According to oral information collected by state ethnologist Paul-Lenert Breutz in the 1950s, the Hurutshe intermittently resided in a 'twin' capital, Tswenyane Kaditshwene, in the Marico in precolonial times. While the location of the Kaditshwene Hill ruins has since been verified archaeologically, the whereabouts of the Tswenyane complex have thus far eluded researchers. A combined analysis of oral-historical, toponymic, documentary, survey and mapping data reveals that two Hurutshe chiefdoms conjoined towards the end of the eighteenth century to form an expanded capital complex. Mounting regional insecurity impelled the senior Hurutshe branch, the Bahurutshe booMenwe, to relocate their capital from Mmakgame to the more defensible Kaditshwene Hill, close to the capital of the Bahurutshe booMokgatlha, which straddled the foothills of Tswenyane Mountain. The increased military stress emanated from internecine conflicts with the Rolong, Ngwaketse, western Kwena, Lete and the Bakgatla ba Mmanaana. During the chieftaincy of Senosi, the capital of the Bahurutshe booMokgatlha branch became subsumed under the Greater Kaditshwene complex as a southern district or zone. It is most likely this aggregated stonewalled settlement that spawned the tradition of the 'dual' capital.
Recent zooarchaeological and aDNA analysis have produced conflicting evidence for the existence of early domestic stock at Blydefontein Rock Shelter. The anatomical analysis identified eight specimens as sheep or sheep/goats, the oldest of which was dated to 2860-2765 BP, while the aDNA results suggest that the oldest identified sheep specimen was either greater kudu or eland. Almost all of the other aDNA identifications conflicted with the anatomical assessments. The faunal and aDNA analyses are presented in separate papers in this journal. This paper provides background information on the site of Blydefontein, and frames the discussion in terms of the reliability and validity of the anatomical and aDNA evidence.