African Safety Promotion - latest Issue
Volume 13, Issue 2, 2015
Perceived childhood exposure to domestic violence : the risk for adult revictimisation : original contributionsSource: African Safety Promotion 13, pp 1 –16 (2015)More Less
The prevalence of domestic violence is described as pervasive with a majority of victims being females and perpetrators being males. Often females who experienced domestic violence had been previously exposed to family violence during childhood. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the perceived childhood exposure to domestic violence as a predisposing factor for revictimisation in adulthood. The study used a quantitative approach with a cross-sectional correlation design. The sample consisted of 77 female participants from shelters across Cape Town, Western Cape. The study employed an adapted version of the Child Exposure to Domestic Violence (CEDV) Scale. The questionnaire was divided into three sections, namely demographic details, types of exposure to domestic violence the adult may have experienced as a child, and current adult experiences of domestic violence. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences V21 (SPSS). Results suggest that there is a significant positive relationship between past perceived experiences of domestic violence and present perceived experiences of domestic violence. Limitations and recommendations are stipulated for proposed intervention strategies and further study expansion on this topic.
"If it is a tear let it be a tear, not a laceration" : form J88 as evidence in prosecution of violence against women in South Africa : original contributionsSource: African Safety Promotion 13, pp 17 –30 (2015)More Less
The availability of the J88 form in court is believed to convey the precise clinical description of the woman's injuries as it is seen as prima facie evidence. This article reports how the J88 form is used in prosecution of violence against women (VAW). A four-phased sensory ethnographic design that used courtscapes, participants' observation, document analysis and conversations with prosecutors and court personnel to generate data was employed. In this paper the focus will be on findings from conversations and reviews of relevant documents. The findings indicate that, regardless of J88 being legally endorsed as prima facie and standalone evidence, some trials of VAW cases continue without it. Most importantly, J88 forms presented for evidence are usually 'silent' as they don't have any impact on prosecution of VAW. In some VAW cases, the J88 forms are viewed as recall for a victim's condition. We recommend a synergistic approach that is transdisciplinary in nature in documentation of J88 forms. Such documentation will advance the legal and health practices.
A quantitative exploration of the effects of workplace bullying on South African educators : original contributionSource: African Safety Promotion 13, pp 31 –58 (2015)More Less
This article reports on results from a quantitative exploration of the effects of workplace bullying (WPB) on school-level educators of different post levels. A convenient, voluntary sample of educators (n=999) who were upgrading their qualifications at the School of Open Learning (SOL) at the University of the Free State, South Africa was selected to complete a questionnaire on WPB. Results of this article emanate from the responses of 850 respondents who indicated that they were victims of WPB. The study reveals that the effects of WPB are psychosocial and physiological, rather than work related. The most frequent effects of WPB are headaches, extreme sadness when recalling the antagonistic behaviour, fatigue and stress. The study emphasises the vulnerability of male victims of WPB, as well as victims who occupy managerial positions. The results indicate that age has little influence on the way victims are affected by WPB. The study highlights the need for the development of anti-WPB policies in South Africa, as well as the creation of structures to cater for the psychosocial and psychological needs of educator victims of WPB.
Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa : original contributionSource: African Safety Promotion 13, pp 59 –77 (2015)More Less
Unintentional injuries are one of the main contributors to mortality and disability in elderly populations in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the annual road traffic and other bodily (not including falls) injury prevalence and associated risk factors among older adults across six lower and upper middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face household interviews were conducted in China (n=13,177), Ghana (n=4305), India (n=6560), Mexico (n=2318), the Russian Federation (n=3938) and South Africa (n=3840), resulting in population-based cohorts of persons aged 50+ years. Measures included questions on injury, self-rated visual difficulties, alcohol use, depression treatment, sleeping problems, self-reported health status, and vision assessment using LogMAR (logarithm of Minimum Angle of Resolution) eye charts. It comprises rows of letters and is used to measure visual acuity. Results indicate that the overall annual non-fatal road traffic injury prevalence was 2.0% and for other bodily injury 2.1% (not including falls) across the six countries. The multivariate logistic regression analysis found that residing in a rural area, taking medications or other treatment for depression in the past 12 months and having a sleeping problem were associated with road traffic injury, while younger age, residing in a rural area, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having a sleeping problem were associated with other bodily injury. Visual impairment was not associated with prevalence of road traffic injuries. This study provides the burden of non-fatal road traffic injury and other bodily injury and their associated risk factors across the six countries' studies. The findings of this study improves the understanding of nonfatal road traffic injury and other bodily injury upon which policy makers, programme developers and researchers in public health can design strategic interventions to reduce these preventable injuries as well as improve safety associated with unintentional injuries.
The role of ex-offenders in implementing the Community Work Programme as a crime and violence prevention initiative : original contributionAuthor Malose LangaSource: African Safety Promotion 13, pp 78 –91 (2015)More Less
This article deals with the perceived impact of the Community Work Programme (CWP) (a state-sponsored job creation project) in preventing crime and violence in the townships of Ivory Park and Orange Farm, South Africa. The focus of this article is on the role that ex-offenders who work in the CWP play in the implementation of crime and violence prevention initiatives in the two communities. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with ex-offenders involved in the CWP. The thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings show that the involvement of ex-offenders in the CWP was found to be a positive factor in that it protected them from recidivism by providing them with job opportunities and facilitating their re-integration into their communities. Ex-offenders described their involvement in the CWP as an opportunity to apologise for the pain they had caused community members when they committed crimes against them. It is against this background that the CWP is perceived to have a positive impact through the community work done by ex-offenders who talk to the youth-at-risk about the negative consequences of crime and violence, as well as of substance abuse.
Health, healthcare and social justice : the 9th Biennial International Society of Critical Health Psychology Conference, 12 to 15 July 2015, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa : conference reportAuthor Nicole ScullardSource: African Safety Promotion 13, pp 92 –94 (2015)More Less
For the very first time on South African soil, International Society of Critical Health Psychology Conference took place at Rhodes University in Grahamstown from 12 to 15 July 2015. The conference was hosted by the International Society of Critical Health Psychology, which consists of members who share an interest in critical health, critical theory and critical practice in relation to health and healthcare. In addition to the society's members, the ISCHP2015 attracted a wide range of presenters including health service providers, activists, and scholars in a diversity of disciplines that take a critical orientation to health, illness and healthcare.
ASP Special Issue Call : the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety: progress, challenges and successes : call for papersSource: African Safety Promotion 13, pp 95 –96 (2015)More Less
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute a substantial and growing public health burden across the world, and more so for countries on the African continent. Several countries from the WHO African Region rank among countries with the highest road fatality rates in the world. Particularly high rates have been reported for Nigeria and South Africa (33,7 and 31,9 deaths per 100 000 population per year, respectively) and together with five other countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), account for approximately two-thirds of all road deaths in the region (WHO, 2013b).