Journal for New Generation Sciences - latest Issue
Volume 13, Issue 3, 2015
Author E.M. BitzerSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 1 –16 (2015)More Less
Earlier research on doctoral education had pointed to different conceptions of doctoral research education and scholarship. In particular, the 'journey' narrative, whereby doctoral studies are typically described as articulated research journeys and point to existential issues and dilemmas in the formation of research identities, proved to be useful. Research into processes that assist doctoral candidates to change from a position of dependency to independency also provides a useful way to explore research education.However, such researcher autonomy frameworks typically draw on the commonality of research learning journeys as well as notions of symbolic control and identity change. While the conceptions of research journeys and research autonomy represents a continuum of researcher development, such conceptions also have their limitations.
A possible richer narrative may be needed to describe the doctoral research education process and take account of the fundamental nature of the doctorate. This would include its complexity, the uncertainty involved, the extent to which research addresses the unknown, the roles of multiple actors and the emotions often accompanying the research experience. With less rich narratives candidates and supervisors often recognise that research is mostly a non-linear process and sometimes accompanied by uncertainty, isolation and motivational challenges.
The article addresses the metaphoric narrative of the 'quest' as it relates to doctoral research education to enrich the well-known 'journey' narrative in promoting research independence. The 'quest' narrative offers a nuanced account which includes at least six metaphoric elements: the desired object, the lengthy journey, the hero, several tests, the guardians and the helpers. Hereby 'quest' as metaphor offers a vehicle for a better understanding of the doctoral research education process - not only to doctoral candidates, but also to their supervisors. In addition, it implies a potentially useful thinking frame for facilitating development programmes for doctoral research candidates.
The effect of prior knowledge and academic performance on success in first-year university accountingAuthor W.S. BosuaSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 17 –33 (2015)More Less
It has become common practice in South African universities not to require students to have completed accounting at secondary school level as a prerequisite to enrollment for a diploma or degree in accounting and/or business. The primary objective of this study is an analysis of the effect of a prior knowledge of accounting at secondary school level on the success rate of first-year accounting students. The study also analyses whether academic performance in accounting and mathematics at secondary school is a success factor in first-year accounting and the influence on having mathematical literacy as a subject at secondary school level on the success rate of first year accounting students.
Source: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 34 –48 (2015)More Less
Although the familiarity of technology in general among academics may not be a problem, research has shown that many course instructors are still lagging behind on the uptake of the new technologies, e.g. eLearning platforms for curriculum delivery. This paper aims at investigating the factors that are affecting the uptake of eLearning platforms by course instructors at tertiary level. The paper answers the question: "Why aren't eLearning platforms used more by instructors for curriculum delivery at tertiary level?" A qualitative research approach was employed whereby conversations with purposively selected academics were the data collection technique. Analysis shows that the uptake of the eLearning platforms by course instructors is affected by their level of confidence to use the technologies for teaching and learning. The confidence here is a combination of computer self-efficacy and teacher efficacy. The study can contribute to a better understanding of determining constructs of lecturers' uptake of new technologies.
Source: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 49 –63 (2015)More Less
This paper presents the work on the development of software for an Android based mobile device. The goal being not only for a working application, but also to optimise the development process to ensure a user friendly application. Android is an ideal platform for connecting man and machine in a fast moving production environment. With its current popularity and market share it allows engineers to easily create flexible software applications to monitor and control industrial processes and machines. This software if not properly designed can lead to stability and maintenance problems. The experience gained from developing, maintaining and improving a mobile application for monitoring production faults, results in the improved response between man and machine. Further on it will be shown how the application can be used for data capturing purposes, thereby simplifying the data capturing process.
A programmable logic controller based laboratory analysis of conventional and intelligent control schemes for non-liner systemsSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 64 –86 (2015)More Less
Intelligent Neural Network (NN) based control schemes have surmounted many of the limitations found in the conventional control approaches such as Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control. Nevertheless, these modern control techniques have only recently been introduced for use on industrial computational platforms such as the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Intelligent control on PLCs thus remains an area that is open to further research and development. In this paper, a strongly non-linear mechatronic type system, namely the Ball-on-Wheel balancing system, is developed using a PLC as its control platform. The research details the implementation of an intelligent controller on a standard, medium specification PLC. The results from the intelligent controller are then compared to those produced by a variety of conventional controllers as physical parameters are varied. Finally, the system is presented as a stimulating educational tool that addresses the knowledge gap that exists in industry pertaining to the implementation of these intelligent control algorithms on PLCs.
Source: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 87 –100 (2015)More Less
The goal of this study was to research the hypothesis that self-regulated learning (SRL) predicts academic performance in second-year Economics studies. In the theoretical underpinning, self-regulated learning as related to academic performance was explored. Data was analysed using descriptive, correlation analysis and hierarchical regression. A correlation matrix and hierarchical regression revealed a relationship between different aspects of SRL and academic performance. In conclusion, the study recommends that teaching and assessment methods should be used to empower students to apply self-regulated learning strategies. This could greatly enhance their academic performance.
An analysis of the evolving role of information technology with respect to selected standard and its impact on internal auditSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 101 –119 (2015)More Less
Modern organizations are increasingly dependent on information technology (IT) for various reasons: to enhance their operational efficiency, reduce costs or even attain a competitive advantage. The role of information technology in the organization continues to evolve and this has an impact on the internal audit functions that serve these organizations.
This study investigated whether the King III report, Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) standards and Institute of Internal Audit (IIA)standards assist the internal audit function in addressing the impact of information technology on the organization and, as a result, the internal audit function itself. This was performed by way of a literature study on the internal audit function and the selected standards and corporate governance framework, the role of information technology in both the organization and the internal audit function, as well as an empirical study detailing a comparative analysis of the King III report, ISACA standards and IIA standards, utilizing keysuccess factors.
The study identified an alignment of the key principles and elements identified in the King III report, ISACA standards and IIA standards, as well as support for IT-related reviews. The comparative analysis performed resulted in the formulation of key internal audit success factors, which compared favourably to those identified in the literature review. The study indicated that the King III report, ISACA standards and IIA standards assisted the internal audit function by addressing IT-related risks, controls and governance elements.
Author H.D. MasonSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 120 –134 (2015)More Less
In addition to assisting students in addressing stressful challenges, psychologists who work as student counsellors are also expected to focus on the development of strengths and potential. This implies, amongst others, to explore empirically students' conceptions of happiness. This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated the concept of happiness, with specific reference to subjective and eudaimonic well-being, among a sample of university students. Quantitative results substantiated findings reported in the international literature. Qualitative analysis suggested that the participants regarded happiness as the absence of life stressors that are related to life circumstances. An integration of the data indicated that the university experience is intimately related to the pursuit and realisation of eudaimonic goals, which could result in collective subjective well-being. It is argued that student counsellors could play an important role in enhancing eudaimonic well-being.
Source: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 135 –148 (2015)More Less
Fabric defect detection methods have been broadly classified into three categories; statistical methods, spectral methods and model-based methods. The performance of each method relies on the discriminative ability of texture features it uses. Each of the three categories has its own advantages and disadvantages and some researchers have recommended their combination for improved performance.
In this paper, we compare the performance of three fabric defect detection methods, one from each of the three categories. The three methods are based on the grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), the undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) and the Gaussian Markov Random field models (GMRF) respectively from the statistical, spectral and model-based categories. The tests were done using the textile images from the TILDA dataset. To ensure classifier independence on the outcome of the comparison, the Euclidean distance and feed forward neural network classifiers were used for defect detection using the features obtained from each of the three methods. The results show that GLCM features allowed better defect detection than wavelet features and that wavelet features allowed better detection than GMRF features.
Source: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 149 –162 (2015)More Less
In this paper we apply Bayes factors to grouped data. Group testing is where units are pooled together and tested as a group rather than individually. The Bayes factor is the ratio of the posterior probabilities of the null and the alternative hypotheses divided by the ratio of the prior probabilities for the null and the alternative hypotheses. A beta prior will be used, also known as a conjugate prior for the binomial distribution. An application to mosquito data will be considered, where a comparison is made between West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalences in field collected Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes trapped at different heights.
Community based tourism and pro-poor tourism : dissimilar positioning in relation to community developmentSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 163 –181 (2015)More Less
This paper proposes community-based tourism (CBT) as an alternative to conventional and pro-poor tourism (PPT) as a means to alleviate poverty and facilitating the development of disadvantaged (poor) community members. The substantial differences between CBT and PPT are examined. The CBT is an alternative to mass tourism and is controlled by disadvantaged community members in order to benefit from a social justice approach to tourism that is characterised by redistributive aims. The PPT, on the other hand, originated in and is sustained by the neoliberal system, thereby precluding change to the status quo.
Service learning based environmental health promotion activities for pharmacy students : educating young on the safe disposal of medicines and used sharpsSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 182 –196 (2015)More Less
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a service-learning based environmental health promotion exhibit in raising awareness of safe disposal of medicines and used sharps during the 2014 National Science Festival in South Africa. The study design utilised a computer-based quiz, an information poster, an interactive model and a take-home information leaflet on the safe disposal of medicines and used sharps which were developed by students and staff in the faculty of pharmacy at Rhodes University. Predominantly school students attended the exhibit and took part in a quiz. 413 participants took part in the environmental health promotion activity, with 91% of the participating learners attending schools in the Eastern Cape Province. significant improvement (p< 0.001). Moreover, the results show significant gender differences for both the pre- and post-intervention mean scores. The environmental health promotion project was successful in raising awareness of the safe and appropriate disposal of medicines and used sharps by highlighting the dangers associated with their incorrect disposal, both to the environment and eventually to humans. Similar continuous health promotion activities are essential for sustainable effectiveness in the transformation of individual and communal actions in South Africa for the safe disposal of medicines and used sharps.
Author G.M. SteynSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 197 –213 (2015)More Less
This study explored the developmental level of a professional learning community (PLC) in which the primary school studied operated. A quantitative research design determined the views of staff members regarding the nature of a PLC in the school. The study used the five characteristics of the Professional Learning Community Assessment instrument to determine how these characteristics were realised in the school: (1) leadership; (2) a shared vision and values; (3) collective learning; (4) shared personal practice; and (5) supportive conditions. It was evident from the results that the school showed considerable growth and that the PLC had advanced to the intermediate developmental level.
Google search by image : a system evaluation of adjusted images for the detection of visual plagiarismSource: Journal for New Generation Sciences 13, pp 214 –231 (2015)More Less
This paper investigates the precision of Google's Search by Image (SBI) system which lecturers can use to establish a workflow that will combat visual plagiarism in photography programmes. Currently no efficacious visual plagiarism detection method exists for implementation by photography lecturers. Content-based image retrieval systems like Google SBI have not yet been tested systemically for the detection of visual plagiarism. Using the Precision method to calculate the accuracy of the system, 300 images were randomly sampled through Google Images and altered with different adjustments. The images were uploaded to Google SBI and the results indicated a system of high quality.