SA Journal of Human Resource Management - latest Issue
Volume 14, Issue 1, 2016
A narrative investigation into the meaning and experience of career success : perspectives from women participants : original researchAuthor Willie T. ChinyamurindiSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.659More Less
Orientation: In South Africa opportunities are being created that encourage more women to enter the workforce. Understanding how women conceptualise and experience career success affects not only their individual career development but also their general outlook in life.
Research purpose: To investigate how a sample of previously disadvantaged women distance learners conceptualise and experience the notion of career success.
Motivation for the study: Calls have been made for research incorporating a subjective understanding regarding career success, especially amongst minority groups.
Research approach, design and method: An interpretive approach was employed aimed at understanding individual experience and the interpretation of it. Unstructured interviews were conducted shaped by the objectives of the study amongst a sample of women (n = 25).
Main findings: Through narratives and stories, findings revealed career success to be conceptualised and experienced as (1) a means of professional attainment and recognition, (2) a contribution to society and (3) evident in material and non-material artefacts. Further, from the sample of women used in this research, the experience of career success considered not only socio-historical issues and community but also the cultural milieu. Education emerged as an enabler of individual pursuit and goals leading to career success.
Practical/managerial implications: An understanding of how career success is conceptualised and experienced by previously disadvantaged women can serve as a forerunner to individual specific career development interventions. The results of the study are therefore useful to both academics and practitioners in their formulation of interventions that enable individual career development.
Contribution: The experience of career success as found in this study through participant narratives and stories gave a picture of career development processes amongst previously disadvantaged groups in South Africa. These processes illustrate how individuals draw meaning and a sense of direction en route to career success, revealing aspirations affecting not only their career development but also their lived experience.
An organisational coherence model to maintain employee contributions during organisational crises : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.725More Less
Orientation: Crises that threaten an organisation's continued existence cannot be seen in isolation when considering the perception of threats to individual job security. These threats often go hand in hand with employee panic.
Research purpose: The aim of this study was to establish a model to assist organisations in managing employee emotionality and panic during times of crisis.
Motivation for the study: Environmental crises threaten organisations' existence, threatening employees' livelihood and resulting in employee panic. Panic reduces employees' contributions. Organisations that are successful harness employee contributions at all times.
Research design, approach, and method: A modernist qualitative research methodology was adopted, which included a case study as research strategy, purposive sampling to select 12 research participants, semi-structured interviews for data gathering, focus groups for data verification, and the use of grounded theory for data analysis.
Main findings: An organisation's ability to manage employee panic depends on the relationship between the foundational elements of authentic leadership, crisis readiness, resilience practices, versatile and committed talent, strategic management, quality management, and coherence actions taken during the crisis, which include crisis leadership, ongoing visible communication, mindfulness, work flexibility, and decisions based on the greatest financial need and social support.
Practical/managerial implications: The study provides a best-practice option for managing emotionality during crises for the case organisation and other organisations within the vehicle components and other manufacturing industries.
Contribution/value-add: The Coherence Hexagons Model is presented as a tool to manage employee panic during crisis.
Retention of women accountants : the interaction of job demands and job resources : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.759More Less
Orientation: Most CEOs in South Africa are chartered accountants (CAs). Retaining women CAs might therefore lead to an increase in women in leadership. The Job Demands-Resources model presents a framework to investigate organisational job-related factors that promote or deter voluntary turnover of women CAs.
Research purpose: The primary objective was to investigate which organisational factors promote or reduce the risk of turnover intentions for South African women CAs. The secondary objective was to investigate the moderating potential of job resources on the relationship between job demands and turnover intentions.
Motivation for the study: There is a fair amount of research on the problems associated with the retention of women CAs in public practice but very little is known about how those problems interact with each other, and whether there are factors that could buffer them.
Research design, approach, and method: The study consisted of a sample (n = 851) of women CAs in public practice firms nationally in South Africa. We used structural equation modelling together with moderated regression analysis.
Main findings: Job demands promote turnover intentions, whereas job resources have a negative effect on turnover intentions. Counter-intuitively a negative direct effect was found between job insecurity and turnover intentions. Statistical support was found for the moderating role of all job resources, except financial advancement, on the relationship between work-family conflict and turnover intentions; and growth opportunities, on the relationship between job insecurity and turnover intentions.
Practical/managerial implications: No job resource measured could buffer the impact of job overload on turnover intentions.
Contribution: This is the first study to investigate factors that may retain women CAs in public practice audit, tax, and advisory firms (Big Four Accountancy Firms) using the JD-R model. Few studies have investigated the buffering effect of job resources on the relationship between job demands and turnover intentions in general.
Author Chris W. CallaghanSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.727More Less
Research purpose: The influence of work-to-family and family-to-work spillovers is well documented in the human resources literature. However, little is known of the relationships between the pressures faced by academics to publish and the potential family life consequences of being a highly productive academic.
Research design, approach and method: This research sought to investigate these relationships within the context of a large South African university by testing associations between family life variables such as marriage and dependent children against measures of the following specific types of research publication: (1) South African Department of Higher Education and Training-accredited journal publications; (2) Thompson Reuters Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and ProQuest's International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)-indexed journal article publications; (3) conference proceedings publications; (4) conference paper presentations; (5) book chapter publications; (6) book publications; and (7) gross research productivity, reflecting a volume or quantity measure of research publication.
Main findings: ISI and/or IBSS journal article publication is found to be negatively associated with dependent children, but only for male academics, and to be negatively associated with female gender over and above the effect of family life variables in testing.
Practical/managerial implications: Human resources managers in universities need to be cognisant of the specific pressures faced by staff that are required to produce ever more research publications, in order to help them achieve work-life balance.
Contribution: In a global context of increasing pressures for research publication, and for higher and higher numbers of publications, it is necessary to identify the potential costs involved for high-volume-producing academics, particularly in terms of family versus work.
Career adaptability and employee engagement of adults employed in an insurance company : an exploratory study : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.752More Less
Orientation: As a resiliency resource, career adaptability relates to an individual's ability to adapt to new work demands and is seen to impact various occupational outcomes such as engagement.
Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship dynamics between career adaptability (measured by Career Adapt-Abilities Scale) and employee engagement (measured by Utrecht Work Engagement Scale).
Motivation for the study: As a personal resource, career adaptability enables employees to deal with job demands, facilitating employee engagement. Limited research exists on the impact of career adaptability variables on employee engagement, bearing significant relevance in the current workforce.
Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted with a convenience sample (N = 131) of employees in an insurance company within South Africa.
Main findings/results: Significant positive relationships were found between career adaptability and employee engagement. The results suggest that participants who have experienced higher employee engagement have better developed career adaptability skills.
Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people's career adaptability influences their level of engagement in the organisation.
Contribution: This research is the first to investigate the construct of career adaptability in an insurance company and the findings add to the existing career literature and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career development and engagement strategies.
The relative importance of managerial competencies for predicting the perceived job performance of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment verification practitioners : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.696More Less
Orientation: There is a need for the growing Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE) verification industry to assess competencies and determine skills gaps for the management of the verification practitioners' perceived job performance. Knowing which managerial competencies are important for different managerial functions is vital for developing and improving training and development programmes.
Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the managerial capabilities that are required of the B-BBEE verification practitioners, in order to improve their perceived job performance.
Motivation for the study: The growing number of the B-BBEE verification practitioners calls for more focused training and development. Generating such a training and development programme demands empirical research into the relative importance of managerial competencies.
Research approach, design and method: A quantitative design using the survey approach was adopted. A questionnaire was administered to a stratified sample of 87 B-BBEE verification practitioners. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 22.0) and Smart Partial Least Squares software.
Main findings: The results of the correlation analysis revealed that there were strong and positive associations between technical skills, interpersonal skills, compliance to standards and ethics, managerial skills and perceived job performance. Results of the regression analysis showed that managerial skills, compliance to standards and ethics and interpersonal skills were statistically significant in predicting perceived job performance. However, technical skills were insignificant in predicting perceived job performance.
Practical/managerial implications: The study has shown that the B-BBEE verification industry, insofar as the technical skills of the practitioners are concerned, does have suitably qualified staff with the requisite educational qualifications. At the same time, from the present study the industry can now determine the priority skills.
Contribution: The study identified the needed skills as managerial skills, standards and ethics and interpersonal skills, in that order. The verification agencies will now be in a better position to know where they should focus their training and development.
The role of big five factors on predicting job crafting propensities amongst administrative employees in a South African tertiary institution : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.702More Less
Orientation: Personality provides a foundation for understanding employee job behaviours. It determines and reflects how they respond to their work situations. There is a shortage of previous researches that have specifically dealt with the predictive role of personality on job crafting. Job crafting is also a significantly new concept in the South African work context. It has both positive and negative consequences on employee job behaviours.
Research purpose: The present study investigated the role of big five factors on predicting job crafting propensities amongst administrative employees in Alice, South Africa.
Motivation for the study: The present study aimed to determine the role of big five factors on predicting job crafting propensities amongst administrative employees. It was premised on previous research that the big five factors are associated with many employee job behaviours.
Research approach, design and method: The present study employed a quantitative, cross-sectional research design with a sample of 246 administrative employees in Alice, South Africa. A biographical questionnaire, a Big Five Inventory, and a job crafting questionnaire were used to collect data.
Main findings: The findings showed that big five factors of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience and Neuroticism play a significant role in predicting job crafting propensities.
Practical implications: The present study suggests that big five factors of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience and Neuroticism have a predictive role on job crafting behaviours. Managers of tertiary institutions can therefore consider these big five personalities to understand and predict the impacts of their job design strategies on administrative employees' behaviours.
Contribution: The contribution of the study was significant in that it contributed to research literature representing the influence of the big five factors in understanding job crafting propensities of employees.
The relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences : a structural equation modelling approach : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.737More Less
Orientation: Reward has links to employee attraction and retention and as such has a role to play in managing talent. However, despite a range of research, there is still lack of clarity on employee preferences relating to reward.
Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to recommend and appraise a theoretical model of the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences of specific occupational groups in the South African context.
Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study was to address the gap that exists with reward preferences and occupational culture with a view to identifying and gaining insight into individual preferences.
Research design, approach and method: A structural equation modelling approach was adopted in exploring the proposed relationships. A South African Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) organisation served as the population, and a web-based survey assisted in gathering study data (n = 1362).
Main findings: The findings provided support for the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and certain reward preferences. In particular, statistically significant results were obtained with the inclusion of the Environment, Team, and Time occupational culture dimensions as independent variables.
Practical implications and value-add: The study provides workable input to organisations and reward professionals in the design of their reward strategies and programmes.
The relationship between personality types and leisure time activities amongst Casino employees' workplace expectations : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.761More Less
Orientation: Associations between a person's character strengths, happiness and well-being can be explained with the overlap that they have with personality. Casino employees' working hours were and are increasing, which means that their leisure time is decreasing concomitantly, with only 20 hours per week being used in pursuit of leisure activities.
Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate 1502 casino employees' personality types and the relationship it has on their leisure life and overall happiness.
Motivation for the study: The importance of leisure participation and time to take part in leisure activities, and the effect it has on casino employees' happiness in the workplace, warrants further investigation. If human resources managers and general management want happier casino employees in the workplace, they should focus on their personality types and make more leisure activities available to them; which will result in a happier workforce.
Research design, approach and method: The target population consisted of 3032 casino employees, who received the questionnaires and were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaires anonymously. An availability sampling technique was used, based on the number of casino employees who were willing and available to complete the questionnaires.
Main findings and practical/managerial implications: In terms of the structural equation modelling, it was found that the positive personalities such as extraversion and openness to experience correlated well with leisure life and happiness. In this study, the standardised regression weights showed that if an individual has a negative personality, he or she will not necessarily be unhappy. A positive relationship was found between positive personality traits such as cooperativeness and agreeableness and leisure life and happiness. Considering mediation effects, leisure preference was the greatest partial mediator between happiness and personalities.
Contribution: Human resource managers of casino establishments can use these results to determine the type of personality of casino employees that will experience a good leisure life and happiness in relation to the workplace, contributing to positive psychology and human resource literature.
Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry : the nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages : original researchAuthor Abimbola O. WindapoSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.750More Less
Orientation: Construction human resource management.
Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills.
Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality.
Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register.
Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement.
Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on construction sites.
Contribution: It is recommended that the South African government establish proactive strategies in the form of a framework for use in evaluating, certifying and grading the informal expertise acquired by workers through years of practice. This recommendation seeks to ensure that the supply of certified craftsmen capable of undertaking and producing high-quality construction work meets demand.
Source: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.764More Less
Orientation : While there is considerable literature on the definition and impact of authentic leadership (AL), there is a research gap regarding the effectiveness of AL programmes.
Research purpose : The focus of this article is on the proximal programme effect of an AL development programme on executive leaders within a period of 3 months.
Motivation for the study : AL has been identified not only as the root construct of positive forms of leadership but also equates to the highest level of leadership effectiveness. Leadership authenticity can take a life time to develop, and organisations need positive and ethical leadership now. An appropriate AL programme could considerably shorten the development period of a such leadership.
Research design, approach and method : A longitudinal qualitative programme evaluation approach was used. The participants comprised a primary group of a 10-member executive leadership team who were the AL programme participants and their respective secondary (senior, peer and subordinate) participants who provided pre- and post-programme data on the leadership authenticity of the primary participants.
Main findings : The outline of the AL programme is presented with an indication of how it adhered to specific guidelines offered for development of such programmes. Findings indicate that the programme had a proximal effect of increasing AL; starting with the development of personal followed by interpersonal and professional leadership.
Practical/managerial implications : An appropriate and effective AL programme could thus considerably shorten the development period of such leadership.
Rewards : a predictor of well-being and service quality of school principals in the North-West province : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.711More Less
Orientation : School principals have an important role to play in the quality of service delivery in schools. Evidence suggests that school principals are generally poorly compensated, which has an adverse impact on their well-being and subsequent service quality orientation.
Research purpose : This study investigated whether rewards are a predictor of well-being and service orientation of school principals in the North-West province.
Motivation for the study : Effective school principals are fundamental to the success of any school, which necessitates the establishment of an effective reward and remuneration system.
Research design, approach and method : Quantitative research was carried out among school principals (N = 155) in four districts of the North-West province. The Total Rewards Scale, Maslach's Burnout Inventory - General Survey, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the SERVQUAL measure were administered among the principals.
Main findings : The results showed that rewards are a significant predictor of the well-being and service quality of school principals. The results further showed that burnout significantly reduces the service quality of school principals. No significant relationships were found between work engagement and the service quality of school principals.
Practical/managerial implications : An effective total rewards system enhances the well-being of school principals and, subsequently, their willingness and commitment to delivering quality services.
Contribution : The results of this study point out some key elements that need to be considered by the Department of Education to enable quality service delivery in South African schools.
Work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety outcomes within the iron ore mining environment : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –13 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.719More Less
Orientation : The study of work stressors, job insecurity and union support creates opportunity for iron ore mining organisations to manage job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour more effectively.
Research purpose : The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour of a sample of iron ore mine workers in South Africa.
Motivation for the study : The mining industry in general is often faced with hazardous and physically demanding working environments, where employees work under constant pressure. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support and job satisfaction are considered key variables when investigating effective means of managing safety.
Research design, approach and method : A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect the data. A convenience sample of employees in the iron ore mining industry of South Africa (N = 260) were included. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping resampling analysis were used to analyse the data.
Main findings : Work stressors and job insecurity were found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Conversely, perceived union support was positively associated with job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediated the relationship between union support and safety motivation and behaviour.
Practical/managerial implications : Mining organisations can, by placing the focus on reducing work stressors, and promoting job security and union support, achieve higher levels of safety motivation and behaviour through job satisfaction.
Contribution/value-add : A great deal of independent research on work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction as well as safety motivation and behaviour has already been done. To date, very little empirical research exists that simultaneously considers all these constructs. This study brought together these lines of research.
The 'pay ratio' provision of the Dodd-Frank Act 2010 and presentation of the Paulo-Le Roux Index : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.803More Less
Orientation : This article addresses the issues of executive remuneration and whether it was excessive or not.
Research purpose : On 05 August 2015, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) adopted a rule to operationalise Section 953(b) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act 2010 (Dodd-Frank or the Dodd-Frank Act 2010), the 'pay ratio provision', as part of a process to ensure sound corporate governance and shed light on assertions that corporate executive remuneration was excessive and detrimental to the economic wellbeing of the USA. This pay ratio rule will be operative starting from 2017 and requires public firms to publish the ratio of chief executive officer (CEO) remuneration to the median remuneration of all its employees. Hence, it is a measure of income distribution. It does not reveal the relationship between executive compensation and the value added to the firm by executives. In anticipation of this rule becoming mandatory and as part of a quest to quantify the value of executives to the firm, Paulo and Le Roux (2014) developed an approach to measure the value executives add to the firm, drawing from audited financial statements and thereby demonstrating that the value added by executive management could be measured according to the requirements of sound research methodology and rigorous epistemology.
Motivation for the study : Statutory enactment of the pay ratio provision provided the impetus to create an index, the Paulo-Le Roux Index, that shows how much executives are paid in relation to how much value they add to the firm.
Research design, approach and method : Paulo and Le Roux (2014) developed an approach to measure the value executives add to the firm, drawing from audited financial statements and thereby demonstrating that the value added by executive management could be measured according to the requirements of sound research methodology and rigorous epistemology. Statutory enactment of the pay ratio provision provided the impetus to create an index, the Paulo-Le Roux Index, that shows how much executives are paid in relation to how much value they add to the firm. The value added to the firm is a composite of the value drivers, sales, growth, capital requirements (CR), operating profitability (OP), and the discount rate in the form of a weighted average cost of capital (WACC).
Main findings : Discussions that hitherto have been normative regarding executive remuneration, and unrelated to the value created by executives, can now be based on rigorous valuations that draw from audited financial statements.
Practical/managerial implications : Numerous advantages accrue from the use of this index for all stakeholders, managers, organised labour, investors, as well as for asset allocation and corporate restructuring, the risk incurred in adding value, and the strategies applied. This index can be used for any enterprise, division, functional area, or project, and for any financial period for which audited financial statements are available.
Contribution : Using the index ensures sound corporate governance and shed light on assertions that corporate executive remuneration was excessive and detrimental to the economic wellbeing.
Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.722More Less
Orientation : To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some South African automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees' workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour.
Research purpose : Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize.
Motivation for the study : The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers' HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation.
Research design, approach and method : Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents' behaviour and investigated via the statement: 'If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow'. In a first setting, two companies' workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198). In the second setting, two other companies' workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316). Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff.
Main findings : No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers' workplace HIV testing intention (χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097). However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers (χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279).
Practical/managerial implications : Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers 'do the right thing' and unlikely to have a coercive effect if all staff attending HIV testing has participated in standardised HIV and AIDS workplace programme activities and is informed about the consequences of testing positive.
Contribution : A better understanding of how lotteries influence workplace HIV testing among workers of different work status and informed related recommendations.
Beneficiary contact moderates relationship between authentic leadership and engagement : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.758More Less
Orientation : Beneficiary contact moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement.
Research purpose : The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of the breadth, depth and frequency of employee interaction with the beneficiaries of their work on the positive impact of authentic leadership on work engagement.
Motivation for the study : Investigating the boundary conditions of the relationship between leaders and followers is vital to enhance the positive effect of leadership. Authentic leadership has not previously been examined with respect to beneficiary contact as a specific situational factor. The researchers therefore set out to ascertain whether beneficiary contact has a strengthening or weakening effect on the impact of authentic leadership on work engagement.
Research design, approach and method : The researchers administered the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) and Grant's scale on Beneficiary Contact.
Main findings : The findings showed that beneficiary contact had a weakening effect on the positive relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement.
Practical/managerial implications : Ideally, organisations create environments conducive to work engagement in which leadership plays an important role. This study found that one factor in the work environment, namely beneficiary contact, might have an adverse effect on the positive relationship that authentic leadership has on work engagement. Leaders should therefore take organisational contextual realities into account, such as regular, intense interaction of employees with the beneficiaries of their work. This situation could create strain for individual employees, requiring additional organisational support.
Contribution/value-add : Organisations need to recognise the impact of beneficiary contact on the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. The researchers propose further studies on the influence of contextual variables on the relationship between leaders and followers.
Exploring personality traits, mindfulness and sense of coherence of women working in higher education : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.674More Less
Orientation : Previous research shows that personality traits (PT), mindfulness (MI) and sense of coherence (SOC) are connected to psychological well-being and of importance to Human Resource Management (HRM).
Purpose : The purpose of this article was to determine the relationship between PT, MI and SOC of women working in South African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).
Motivation for study : The study explores the relationships of PT, MI and SOC in women in HEIs to contribute to a deeper understanding of these relationships within the HRM context, particularly with regard to training and development in HEIs.
Research design, approach and method : A cross-sectional, survey-based research design was used to address the research objective. Both snowball and convenience sampling were utilised to obtain the sample (n = 125). The sample was derived from the Higher Education Resource Services network. The Life Orientation Questionnaire, Freiburger MI Inventory and Big Five PT Questionnaire were utilised and showed acceptable levels of reliability. Exploratory factor analysis with either a direct oblimin or varimax rotation was used to investigate the factor structure of the questionnaires (λ < 1 were used), because one of the questionnaires had not been used in the South African context before. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Spearman/Pearson correlations, canonical correlations and multiple regressions were used to determine the relationship between the variables.
Main findings : The results showed a significant relationship between the components PT, MI and SOC. It appears that PT plays a significant role in influencing MI and SOC.
Practical/managerial implications : Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how PT, MI and SOC interrelate and need to become aware of the impact of these positive psychological constructs on women in HEIs.
Contribution : These findings contribute new knowledge that can be used to create healthy HEIs through empirically-based, gender-specific training programmes.
Perception of performance management system by academic staff in an open distance learning higher education environment : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.784More Less
Orientation: Institutions of higher learning in South Africa are fast embracing performance management system (PMS) as a mechanism for the achievement of teaching excellence and enhancement of research productivity. However, literature provided evidence to show that application of PMS in the private sector had failed to drive competition, efficiency and productivity.
Research purpose: The main purpose of this article was to evaluate the perception of academic staff members of an open distance learning institution regarding the implementation of a PMS.
Motivation for the study: PMS as a mechanism through which performance of academics is measured has been described as inconsistent with the long tradition of academic freedom, scholarship and collegiality in the academy. Moreso, previous research on the implementation of PMS was limited to private sector organisations, thus resulting in the dearth of empirical literature relating to its practice in service-driven public sector institutions.
Research design, approach and method: The article adopted a quantitative research approach using census survey methodology. Data were collected from 492 academic staff from the surveyed institution using a self-developed questionnaire that was tested for high content validity with a consolidated Cronbach's alpha value of 0.83. Data were analysed using a one-sample t-test because of the one-measurement nature of the variable under investigation.
Main findings: Major findings of the study indicated that respondents were satisfied with the implementation of the PMS by management. However, the payment of performance bonuses was not considered as sufficiently motivating, thus necessitating a pragmatic review by management.
Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this article provided a practical guide to managers on the implementation and management of PMS as an employee performance reward mechanism in non-profit and service-oriented organisations.
Contribution: This article provided an incremental contribution to the body of literature in the broad field of management and a further advancement of existing knowledge in the sub-field of performance management system.
The impact of workplace bullying on individual wellbeing : the moderating role of coping : original researchSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –12 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.792More Less
Orientation: Workplace bullying has deleterious effects on individual well-being and various organisational outcomes. Different coping styles may moderate the relationship between workplace bullying and individual and organisational outcomes.
Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of four coping styles - seeking help, assertiveness, avoidance and doing nothing - in the relationship between workplace bullying and individual and organisational outcomes.
Motivation for the study: There is a lack of South African research exploring the moderating role of different coping styles in the relationship between workplace bullying and individual and organisational outcomes.
Research design, approach and method: The study used a cross-sectional design, quantitative approach and a convenience sampling method. One hundred white-collar respondents from a construction organisation in South Africa participated in this research. Moderated multiple regression (MMR) was used to analyse the data.
Main findings: Results of the MMR indicated a direct negative impact of workplace bullying on psychological well-being, self-esteem, job satisfaction and intention to leave. Seeking help and assertiveness moderated the relationship between bullying and psychological well-being. Avoidance and doing nothing also moderated the relationship between bullying and psychological well-being but in a counterintuitive manner, exacerbating the negative impact of bullying on psychological well-being. Similarly, avoidance exacerbated the negative impact of bullying on self-esteem. Direct effects were also found for the coping strategy of seeking help on psychological well-being and for avoidance on job satisfaction. However, while seeking help improved psychological well-being, avoidance had a negative impact on job satisfaction.
Practical/managerial implications: Different coping strategies may have different effects. Some may be productive in terms of leading to improved outcomes, while others may not. These findings have particular relevance for human resource departments and practitioners.
Contribution/value-add: The findings of this research contribute to the limited body of South African research investigating different types of coping in moderating the bullying-well-being relationship.
Testing measurement invariance of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation scale across academic achievement : original researchAuthor Maelekanyo C. MulaudziSource: SA Journal of Human Resource Management 14, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v14i1.730More Less
Orientation: Measurement invariance is one of the most precarious aspects of the scale development process without which the interpretation of research findings on population sub-groups may be ambiguous and even invalid. Besides tests for validity and reliability, measurement invariance represents the hallmark for psychometric compliance of a new measuring instrument and provides the basis for inference of research findings across a range of relevant population sub-groups.
Research purpose: This study tested the measurement invariance of a Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME) scale across levels of academic achievement.
Motivation for the study: It is important for any researcher involved in new scale development to ensure that the measurement instrument and its underlying constructs have proper structural alignment and that they both have the same level of meaning and significance across comparable heterogeneous groups.
Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used, and data were obtained from 369 participants who were selected from three public sector organisations using a probabilistic simple random sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Analysis of Moment Structures software (versions 21.0.0) were used to analyse the data.
Main findings: The findings show that all the four invariance models tested have achieved acceptable goodness-of-fit indices. Furthermore, the findings show that the factorial structure of the LPME scale and the meaning of its underlying constructs are invariant across different levels of academic achievement for human resource development (HRD) practitioners and learners or apprentices involved in occupational learning programmes.
Practical implications: The findings of this study suggest practical implications for HRD scholars as they are enabled to make informed decisional balance comparisons involving educational attainment sub-groups.
Contributions and value addition: This study contributes methodologically to the sub-field of HRD by enabling scholars to make comparisons of mean differences or other structural parameters across sub-groups.