SA Journal of Industrial Psychology - latest Issue
Volumes & issues
Volume 42, Issue 1, 2016
Source: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –2 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1414More Less
The 2016 edition, volume 42, issue 1, of the South African Journal of Industrial Psychology (SAJIP) highlights a number of important contributions to the science and practice of industrial and organisational (I/O) psychology. I/O psychology denotes the appropriate and realistic use of scientifically grounded research methods (quantitative, qualitative, blended or multiple) in the critical inquiry of psychosocial behavioural phenomena that influence organisational success and performance; leader, employee and group effectiveness and adaptability; and the well-being of people in the organisation. Manuscript contributions are therefore screened and reviewed in terms of their scholarly standard and new knowledge production through the rigorous application of appropriate scientific research methods. If the latter are lacking, submissions are often declined because manuscripts do not comply with these SAJIP requirements. In 2016, the SAJIP witnessed 37 desk rejections and reviewed manuscript submission declines.
Indian husbands’ support of their wives’ upward mobility in corporate South Africa : wives’ perspectivesSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1354More Less
Orientation: Spousal support is a crucial area to explore, particularly due to the increased prevalence of dual-career couples in South Africa and the dynamics facing them.
Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to explore Indian wives’ perceptions regarding the support they receive from their husbands and the impact that such support has on their career progression.
Motivation for the study: The limited qualitative research available globally on the subject and the dearth of research that focuses on Indian professional females in the South African context motivated the study.
Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research approach was followed, and the data were collected through in-depth, life-story interviews. Purposeful and snowball sampling methods yielded a sample of nine Indian female managers who were in dual-career marriages.
Main findings: Spouses are essential sources of support for Indian professional women. The findings revealed that there are various marital and socio-cultural dynamics that impact on the spousal support received by these women, which ultimately influences their career advancement.
Practical/managerial implications: The findings provided valuable information regarding the marital challenges that Indian women face in their career progression. The awareness of such dynamics can assist management in devising strategies to accommodate and retain the unique talent that Indian women have to offer.
Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the evolving body of knowledge on dualcareer couples by focusing on an under-researched, but essential aspect of the dual-career arrangement.
Author Rene van WykSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1337More Less
Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions.
Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.
Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.
Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1) psychological recurrent positive state, (2) social connectedness and (3) physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively.
Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions.
Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences.
Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory. Application of this Positive Emotional Experiences Scale as a diagnostic tool may allow businesses to work towards more positive emotional experiences in the workplace.
Source: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1359More Less
Orientation: This paper represents a broader study which explores how South African women business leaders construct power in their life and leadership narratives. The research was approached with a feminist paradigm in its review of constructions of power and their potential for transformation of patriarchal power dynamics.
Research purpose: The purpose was to critically analyse emerging models of power among South African women business leaders to include their perspectives in the process of theory building.
Motivation for the study: Women in senior leadership positions are not necessarily enabling the transformation of organisations to include greater representation of women at senior levels. A critical understanding of women’s models of power may highlight unconscious processes contributing to this as well as emerging models that can facilitate change.
Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research was conducted within a feminist social constructionist framework, using the method of discourse analysis of narrative texts to identify emerging models of power. The 10 women in the study included executives within corporations across a range of industry sectors in South Africa.
Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide approaches to gender transformation efforts in organisations and raise women leaders’ awareness of their conscious and unconscious impact on gender empowerment.
Contribution/value-add: A novel contribution of this study is the emerging transformative model of power and the tensions women experience in asserting this power.
Conceptualising the professional identity of industrial or organisational psychologists within the South African contextSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1379More Less
Orientation: Lack in congruence amongst industrial and organisational psychologists (IOPs) as to the conceptualisation of its profession poses a significant risk as to the relevance, longevity and professional identity of the profession within the South African context.
Research purpose: This study aimed to explore the professional identity of IOPs within the South African context. Specifically, the aim of this study was four-fold: (1) to develop a contemporary definition for IOP, (2) to investigate IOP roles, (3) to determine how the profession should be labelled and (4) to differentiate IOP from human resource management (HRM) from IOPs’ perspectives within South Africa.
Motivation for the study: IOPs do not enjoy the same benefits in stature or status as other professions such as medicine, finances and engineering in the world of work. IOPs need to justify its relevance within organisational contexts as a globally shared understanding of ‘what it is’, ‘what it does’ and ‘what makes it different from other professions’, which is non-existent. In order to enhance its perceived relevance, clarity as to IOPs professional identity is needed.
Research design, approach and method: A post-positivistic qualitative content analytic and descriptive research design was employed in this study. Data from practising industrial and organisational psychology (IOP) within South Africa (N = 151) were gathered through an electronic web-based survey and were analysed through thematic content analysis.
Main findings: The results indicate that IOP in South Africa seeks to optimise the potential of individuals, groups, organisations and the community by implementing scientific processes to support both individual and organisational wellness and sustainability. ‘Work Psychology’ was considered a more fitting professional designation or label than industrial and/or organisational psychology. The industrial psychologist’s major roles related to the well-being and development of employees. A clear distinction between a more dynamic, pro-active approach of IOP compared to a more transactional approach of HRM was also evident. IOP within South Africa appears to have a community development function.
Practical/managerial implications: The longevity, relevance and impact of IOP as a profession requires alignment amongst practitioners as to shared common professional identity.
Contribution/value-add: This study provides a contemporary understanding of the roles, functions, labels and unique value proposition of industrial and organisational psychology within the South African context.
Best practice guidelines for the use of the assessment centre method in South Africa (5th edition) : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –15 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1298More Less
Orientation: Assessment Centres (ACs) have a long and successful track record in South Africa when used for selection and development purposes. The popularity of the approach is mainly attributable to the ACs' numerous strengths, which include the perceived fairness, practical utility and strong associations with on-the-job performance. To maintain the integrity of the AC, it is important for practitioners and decision makers to apply the method in a consistent and standardised manner.
Research purpose: The purpose of the report is to provide practitioners and decision makers with practical guidelines and concrete procedures when using ACs as part of the organisation's human resource management strategy.
Motivation for the study: The past decade has seen significant advances in the science and practice of ACs. Now in its fifth edition, the revised Guidelines seek to provide important information to practitioners and decision makers on a number of factors when used in conjunction with the AC method, namely, technology, validation, legislation, ethics and culture.
Main findings: The Guidelines provide specific suggestions and recommendations for using technology as part of the manner of delivery. Issues of culture, diversity and representation are also discussed. New features of the Guidelines include more concrete guidance on how to conduct a validation study as well as unpacking several ethical dilemmas that practitioners may encounter. Of critical importance is a position statement on the use of ACs in relation to new legislation (Employment Equity Amendment Act, Section 8, clause d) pertaining to psychometric testing.
Practical/managerial implications: The Guidelines serve as a benchmark of best practice for practitioners and decision makers who intend on, or are currently, using ACs in their organisations.
Contribution/value-add: In the absence of formal standards governing the use of ACs in South Africa, the Guidelines provide an important step towards establishing standardisation in the use of the AC method. The Guidelines provide (1) guidance to industrial and organisational psychologists, organisational consultants, human resource management specialists, generalists and the Department of Labour, and others designing and conducting ACs; (2) information to managers deciding whether to introduce AC methods; (3) instructions to assessors taking part in the AC; (4) guidance on the use of technology and navigating diverse cultural contexts; and (5) a reference for professionals on best practice considerations in the use of the AC method.
Positives and negatives : reconceptualising gender attributes within the context of the sex role identity and well-being literature : an examination within the South African context : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1309More Less
Orientation: There is a lack of research examining both positive and negative sex-based traits and sex role identities. Previous research has predominantly focused on positive sex role identities and their relationship to various outcome variables. Findings for such research have not always been consistent. It has been argued that research that only examines positive identities is methodologically flawed and that the inconsistent findings in such research may be attributable to the fact that the research conducted has not examined the extent to which individuals may have adopted negative sex role identities.
Motivation for the study: With few exceptions, sex role identity (SRI) has been measured exclusively in terms of positive characteristics only. There is a dearth of research investigating both positive and negative sex role identities, particularly within the South African context.
Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to explore the extent to which individuals adopt both positive and negative sex-based traits and sex role identities. A theoretical argument is made for examining positive and negative gender attributes followed by a discussion of seven empirical studies, which demonstrate that significant proportions of samples are adopting negative sex role identities.
Research design, approach and method: This research was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a convenience sampling method across seven different samples. A total of 3462 employees participated in this research. A revised version of the Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire (EPAQ-R) and a demographic survey were used to collect the data.
Main findings: Across all seven samples, a significant proportion of the respondents adopted negative sex role identities. These findings suggest that there is a need to measure both positive and negative identities in research on SRI. The proportion of respondents across the seven samples that adopted negative identities ranged from 44% to 49% whilst 46% to 54% indicated the adoption of positive identities.
Practical/managerial implications: This research is important as it highlights that investigations of SRI must assess both positive and negative sex role identities. Negative SRIs may have implications for critical individual and organisational outcomes. Furthermore, measures that assess both positive and negative identities may have implications for organisational processes, such as recruitment, selection and training, learning and development.
Contribution/value-add: The findings of this research contribute to the South African body of literature investigating sex role identities. The present study's finding of a high proportion of individuals endorsing negative identities has implications for future research. Future research needs to explore the relationship between both positive and negative identities and a wide variety of individual and organisational well-being indicators.
Antecedents of perceived graduate employability : a study of student volunteers in a community-based organisation : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1315More Less
Orientation: There is growing interest in understanding the factors that contribute to graduates' employability, but limited local knowledge. International research has pointed at volunteering as one avenue for enhancing employability, and this study presents results that looked at volunteering in the context of employability in a South African sample.
Research purpose: This study aimed at investigating motivations to volunteer, perceived graduate competencies, extent of participating in volunteering, along with gender and faculty of registration, as antecedents of perceived graduate employability among student volunteers and to compare the relative contributions of these antecedences in predicting perceived employability.
Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional research design and a quantitative data collection method were used. The relative weights analysis was conducted to answer the research question.
Main findings: Overall, the results demonstrated, firstly, that different sets of predictors statistically significantly predict Perceived External Employability and Perceived Internal Employability, respectively. In the case of Perceived External Employability, a biographical predictor (faculty of registration) is the strongest predictor, whereas in the case of Internal Employability, a questionnaire measurement (of Social Motivation) comes out on top.
Practical implications/managerial implications: The social motivation factor as a predictor of perceived internal employability suggests that the more students valued the social interactions brought about by their volunteering activities, the better they saw themselves equipped for employment. This gives some weight to the argument that engaging in volunteer activities can help equip students with competencies that make them more prepared for the world of work.
Contribution/value-add: The study provided support for the construct validity of the scale for the measurement of perceived employability and evidence that different sets of predictors contribute to perceived internal and external employability.
The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1326More Less
Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context.
Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) within the South African context.
Motivation for the study: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa.
Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490) was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity) and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity.
Main findings: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work underload to either work engagement or organisational commitment. Instead, bootstrapping showed that there was an indirect-only relationship from work underload to work engagement and organisational commitment through workplace boredom - indicating full mediation.
Practical/managerial implications: Management should not neglect workplace boredom, as results indicate that it may adversely impact work engagement and organisational commitment. Therefore, workplace boredom should be a concern not only for individuals, but also for the organisation at large.
Contribution/value-add:This study contributes to the limited research available on workplace boredom in South Africa by providing evidence of acceptable psychometric properties for a workplace boredom scale.
The relevance of the psychometrist category as a professional resource : training-related issues : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1307More Less
Orientation: The professional status of psychometrists places them in a position where they can provide a specialist function independently and their services should therefore be relevant to a variety of settings.
Research purpose: The aim was to explore if the training of student psychometrists contributes to the relevance of this category in terms of the demographic profile of student psychometrists, the scope of services potentially provided by them and the content of training programmes.
Motivation for the study: There is a paucity of research on training in the psychometrist category.
Research design, approach and method: Data were obtained from the files of a cohort of student psychometrists who were registered in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Africa (UNISA). Follow-up surveys on training and work contexts were conducted amongst these students and their in-practice supervisors to confirm and supplement the data. In addition, a survey on the national availability of training programmes for psychometrists was conducted at South African universities.
Main findings: Gender and racial skewness in terms of the demographic profile of the UNISA students seemed to reflect a national trend. In terms of the scope of services, training opportunities and perceived job opportunities for psychometrists seemed limited and despite the utilisation of the skills area in all the applied contexts, concerns related to the sectors being served were identified. With regard to the content of the training programmes, students and in-practice supervisors expressed a need for greater preparation in test use before related practical experience takes place. The importance of the university's involvement during the practicum was also emphasised.
Practical/managerial implications: Recommendations are made regarding the structure and content of training programmes. This information could be applied in adapting existing programmes and in developing new programmes.
Contribution/value-add: Ultimately, these recommendations could contribute to the value of the psychometrist category as a professional resource relevant to a variety of settings.
The validation of a workplace incivility scale within the South African banking industry : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1316More Less
Orientation: Workplace incivility holds consequences for both individuals and organisations. Managers are becoming increasingly aware of this phenomenon. Currently, there is no workplace incivility scale validated for use within the South African context.
Research purpose: To investigate the reliability and validity of the adapted workplace incivility scale by Leiter and colleagues for use within South Africa.
Motivation for the study: As it is currently difficult to measure workplace incivility within the South African context because of the lack of a valid and reliable scale, it is necessary to validate such a scale.
Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was used for the study. Convenience sampling (N = 345) was used within the South African banking industry. Specifically, the factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and predictive validity were investigated in order to establish the overall validity of the scale.
Main findings: The results confirmed that the scale showed a three-factor structure as best-fitting with acceptable reliability coefficients. Furthermore, discriminant validity could be shown between workplace incivility and workplace bullying, that is, supporting that these two constructs are not the same phenomenon. In terms of relationships, colleague incivility did not significantly predict any of the outcome variables and instigated incivility only being a negative predictor of job satisfaction and a borderline statistically significant negative predictor of work engagement. However, supervisor incivility predicted all the outcomes negatively.
Practical/Managerial implications: Based on the results, workplace incivility should be addressed because of the harmful effects it can have, not only on employees but also on organisations. It is therefore necessary for managers to create awareness of workplace incivility in order to ensure that it does not integrate within the organisational culture and affect individual and organisational performance.
Contribution/Value-add: The study contributes to the limited research available in South Africa regarding workplace incivility by providing a scale that is valid and reliable.
See you at the match : motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa : original researchAuthor Frederick W. StanderSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1312More Less
Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy.
Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators.
Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth.
Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables.
Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning) through the motivation for sport consumption (individual - and game related factors) was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a) related to and b) associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African football spectators.
Practical/managerial implications: Football clubs should tailor spectator experiences around both individual and game related spectator motives in order to develop experiences associated with intrinsic psychological reward.
Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to consumer psychology research relating to the motives associated with the consumption of football within South Africa.
Work-family conflict based on strain : the most hazardous type of conflict in Iranian hospitals nurses : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1264More Less
Orientation: Work and family conflicts continuously and negatively affect employees' performance. Previous research has mostly studied the impact of the two distinct dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) on health outcomes, whereas the impact of more specific dimensions of these two general types of conflict on health outcomes is little known. Therefore, we now need to also measure the impact of more specified types of these conflicts on health outcomes.
Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a causal model of the effects of six different types of WFC (time, strain and behaviour) and FWC (time, strain and behaviour) on the mental and physical health of hospital nurses to identify the most hazardous type of conflict they faced.
Motivation for the study: This research was conducted to outline which specific type of WFC or FWC is able to act as the strongest antecedent of mental and physical health in nurses.
Research design, approach and method: Three hundred and eleven nurses from six hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected using a Carlson WFC scale as well as an SF-36 mental-physical health scale based on a cross-sectional research design. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling and SPSS.
Main findings: The final model showed that, firstly, the effects of WFC types (time, strain and behaviour) on health outcomes were much greater than the effects of FWC types (time, strain and behaviour). Secondly, WFC and FWC based on strain were stronger predictors of health outcomes. Finally, strain-based WFC was identified to be the most hazardous type of conflict in our study.
Practical implications: These findings can be employed by hospital managers to block all the potential factors that may increase strain-based WFC in the workplace. Moreover, this study helps hospitals to use special educational programs directed at reducing strain-based WFC.
Contribution/value-add: This research clearly revealed that a specific type of WFC may more likely influence the health situation of nurses.
The psychological well-being manifesting among master's students in Industrial and Organisational Psychology : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1323More Less
Orientation: Psychological well-being among master's students is seen as a contributing factor towards having a meaningful, enjoyable and productive experience as a student.
Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative description of the psychological well-being experiences of first-year students in a part-time coursework master's degree in Industrial and Organisational Psychology (IOP) in order to foster an empathetic understanding of their experiences.
Motivation for the study: The understanding of their master's students' psychological well-being experiences will assist university IOP departments in facilitating the appropriate psychological containment to students and the optimisation of their resilience towards meaningfully completing their first year and perhaps also their master's degree.
Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research was conducted within ahermeneutic interpretive stance. Data were gathered from a focus group with 10 conveniently chosen participants. Thematic content analysis provided eight themes, which were interpreted and linked to the literature on psychological well-being.
Main findings: Student distress caused by job demands leads to languishing and feeling overwhelmed. In contrast, student eustress resulting from job resources leads to flourishing, consisting of self-efficacy, locus of control and optimism.
Practical implications: University IOP departments can use the information towards understanding their master's students' psychological well-being experiences, which could assist in the students' successful and timeous completion of their studies.
Contribution: The study contributes to the literature on master's students' real negative and positive experiences and psychological well-being, which university departments often deny or dismiss as idiosyncratic.
Exploring the impact of information and communication technology on employees' work and personal lives : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1330More Less
Orientation: Technology has become part of society's everyday functioning, changing rapidly and providing widespread mobility. Employees are moving towards a continually connected lifestyle, a situation in which information and communication technology (ICT) seem to have become omnipresent.
Research purpose: The overall objective of this research was to investigate the influence of ICT on employees' work and personal lives.
Motivation for the study: The impact of ICT on the work and personal lives of employees has never been researched before, which motivated the current study.
Research approach, design and method: A qualitative research design, with a sample of 25 employees, was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data, and the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and processed through thematic analyses.
Main findings: Five themes with sub-themes were extracted: The positive and negative experiences of ICT both within the work and personal lives of employees, the increased expectations brought about by ICT usage, and the role of ICT on relationships. Findings highlighted that although ICT are generally perceived as positive, employees should make a conscious decision in managing their ICT to decrease the negative impact thereof on their work and personal lives.
Practical/managerial implications: Overall, the general positive experiences of ICT outweigh the negative experiences, and findings almost suggest that as the quantity of communication increased, the quality of conversations decreased.
Contribution/Value add: This study provides a holistic understanding of the impact of ICT on the work and personal lives of employees.
Measuring and optimising employee engagement in Africanised multi-culturally diverse contexts
Employee engagement in a South African context, Hester Nienaber & Nico Martins (Eds.) : book reviewSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –2 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1404More Less
Employee engagement in a South African context edited by Hester Nienaber and Nico Martins is a timely book that contributes valuable perspectives, research and insights on the manifestation of the concept of engagement in the multi-culturally diverse South African and African workplace context. Holly Schiffrin (2016, p. xi) states in the foreword of the book that the benefits of employee engagement for both the employee and the company lie in its contribution to higher job satisfaction, increased productivity, lower turnover, greater customer satisfaction and higher profit. The global and local research literature attests to this viewpoint by providing empirical evidence that alludes to the importance of enhancing employee engagement for business sustainability and competitiveness. The strengths of the book lie in: (1) elucidating the concept from a psychosocial multiple systems level perspective (i.e. clarifying the influence of individual characteristics, interpersonal relationships and the broader environment-cultural context on the manifestation of employee engagement), (2) discussing the application of the concept by means of real-life business case studies and (3) providing a critical evaluation of a South Africa-based measurement model and tool of engagement. The chapter contributions to the book are presented by subject matter experts and practising professionals in the organisational and business field. The text is well written and professionally edited. Employee engagement in a South African context is a valuable contribution to the extant organisational psychology literature on the phenomenon of engagement and may assist leaders and practitioners to better understand the concept, its underlying dynamics and measurement, and its application as a strategic initiative in South Africa- and Africa-based organisations.
The structural validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire (WLQ) : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –16 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1349More Less
Orientation : Best practice frameworks suggest that an assessment practitioner's choice of an assessment tool should be based on scientific evidence that underpins the appropriate and just use of the instrument. This is a context-specific validity study involving a classified psychological instrument against the background of South African regulatory frameworks and contemporary validity theory principles.
Research purpose : The aim of the study was to explore the structural validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire (WLQ) administered to employees in the automotive assembly plant of a South African automotive manufacturing company.
Motivation for the study : Although the WLQ has been used by registered health practitioners and numerous researchers, evidence to support the structural validity is lacking. This study, therefore, addressed the need for context-specific empirical support for the validity of score inferences in respect of employees in a South African automotive manufacturing plant.
Research design, approach and method : The research was conducted using a convenience sample (N = 217) taken from the automotive manufacturing company where the instrument was used. Reliability and factor analyses were carried out to explore the structural validity of the WLQ.
Main findings : The reliability of the WLQ appeared to be acceptable, and the assumptions made about unidimensionality were mostly confirmed. One of the proposed higher-order structural models of the said questionnaire administered to the sample group was confirmed, whereas the other one was partially confirmed.
Practical/managerial implications : The conclusion reached was that preliminary empirical grounds existed for considering the continued use of the WLQ (with some suggested refinements) by the relevant company, provided the process of accumulating a body of validity evidence continued.
Contribution/value-add : This study identified some of the difficulties that assessment practitioners might face in their quest to comply with South Africa's regulatory framework and the demands of contemporary test validity theory.
The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1378More Less
Orientation : Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.
Research purpose : The study's aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.
Motivation for the study : Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa's current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.
Research approach, design and method : A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251).
Main findings : A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands) and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.
Practical/managerial implications : Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.
Contribution/value-add : This study highlights the importance of job crafting to the well-being of teachers. It further contributes to the literature pertaining to job crafting and teaching specifically, as well as to the limited job crafting research that has been conducted in the South African context.
The implications of sex role identity and psychological capital for organisations : a South African study : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1311More Less
Orientation : A large body of research evidence indicates that both sex role identity (SRI) and psychological capital (PsyCap) may have critical implications for individual and organisational well-being. As SRI is constituted of sex-based personality traits it is possible that SRI may have implications for individuals' PsyCap.
Research purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SRI and the positive psychological construct of PsyCap.
Motivation for the study : Research on SRI and PsyCap has been explored independently of one another with a lack of research exploring the relationship between these two constructs. In addition, much of the previous research on SRI and organisational outcomes has only examined positive sex role identities, focusing almost exclusively on 'positive' or 'socially desirable' sex role identities. More recently, researchers have noted that this approach is theoretically and methodologically flawed, as it fails to account for negative traits or socially undesirable traits that may be contained within individuals' SRI and which may have a number of deleterious implications for organisational outcome variables. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research within the South African context, which explores the adoption of positive and negative sex-based behavioural traits and their implications for PsyCap.
Research design, approach and method : A quantitative study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a convenience sampling method to explore the relationship between SRI and PsyCap. Four hundred and seventy-eight respondents, all currently working in South African organisations, participated in this research. The composite questionnaire utilised for this research included a demographic questionnaire, The Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire-Revised (EPAQ-R), and the PCQ-24 which measures PsyCap in terms of self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism.
Main findings : Statistically significant differences were found between the positive and negative SRIs for levels of PsyCap. In particular, positive androgyny and positive masculinity scored the highest levels of PsyCap, whereas negative androgyny and negative femininity consistently scored the lowest levels. Although positive femininity fared significantly better than the aforementioned negative identities in most instances, this identity scored significantly lower levels on the positive PsyCap outcomes of hope and resilience, than the other positive identities of positive androgyny and positive masculinity. Furthermore, and counterintuitively, within this South African study, negative masculinity fared unexpectedly better on all dimensions of PsyCap, as compared to the poorer outcomes for negative masculinity evidenced in other international research.
Practical/managerial implications : Given the pervasive impact of SRIs and PsyCap on interpersonal and organisational functioning, this research has practical and managerial implications for organisations with regard to recruitment, selection, training and development, and workplace counselling interventions.
Contribution/value-add : The findings of this research contribute to the paucity of literature investigating both positive and negative SRIs and contribute further by exploring the interrelationship between these identities and PsyCap. As this study utilised a sample of individuals working in South Africa, its findings have a direct bearing on South African organisations.
The effect of the spatial positioning of items on the reliability of questionnaires measuring affect : original researchSource: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 42, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1303More Less
Orientation : Extant research has shown that the relationship between spatial location and affect may have pervasive effects on evaluation. In particular, experimental findings on embodied cognition indicate that a person is spatially orientated to position what is positive at the top and what is negative at the bottom (vertical spatial orientation), and to a lesser extent, to position what is positive on the left and what is negative on the right (horizontal spatial orientation). It is therefore hypothesised, that when there is congruence between a respondent's spatial orientation (related to affect) and the spatial positioning (layout) of a questionnaire, the reliability will be higher than in the case of incongruence.
Research purpose : The principal objective of the two studies reported here was to ascertain the extent to which congruence between a respondent's spatial orientation (related to affect) and the layout of the questionnaire (spatial positioning of questionnaire items) may impact on the reliability of a questionnaire measuring affect.
Motivation for the study : The spatial position of items on a questionnaire measuring affect may indirectly impact on the reliability of the questionnaire.
Research approach, design and method : In both studies, a controlled experimental research design was conducted using a sample of university students (n = 1825).
Major findings : In both experiments, evidence was found to support the hypothesis that greater congruence between a respondent's spatial orientation (related to affect) and the spatial positioning (layout) of a questionnaire leads to higher reliability on a questionnaire measuring affect.
Practical implications : These findings may serve to create awareness of the influence of the spatial positioning of items as a confounding variable in questionnaire design.
Contribution/value-add : Overall, this research complements previous studies by confirming the metaphorical representation of affect and enhances our understanding of embodiment-related conceptual processing and its subsequent influence on self-evaluations versus external evaluations on an unconscious level, specifically in relation to measuring affect.