solve the big data analyst selection problem.
Results : From this study, it was identified that Technical knowledge (C1), Intellectual curiosity (C4) and Business acumen (C5) are the strongest influential criteria and must be present in the candidate for the big data and analytics job.
Conclusion : Fuzzy VIKOR is the perfect technique in this kind of multiple criteria decision-making problematic scenario. This study will assist human resource managers and procurement managers in selecting the right workforce for big data analytics.