A total of 26 species of nacophorine geometrids mostly from southern Africa referable to the genera Pachycnemoides Krüger, 1999, Argyrophora Guenée, , Microligia Warren, 1899, Pseudomaenas Prout, 1938 and Drepanogynis Guenée,  are described as new (Pachycnemoides simplex spec. nov., P. crambometroides spec. nov., P. basilinea spec. nov., P. mimela spec. nov., Argyrophora nyikensis spec. nov., Microligia montiskeniae spec. nov., Pseudomaenas inornata spec. nov., P. immunda spec. nov., P. parilis spec. nov., P. natalensis spec. nov., P. immundoides spec. nov., P. dispar spec. nov., P. balli spec. nov., P. nigrosema spec. nov., P. euglyphica spec. nov., Drepanogynis insolens spec. nov., D. inspersa spec. nov., D. lignitea spec. nov., D. asteiochlora spec. nov., D. legraini spec. nov., D. sympatrica spec. nov., D. calotaenia spec. nov., D. gitteae spec. nov., D. camdeboo spec. nov., D. leucoloma spec. nov., and D. ochrocraspeda spec.nov.). The adult moths and genitalia of both sexes, where known, are illustrated, and the available information on phenology, habitat association and distribution presented. The early stages of all the new species remain unknown. A neotype is designated for Ligia curvaria Dewitz, 1881 and the species is redescribed.
An overview is provided of the processing of hides in southern Africa as reflected in ethnographies and other written sources. Although some of these techniques may still be in use today, the wave of modernization in recent times likely led to the loss or disuse of many processes, knowledge and utensils.The processing of hides consists mainly of three steps : dehairing, scraping and tanning. A variety of methods have been used to process hides, which was in part determined by the availability of particular plants and trees. Both men and women were often involved in the processing of hides. While hides were usually processed by their owner, some groups such as the Zulu employed specialists, and others processed skins as part of a communal activity.
Mankhamba is a proto-historic archaeological site of the Chewa / Maravi people from Malawi. The site yielded the largest faunal sample to date of any site excavated in that country. The animal remains reflect that hunting was the predominant source of animal protein, but that a reasonable portion of the meat was derived also from herded animals. The lacustrine resources were utilized and numerous remains of turtles were recovered. Fish remains were also present, but have not yet been analysed. Cattle, sheep, goats and domestic dogs were identified together with some remains of domestic pig. The faunal remains support much of the known ethnographic information of the area and valuable insight has been gained on the economic and subsistence activities of the Chewa / Maravi people during this period. It is clear from the faunal samples that Mankhamba was an important link in the ivory trade. Marine shells from the African east coast and imported goods from outside Africa attest to the trade relations.
Postcranial bones of Parapapio are rare in South African Plio-Pleistocene cave assemblages, and data regarding the locomotion and behaviour of this extinct papionin are scarce. Fossils of Parapapio have been discovered at Waypoint 160 on Bolt's Farm, which is the oldest site in the Cradle of Humankind, with an age of between 4.5 to 4 million years ago. New material supplements information relating to the postcrania of Parapapio sp. from Bolt's Farm. It was a heavily built primate which was terrestrial or at least semi-terrestrial. The associated microfauna at Waypoint 160 suggests an open environment that was drier than that of today.
Two new South African species of the genus Pachydesus Motschulsky, 1864, P. rafaelae spec. nov. and P. bulirschi spec. nov., are described. Both species belong to the P. bohemani species group and are closely related to P. raffrayi (Jeannel, 1930). The distribution range of P. rafaelae reaches the southeastern part of Namibia, thus representing the first record of the genus Pachydesus from that country.
The genera and species, Idioschema karruense Arrow, 1914 and Syrictoides tarsalis Endrödi, 1977 are synonymized with Callistemonus intrusus Péringuey, 1901. A lectotype is designated for Callistemonus intrusus Péringuey, 1901. The species is redescribed (including the first details of how the sexes differ) and all available distribution data (11 localities) are mapped for a species known only from 21 specimens. Comments on the tribal classification of Callistemonus are made and its current placement within the Pentodontini maintained pending a phylogenetic analysis of the African dynastine tribes and genera.
A new genus of tracheline sac spiders (Araneae: Corinnidae) is described from West and Central Africa. Planochelas gen. nov. is described from three new species, P. botulus spec. nov. (type species), P. dentatus spec. nov. and P. purpureus spec. nov. (provisional placement). The genus was predominantly collected by canopy fogging in tropical forests and is possibly exclusively arboreal, with the exception of P. purpureus spec. nov., which is ground-dwelling.
The new genus and species, Afrogehringia endroedyi, is described from the shore of a salt lake in southwestern Africa. The new genus differs from the other known gehringiine genera Gehringia Darlington and Helenaea Schatzmayr & Koch mainly in the tarsal formula, namely a four-segmented protarsus and mesotarsus and five-segmented metatarsus. Many synapomorphic character states, however, demonstrate the close relationship of Afrogehringia with Helenaea which together form the adelphotaxon (subtribe Helenaeina Deuve, 2007) of the genus Gehringia (subtribe Gehringiina s.str.). In its ecology the new species is very similar to Helenaea torretassoa Schatzmayr & Koch, which is also known to occur in saline habitats, whereas H. bisignata Baehr probably lives in sand in slow-flowing lowland rivers, H. felixi Deuve was collected at light in farmland, and the North American Gehringia olympica Darlington lives in gravel in cold mountain streams. A key to all recorded species of Gehringiini is provided.
Ades uhligorum spec. nov. is described from South Africa. This is the first record of the tribe Leiochrinini (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Diaperinae) from the country. The aedeagi of all species of Ades Guérin-Méneville, 1857 (syn. Leiochrodes Westwood, 1883) from Africa and Madagascar are figured. The new species seems to be rare but widespread in South Africa, type specimens were collected either in 'wetland' or were sifted from under Phragmites.
There are two primary sources for type specimen information, namely the specimen (with its labels, and any museum type catalogues and databases) and secondly the original type description with subsequent literature about the type description. It is important to check thoroughly all these sources of information when cataloguing type specimens.
Villet (1994) described the monotypic genus and species, Stagea platyptera, from a single male deposited in the Albany Museum bearing the following label data : 'Natal, Luneberg [sic], iv.1913, W. Oom, 1846'. At that time, Mr Oom was the headmaster of the primary school which served the German-speaking community in the Lüneburg area, and 1846 is a presumed reference number. Since 1913 no additional specimens had been collected and consequently RDS conducted field work in the area to locate an extant population of S. platyptera.
The genus Cistugo Thomas, 1912, which was previously synonymized with Myotis Kaup, 1829 (Ellerman and Morrison-Scott, 1951; Hayman and Hill, 1971; Koopman, 1993, 1994), has once again been recognized as a valid genus (Simmons, 2005), separated from Myotis on the basis of diploid (2n = 50) and fundamental chromosome number (Rautenbach et al., 1993), and mitochondrial DNA gene (cytochrome b) (Stadelmann et al., 2004). The position of the first two upper premolars was not mentioned by Thomas in the original descriptions of the genus Cistugo or C. seabrae (Thomas, 1912); however, Roberts' (1919: 113) description of C. lesueuri mentions that the "inner anterior cusp of P4 is in line between the same cusps of P3 and M1".
Fossilized remains of lions (Panthera leo) have been recovered from the South African Plio-Pleistocene cave sites of Sterkfontein (Turner, 1987,1997), Kromdraai (Broom, 1939, 1948; Ewer, 1956), Swartkrans (Brain, 1981; Watson, 1993), Gladysvale (Lacruz et al., 2002), Cooper's Cave (Berger et al., 2003; de Ruiter et al.; 2009), and possibly from Bolt's Farm (Broom, 1948) and the much younger site of Plovers Lake (de Ruiter et al., 2008).