Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - latest Issue
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Volume 44, Issue 2, 2016
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp i –iii (2016)More Less
Africa is a large and complicated continent with diverging assessments of its volatility and stability. As a result, development expectations and aspirations do not always align with reality. And the same could be said for peace and security. National goals for security and economic development will remain nothing more than aspirations and expectations unless they are acted upon. Africa’s security and development is further subject to global actors who wield significantly more influence. Finding the balance between ‘means and ends’, is the definition of exercising power within the international system. The contributions brought together in this issue of Scientia Militaria provide a vantage point from which to gain perspective on this quest for power.
Author Ian van der WaagSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp iv –v (2016)More Less
It was with great sadness that we heard of the sudden passing of Professor Jeffrey Grey in Canberra on 26 July 2016. Jeff was a model military historian. He represented the best of our profession and espoused, often stridently, the merits of history as a discipline, its relevance to armed forces as organisations, and as its importance as a pillar in the education of military and naval officers. We were most fortunate to have had Jeff on our editorial board at Scientia Militaria from 2000.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 1 –27 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1174More Less
This article provides a critical assessment from a strategic perspective of the South African military involvement in the Central African Republic that culminated in the Battle of Bangui. The strategic assessment was aimed at an understanding of the South African armed forces and their government’s strategic approach and logic (i.e. strategic ways) through a consideration of, firstly, their strategic objectives and end states and, secondly, a critical reflection on the military means that were available and employed in the Central African Republic. The authors question the logic of South African political and military objectives through an emphasis on the absence of South African interests in the Central African Republic, the failure of the executive to inform parliament, the dubious and blurred intentions of the African National Congress government and the absence of a clear political–military nexus for the operation. The lack of sufficient military capabilities for the deployment was assessed through a consideration of overstretch, obsolescence, neglect and mismanagement of military resources. The article concludes that not only did the government set the military up for failure; it also succeeded in creating the perfect conditions for a strategic fiasco.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 28 –67 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1175More Less
This article uses the example of Russia’s aggressive action against Ukraine as an example of a new form of contemporary war fighting, namely hybrid war, and discusses how Russia has been successful in exploiting vulnerabilities of its opponents. The article reports on the United Kingdom as a case study to discuss potential threats and how these can be countered. While using the United Kingdom as an example, the ramifications of such a hybrid approach also apply to South Africa as a state which is vulnerable in respect to economic warfare, cyberattacks and its energy sector. The suggested counteractions could also be seen as lessons learned for a future South African scenario. It is a further development of a short submission to the Defence Select Committee of the UK House of Commons.
Private military and security companies policy in Africa : regional policy stasis as agency in international politicsAuthor Tshepo T. GwatiwaSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 68 –86 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1176More Less
The purpose of this article is to explain the policy stasis around private security regulation in Africa. Africa is one of the largest theatres of private military and security company operations in the world. Yet, there is still no new regional convention or policy on their regulation. Previous studies focused on Western efforts to formulate regulatory instruments as well as the role of private military and security company activities in Iraq and Afghanistan and previous controversies of Executive Outcomes. This article examines factors that inhibit the continent from moving on from the Organisation of Africa Unity Mercenary Convention of 1977. It broadly argues that the regulatory policy stasis is primarily a question of agency and preferences. The African Union and its member states have pursued two forms of ‘agency slack’—shirking and slippage—in order to favour a legally binding international convention through the United Nations. This position is the sum of historical and incumbent experiences at a regional and international level, most of which are outside the control of regional institutions. Thus, the African Union and its member states have used shirking tactics to minimize participation in non-United Nations initiatives. They also used slippage tactics to justify exemption from such initiatives while stating their understanding of private military and security companies. These two tactics summarily shield African regional preferences in a world where the region has relatively lower power in international politics.
The Springboks in East Africa : the role of 1 SA survey company (SAEC) in the East African campaign of World War II, 1940–1941Author Elri LiebenbergSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 87 –112 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1177More Less
As a member of the British Commonwealth, South Africa was part of Britain’s war effort from September 1939 onward. When Italy entered the War on the side of Germany on 10 June 1940, the territories governed by Italy in East Africa comprised Abyssinia together with Eritrea, now part of Ethiopia, and Italian Somaliland, now part of the Somali Democratic Republic. Although pre-war plans did not anticipate that the South African (SA) Army would fight outside southern Africa, Italy’s involvement in northeast Africa made it inevitable that SA troops would be deployed to the new war front.
The SA forces (nicknamed ‘Springboks’ in the media) played a major role in the demise of Mussolini’s East African Empire. The war was fought under extreme physical conditions, and it was especially the SAEC (South African Engineering Corps) who rendered invaluable service. By 1940 East Africa was still largely unmapped, and one of the SAEC units, 1 SA Survey Company (initially named the 1st Field Survey Company), supported by 60 Photographic Squadron of the SA Air Force (SAAF), mapped large parts of the war zone and provided essential military intelligence.
Although the role the SAEC as a whole played in the East African Campaign has received attention in publications on South Africa’s involvement in World War II, little attention has been paid to the essential cartographical services rendered by 1 SA Survey Company. This article deals with the formation and subsequent successful deployment of 1 SA Survey Company in Kenya, and the former Abyssinia and Somaliland, and the maps it produced for strategic and combat purposes. Attention is given to the operational structure of the Company, the mapping policy decisions the Company had to adhere to, the way the company sections operated in the field, the prevailing conditions under which the men worked, and the types of map that were produced.
Author Ioannis-Dionysios SalavrakosSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 113 –145 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1178More Less
The German armaments production during World War II (1939-1945) is a highly debatable issue. Many studies point out that it was a success story since the overall production increased in spite of the heavy Allied air bombing campaign during the period 1943-1945. Others point out that the size of the production could not balance the aggregate production of Britain, USA, and the USSR. This study points out that by the end of 1941 with the entry of the USSR and the US in the war Germany had to plan for two different types of war. One was a land war against the USSR and the second was a naval-air war against the Anglo-Saxon Powers (Britain and the USA). German industry did quite well with the first challenge (with the assistance of captured material and industrial power of occupied Europe) but failed in the naval-air war against the Anglo-Saxon Powers.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 146 –162 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1179More Less
Defence industrial participation (DIP) is a form of countertrade and falls in the sub-category of (defence) offsets. The South African DIP programme played a developmental role in the country’s defence industrial base (DIB), arresting its steady decline since the 1980s. This article discusses the perceived non-achievement of the 1997 DIP objectives and the reality of its manifestations over a 12-year period (2000–2012). It is argued that the DIP tripled the gross national product and improved the economy through the retention of some 58 000 jobs. However, the 2014 Defence Review paves the way for a new defence industrial dispensation. Notwithstanding, there is a need to explore the concomitant ambiguity that exists between perceptions of countertrade and offsets as trade-distorting practices and as value-adding prospects, and to ascertain how this reciprocal trade mechanism could be used better to promote the developmental aims and objectives of governments.
Author McGill AlexanderSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 163 –172 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1180More Less
This book is a welcome addition to the growing body of literature on the conflict increasingly referred to as the ‘Southern Africa Thirty-Year War’. That armed conflict extended from the Mpondo Rebellion, which started in 1960 and the uprisings in northern Angola in 1961, to the final whimpers of township unrest in South Africa in the early 1990s. It included the protracted insurgencies of the former Portuguese territories of Angola and Mozambique, the brutal Rhodesian ‘Bush War’ for Zimbabwean liberation, the foreign involvement in the Angolan civil war, the fight for the independence of Namibia and the ‘Struggle’ in South Africa.
Mobility Conquers: The Story of 61 Mechanised Battalion Group 1978–2005, Willem Steenkamp and Helmoed-Römer HeitmanAuthor David KatzSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 173 –177 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1181More Less
The authors have produced a handsome book of encyclopaedic dimensions matched with an equally large price tag. Its sheer weight presents a physical challenge when reading and it may have been wiser rather to present the work in two or three more manageable volumes. The narrative takes the form of a chronicle. Steenkamp and Heitman deftly build the text around the personal accounts of the officers and men who served in the South African Defence Force’s (SADF) 61 Mechanised Battalion Group during the Border War and after that, with the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) for a decade into the new democratic South Africa. In constructing the narrative, they place more emphasis on personal accounts than on primary archival material, but the extent is difficult to gauge as the book lacks a comprehensive bibliography or referencing system.
Author Adelai van HeerdenSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 44, pp 178 –187 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1182More Less
The African life philosophy of ubuntu is about two aspects ubu and ntu, and constitutes a wholeness and oneness (Ramose, 2002). Modern psychology has until very recently entailed oneness with its Western ideas and approaches (Sinha, 1986). In South Africa, psychologists’ interventions often lack “the necessary broader contextual focus needed to address social problems” (wholeness). The challenge posed to African psychologists has been to work proactively towards combining theory building and practical knowledge application within the indigenous African context. Only through the exploration of contextually relevant research, can there be influence. This book fills a long-awaited void in South African and African military psychology in its contextual contribution, both in terms of theory and practice under the guidance of Professor Van Dyk. Prof. Van Dyk has, for many decades, dedicated his time and his research findings towards making a contribution to knowledge building within the South African Military Psychology community. Twenty-two years into democracy, this book Military psychology for Africa brings ‘wholeness’ for African soldiers, their families, psychological scientists, university scholars and practitioners.