South African Dental Journal - latest Issue
Volume 71, Issue 9, 2016
The 2015/2016 theme of the South African Dental Association : oral health and psychosocial wellbeing : guest editorialAuthor D.P. MotlobaSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 384 –385 (2016)More Less
It is indisputable that Oral Health is a significant contributor to general health and wellbeing. Oral health conditions affect almost two-thirds of the world population throughout the course of life. it is hence imperative that this important public issue, Oral Health, be placed high on national policy agendas. In so doing, the required resources can be mobilised to support strategic orientations and priority actions aimed at reducing the effects of poor Oral Health on the wellbeing of the population. Good Oral Health impacts on the individual's ability to enjoy life activities, such as eating, swallowing, smiling, tasting, kissing and smelling. These activities contribute to the enjoyment of life, quality of life and general wellbeing.
Author P. GovanSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 386 –387 (2016)More Less
As the year 2016 comes to an end, a major change in leadership has been ushered in at SADA Head office. We are pleased to welcome our new Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Mr Khomi Climus Makhubele. "KC" (as he likes to be called), will commence official duties on 1 November 2016, responsible for management and administration of the Association.
Source: South African Dental Journal 71 (2016)More Less
Mr. KC Makhubele, a Transformational Speaker, is currently a Managing Executive: Marketing and Strategic Relationships of Kelly & Quest. He is responsible for the Marketing and Strategic Relationships as well as growing the company brand and market share. Board Director & President at The Federation of African Professional Staffing Organisations (APSO) and Council Member at South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SACCI) and the Confederation of Associations in the Private Employment Sector. He holds positions of Board Director at Khulisa Social Solutions NPC, President and Board Director at Imagine2morrow NPC.
Source: South African Dental Journal 71 (2016)More Less
Edith has left the Journal team... she departed from the Association at the end of October... and has created a considerable gap, even though this is at least partially plugged by her remarkable achievements and contributions as the Editorial Assistant these past several years. She arrived at Head Office bringing with her a background in publishing, for she had previously handled a journal for the mining industry. That experience was put to work at once and it was not long before Edith had effected many changes and streamlined much of our publishing processes. As she gained in an understanding of the esoteric requirements of a dental journal so Edith was able to assume an enhanced role and contributing authors - and the Editor! ...benefitted by her prompt attention, her detailed follow through and her always helpful reaction, accompanied by a cheerful chuckle and a warm greeting.
Determining an average distance from the external mandibular cortex to the inferior alveolar canal using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging : an aid to harvesting mandibular ramus autogenous grafts : researchSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 390 –394 (2016)More Less
Objectives : To provide average measurements relating the external mandibular cortex (EMC) to the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) using CBCT.
Methods : 100 CBCT images from UWC Dental hospital patient database were analysed using CBCT software (NewtomVGi Image works Corps) to produce coronal slices at four defined points along the IAC. Each point was measured from the IAC to the outer aspect of the mandibular buccal cortex and to the alveolar ridge crest (edentulous mandibles) or buccal cortical plate crest (dentate mandibles). The paired t-test was used to analyse right and left side measurements in order to test for differences in right and left side means.
Results : A mean width of 5.891mm (±1.09) from the IAC to the EMC in the horizontal plane and a mean height of 13.068mm (±2.963) from IAC to the alveolar crest or buccal cortical plate was demonstrated. Mean height was lower in edentulous mandibles (11.142mm in females; 13.490mm in males) than in dentate mandibles (12.916mm in females; 14.102 in males). There was no significant difference in width values. Height values were greater in males (14.102mm) than in females (12.916mm), being marginally significant (p-value of 0.00948:p<0.05).
Conclusions : These measurements are clinically applicable when harvesting mandibular autogenous block grafts.
Comparison of accuracy of digital and conventional radiographies in determining endodontic working length : researchSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 395 –397 (2016)More Less
Introduction : Determination of the length of the root canal is a critical step in endodontic therapy. Recently, digital radiography has been introduced for this purpose because it may have advantages over conventional radiographic methods. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographic techniques in the determination of the endodontic working length (WL)
Materials and methods : Sixty single-rooted premolar human teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups. The WL determination in groups 1 and 2 was carried out using, respectively, digital and conventional radiographic techniques. The procedure was performed by a single operator on two separate occasions, two weeks apart.
Results : The differences in WL measured at the two intra observer intervals was statistically significant neither in digital nor in conventional radiography method (P>0.05). The analysis of the data using a X2 test revealed that there were no significant differences in WL measurements between digital and conventional radiographic methods at any interval (P>0.05).
Conclusion : Based on the findings of this study, it may be assumed that the digital and conventional radiographic techniques have similar accuracies in the determination of WL.
Source: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 398 –401 (2016)More Less
Introduction : a variety of endodontic irrigants are available for endodontic irrigation. Irrigants must be effective in removing the smear layer created during endodontic therapy as well as eliminating bacteria.
Aim : This in vitro study tested various alternating sequences of sodium hypochlorite, anolyte solution (electrochemically activated water), and EDTA for their ability to do this.
Method : Forty-eight single canal teeth were randomly divided into six groups, prepared to working length, sterilised and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. Each group was assigned a different sequence of irrigants. Standard cultivation techniques were used to count the colony-forming units at each phase. Two SEM photomicrographs of each root's coronal, middle and apical thirds were taken randomly and the number of patent dentinal tubules counted. Statistical analysis was completed using Oneway-ANOVA and multiple comparisons.
Results : Group 6 (n=10) protocol of 5ml anolyte followed by 3ml 18% EDTA showed the best smear layer removal results for all thirds of the canal. Chemical irrigation significantly decreased the intracanal E. faecalis CFUs.
Conclusion : Within the limitations of the study anolyte solution followed by EDTA showed the best smear layer removal. The various sequences of NaOCl, anolyte solution, and EDTA all had similar antibacterial results.
Oral Health in South Africa : exploring the role of dental public health specialists : communicationAuthor K.J. RamphomaSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 402 –403 (2016)More Less
This report explores the role of dental public health specialists in the South African health system in curbing the increasing burden of oral diseases, most of which are preventable. Globally, these specialists play vital roles in addressing the oral health needs and wellbeing of the whole population through influencing policies and informing decisions. The general neglect of oral health in South Africa coupled with the individually-focused management of oral diseases has led to an exorbitant expenditure of public health funds in the attempt to provide care.
Their expertise equips these specialists competent to design, supervise and evaluate appropriate oral health interventions and preventive programmes to benefit the population as a whole. While there are 33 of these professionals registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa, their skills seem to be largely under-utilised in the public health system arena with only one being so employed. The increasing prevalence of oral diseases and the lack of success in management of the problem thus far necessitates a critical review of alternative strategies of addressing oral health matters. This paper explores the role of these specialists in addressing the oral health of the South African public at large.
Periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases. Strength of bidirectional associations : communication & reviewAuthor S.M. KassierSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 404 –409 (2016)More Less
Periodontal disease (PD), along with cardiovascular and circulatory disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease and obesity, are globally regarded as some of the major non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The association between PD and these systemic illnesses is described as bidirectional. Gaining an understanding of the strength of the proposed associations between these diseases is important, as it will enable health professionals to identify common risk factors that will allow for synergistic prevention, diagnosis and management. To date, common preventive measures for NCDs include cessation of smoking, increased physical activity, healthy diets and sensible consumption of alcohol. Although risk factors such as smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diets and alcohol abuse are among the leading cause of tooth loss due to lifelong exposure, the prevalence of tooth loss is increasing in middle-income countries like South Africa. Hence the strength of the associations between PD and selected NCDs will be assessed, in order to generate guidelines for dental and other health professionals as well their patients to address the burden of disease associated with PD. Lastly, possible solutions to the problem will be addressed.
Source: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 410 –411 (2016)More Less
Dens in dente refers to a developmental anomaly associated with an abnormal infolding of the inner enamel epithelium into the dental papilla. This in turn gives rise to a possible communication between the pulp and the oral environment, increasing the susceptibility of the tooth to caries, pulpitis, and pulpal necrosis, which highlights the need to detect and seal these pits early. This case report documents an unusual case of double dens invaginatus affecting maxillary central incisors.
Chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of the maxilla and zygomatic bone : a treatment challenge and the importance of early surgical exploration : case reportSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 412 –414 (2016)More Less
Ostemyelitis of the maxilla rarely occurs. Treating this condition presents a challenge to the Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon as a result of the diverse clinical and radiographic presentations which influence the choice of the treatment modalities. This case report highlights the importance of early surgical exploration in patients with chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of the maxillary and zygomatic bones that has remained refractory to prolonged antibiotic treatment.
Source: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 415 –417 (2016)More Less
Two cases of sialoliths. a.) A 32 year-old female, referred to the Wits Oral Health Centre by a private periodontist who suspected a stone in the submandibular duct. The patient experienced a sharp stabbing pain beneath the right side of her chin, exacerbated on eating. Intraoral palpation of the duct revealed nothing. Panoramic and scanning radiography confirmed a small radiopaque sialolith near the angle of the mandible, measuring 6.43mm in diameter. Sialography determined it was wedged within the genu of the duct. Surgical access was difficult, possibly leading to removal of the entire gland. As the pain had subsided, the patient will be monitored over the following few months. b.) A fifty two year-old male patient with a three year history of pain and swelling on the right side of his face. Previous medical consultations failed to diagnose the cause. Intraorally a creamy-white, bony-hard lesion was visible, perforating through the sublingual mucosa. Various radiographs confirmed the presence of a giant sialolith, measured on cone-beam scan at 25 x 26mm. Excisional biopsy easily shelled out the stone The resultant cavity was marsupialized and the defect sutured. Possible causes of Sialolithiasis, the various imaging modalities and alternative treatment options are discussed.
Author G.B. KaplanSource: South African Dental Journal 71 (2016)More Less
Source: South African Dental Journal 71 (2016)More Less
Many clinicians will be faced with the un-cooperative paediatric patient presenting at their practices with a "fear of the unknown". Establishing trust with these patients is essential in order to achieve a productive interaction with the child. The hard tissue lasers (Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG) have the advantage of not producing the high pitched sound and vibrations associated with turbines. The 'tell-show-do' method can be used to illustrate the water spray with the lowest possible energy setting of the laser in the paediatric patient's mouth, which may assist in alleviating fear associated with the restorative procedures.
Source: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 422 –424 (2016)More Less
Traditionally, medicine has been governed by the principle of Primum non nocere - "first do no harm", which implies both doing good and avoiding doing harm. However, in medical research, this approach is far too simplistic. Today we need also to be attuned to the vast domain of related ethical issues. In ethics, as indeed in English, many terms and concepts are clearly confusing. They may seem similar, yet be different: is petrol flammable, or inflammable? Others question logic, dishonest and honest, so why not diseased and eased (instead of healthy)? Many terms are also highly debatable; if someone sets out to fail and actually succeeds, is that a success or a failure? This paper will explore some basic principles of medical ethics and then relate them to scientific research in terms of study design. These principles give guidance for the protection and safeguarding of researchers, participants (specifically dental patients), and the community.
Author C.J. NortjeSource: South African Dental Journal 71 (2016)More Less
What's new for the clinician? Summaries of and excerpts from recently published papers : clinical windowsAuthor V. YengopalSource: South African Dental Journal 71, pp 426 –429 (2016)More Less