South African Journal of Diabetes - latest Issue
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2017
Author Gregory HoughSource: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 7 –11 (2017)More Less
Insulin allergy was a common problem for endocrinologists and diabetologists in the ‘bad old days’ of the relatively impure heterologous porcine and bovine insulins.
This problem has become much less common with time. The first breakthrough was the result of improvements in the purification of pancreatic extracts. The second was the realisation that non-human insulin from each species used was unique and that they should not be mixed - porcine (pig) insulin should only be mixed with porcine insulin and bovine (cow) insulin with bovine insulin. However, the biggest breakthrough in reducing insulin allergies came in the mid 1980’s with the advent of highly purified ‘mono-component’ human insulin.
Source: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 12 –12 (2017)More Less
Doctors treating people living with diabetes, now have access to a new basal insulin glargine option, to better manage the condition. Basaglar® (insulin glargine), a biosimilar of insulin glargine, now available in South Africa, is an injectable, prescription medicine designed to be taken at the same time daily to lower blood glucose. Basaglar® should not be used to treat diabetic ketoacidosis.
Author Larry DistillerSource: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 14 –17 (2017)More Less
In January each year, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) publishes their updated ‘Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes’. Updated guidelines and algorithms from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) usually supplement the ADA document. The local Society for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism of Southern Africa (SEMDSA) last published guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes in 2012, but new and updated guidelines are expected by April this year.
Author Georgia TorresSource: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 21 –23 (2017)More Less
A significant amount of scientific evidence has established that low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, including mortality attributed to cancers of the breast and digestive tract (Blair et al., 1989; Sui et al., 2007; Khan et al., 2012; Sawada et al., 2014). Furthermore, improvements in CRF have been associated with a reduction in mortality risk (Lee et al., 2010; Lee et al., 2011). Thus, CRF is recognized as an important marker of cardiovascular health. Yet, it is the only major risk factor not routinely and regularly assessed in a clinical setting (Mark et al., 2003; Kaminsky et al., 2013).
This article will review the evidence for the importance of measuring and improving CRF in healthy individuals and in individuals with disease.
Author Marjolein BenchSource: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 24 –25 (2017)More Less
Seasonal influenza is an acute viral infection caused by an influenza virus. There are three types of seasonal influenza - A, B and C. Type A influenza viruses are further typed into subtypes according to different kinds and combinations of virus surface proteins. Among the many subtypes of influenza A viruses, influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes are currently circulating among humans in every part of the world. Type C influenza infections occur much less frequently than A and B. That is why only influenza A and B strains are included in seasonal influenza vaccines.
Source: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 26 –29 (2017)More Less
Any interaction with a patient typically follows a structured approach of careful history taking, detailed and focused clinical examination and the performance, if needed, of laboratory tests. Complacency is the enemy here, turning an interaction with a patient into a tedious melodrama instead of an exciting mix of diplomacy, psychology and challenging medical detective work.
Author Brian D. KramerSource: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 30 –33 (2017)More Less
Screening for disease or the complications thereof is an important aspect of primary care, relating to the need to detect treatable/communicable disease at the earliest time. Ideally, screening should employ highly sensitive diagnostic modalities to ensure detection of all possible cases. It is therefore implicit that with this approach, some subjects without the condition in question will be wrongly classified.
Source: South African Journal of Diabetes 10, pp 34 –36 (2017)More Less