Economic History of Developing Regions - latest Issue
Volume 31, Issue 2, 2016
Author Jose Aguilar-ReturetaSource: Economic History of Developing Regions 31, pp 225 –252 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20780389.2016.1175298More Less
Recent studies in economic history have investigated long-term changes in regional income inequality in various countries after their domestic markets have been regionally integrated. But this literature has focused mainly on developed economies. Evidence is needed from developing economies. This paper is the first investigation of Mexican regional income disparity over the long term, from the early stages of domestic market integration to the present day (1895-2010). The results show that, despite a persistent north-south income division and very low rank-income mobility, regional inequality has been N-shaped over the long term. This trend is closely correlated to the economic models adopted by Mexico since the late nineteenth century. Box-plot graphs and kernel densities suggest that the initial divergence was driven by rich states becoming richer and poor states becoming poorer, and the subsequent convergence by rich states' incomes falling towards the national average and poor states' incomes improving. Moran's I coefficients show that the only statistically significant income cluster appearing over the entire period was the low income cluster formed by the southern regions. In other words, in Mexico, having rich neighbours does not bring a region prosperity.
Author Mikolaj MalinowskiSource: Economic History of Developing Regions 31, pp 253 –276 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20780389.2016.1175297More Less
In this paper I investigate commodity market integration, market efficiency and market performance in preindustrial Eastern Europe. In particular, I look at the Polish rye market between 1500 and 1772. I analyse annual rye price data from seven cities. The results suggest that market conditions in Poland in the sixteenth century were relatively favourable. The market disintegrated in the seventeenth century. Afterwards, Polish markets remained relatively segmented, in contrast to many Western European countries whose markets thrived in the eighteenth century. This supports the hypothesis that even before the Industrial Revolution there was the Little Divergence in economic development between western and eastern Europe. The disintegration crisis in Poland was linked to the separation of landlocked cities from the common market. After the seventeenth century, cities located on the Vistula river enjoyed better market conditions and remained better integrated than the landlocked ones. The long-term market crisis may have resulted from the devastating warfare in the mid-seventeenth century.
Source: Economic History of Developing Regions 31, pp 277 –302 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20780389.2016.1180957More Less
By world standards, South Africa's experience with insurance of politically motivated risks, including terrorism, qualifies it as a leader in the area. In the late 1970s, the volatile political climate of the apartheid era forced the private insurance market to establish the South African Special Risks Insurance Association (Sasria), backed by the government, to insure damage caused by politically motivated acts, including terrorism. Since then, Sasria has developed into a key strategic institution. Yet academic literature on insurance of politically-motivated risks, riot, strike and terrorism in South Africa is sparse, despite its increasing significance in a world where terrorism is on the increase. This article attempts to fill this literature gap by firstly tracing the developments leading to the formation of Sasria, then examining the evolution of Sasria to where it is today.
Source: Economic History of Developing Regions 31, pp 303 –344 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20780389.2015.1114413More Less
The paper traces the evolution of The Microfinance Sector of Togo over the half century from its independence in 1960 to 2010. The methodology uses oral histories, consisting of a round table discussion with heads of Microfinance Institutions as well as regulatory, supervisory and financing institutions and academics, followed by semi-structured individual interviews. We compare their diverse perspectives with the few archives and data that exist. We find seven stages in the development of microfinance from an unorganized sector consisting of tontines and usurious money-lenders in the 1960s to a considerably organized sector dominated by credit unions (COOPECs) and NGOs. The unorganized sector continues to play a role and the regulatory authority intervenes to protect the masses from unscrupulous and inefficient operators.