South African Journal of Psychology - latest Issue
Volumes & issues
Volume 46, Issue 3, 2016
Electronic interventions for depression in adolescents : hot idea or hot air? : state of the scienceSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 293 –305 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246316631434More Less
Depressive disorders frequently onset in adolescence, and although effective treatments for these disorders are known, many youth have difficulty accessing care when needed. Electronic interventions and mobile applications have been posited as a possible solution for increasing access to affordable care. This narrative review explores the state of the evidence for their effectiveness, safety, and acceptability with teenagers. Although many electronic interventions and mobile applications have received widespread attention, minimal rigorous independent research has been conducted, and their use with teenagers who have depression cannot be recommended at this time.
How to learn to love your research ethics committee : recommendations for psychologists : special section : research methodsSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 306 –315 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246316654348More Less
Ethics review of psychological and sociobehavioural research is increasingly required by leading South African research institutions and universities, following international trends, and national statutory developments. Local and international scholarly journals are also more routinely requesting proof of ethics approval before accepting empirical work for publication. In some instances, psychological researchers may regard ethics review as a process that imposes delays and adds little value to proposed studies, and they may experience the process as frustrating and unrewarding. This article aims to briefly review the issue of ethics review for such research and to focus on pragmatic recommendations for psychological researchers navigating ethical review, including how they could engage their research ethics committee more effectively to strengthen this critical relationship.
Ostinato rigore : establishing methodological rigour in quantitative research : special section: research methodsAuthor Sumaya LaherSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 316 –327 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246316649121More Less
The last 20 years in South Africa and abroad have evidenced huge changes in the ways in which research is accessed and produced. These changes were facilitated by the rapid developments in technology. Collaborating with researchers across the globe and accessing articles and research can be done at the push of a button and response times are as instantaneous. Conducting and communicating one's own research are also much easier. This led to a veritable explosion of publishers and journals, some of which are legitimate and others predatory. In this climate, the adage of 'publish or perish' has become a lived reality placing increasing pressure on scholars to publish. An unintended consequence of this is the increasing lack of methodological rigour in studies. This article advocates for increasing attention to methodological rigour in quantitative research. In so doing, guidelines and suggestions are provided in terms of elements to be considered within each of the broad aspects of a study, namely, sampling, instrumentation, methods, design, and data analysis. These are drawn from the literature as well as the author's own experiences in teaching quantitative research methods, supervising postgraduate student research, reviewing articles for local and international journals, as well as experiences of reviewing articles located within the quantitative paradigm as Associate Editor for the South African Journal of Psychology. Ultimately, this article seeks to create awareness among researchers around the necessity for methodologically rigorous research to enhance the quality of outputs. This will have the effect of producing impactful research that can confidently inform policy, practice, and training within the discipline.
Key concepts for quality as foundational in qualitative research : milkshakes, mirrors and maps in 3D : special section : research methodsAuthor Lisa Saville YoungSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 328 –337 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246316630146More Less
With increasing calls for evidence-based practice within the discipline of psychology in South Africa alongside the now established value of qualitative methodologies, qualitative research that is both relevant and methodologically sound is of vital importance. Internationally, the recognition of the need for criteria with which to evaluate qualitative research has generated a number of useful and important guidelines. Integrating these already existing guidelines, this article outlines four key concepts useful in pursuing quality in qualitative research: coherence, reflexivity, rigour and richness. To thicken these concepts, I use analogies and draw on examples from my own research. The article is aimed at teachers, consumers, reviewers and producers of qualitative research within psychology in South Africa with the purpose of fostering a particular attitude towards quality markers as foundational rather than additional to qualitative research.
The meaning of developmental trauma : validation of a brief screen for developmental trauma appraisalsSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 338 –350 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246315617888More Less
This article describes the development and validation of a brief screen for developmental trauma appraisals. The 7-item screen was administered to a non-clinical sample of 477 South African adolescents who had experienced interpersonal violence during childhood. In all, 216 participants (45%) met the study criteria for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and 41 (9%) met the study criteria for a diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Exploratory factor analysis yielded one factor which had a high level of internal consistency (α = .91) and acceptable levels of construct and concurrent validity for both posttraumatic stress disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder outcomes. Mediation analyses indicated that the appraisal screen measures a construct which effectively mediates the relationship between traumatic exposure and the severity of posttraumatic outcomes across a broad range of maltreatment types.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients' experience with counselling and psychotherapy in South Africa : implications for affirmative practiceSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 351 –363 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246315620774More Less
The Psychological Society of South Africa has embarked on a process of developing affirmative practice guidelines for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people, inclusive of, but not limited to, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex concerns. Towards informing the guidelines, we explored self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual people's experiences of psychotherapy and counselling in South Africa. A total of 15 qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants. Among others, positive experiences entailed receiving unconditional positive regard, acceptance, and non-judgement from counsellors and/or psychotherapists. This included the counsellors and/or psychotherapists positively affirming participants' sexual orientation by, for instance, viewing same-sex attractions, feelings, and behaviour as normal variants of sexuality and seeing sexual orientation as one aspect of the person, not the only aspect. Negative experiences were almost exclusively ascribed to the counsellors and/or psychotherapists being disaffirming of the client's sexual orientation. Findings provide a potential basis for future affirmative practice guidelines and indicate that taking a stance affirming of sexual orientation was considered to be important.
Source: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 364 –375 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246315619833More Less
Increasing globalization and immigration has seen an increase in linguistic and cultural diversity worldwide. This has necessitated the use of interpreters in public service settings. Of particular interest to the authors, and the focus of this article, is the impact of linguistic diversity on access to health care and, more specifically, to mental healthcare services. It is widely documented that language discordance impedes access to, and quality of, health care and that formally trained interpreter-assisted consults vastly improve client satisfaction and clinical outcomes. This article examines the current situation in South Africa regarding the use of interpreters in this setting. The ethical and practical implications for psychotherapy and psychodiagnostics are considered. Current policy and legislation relevant to language services and health care is reviewed. Possible ways forward to ensure equal access to healthcare services are discussed.
Quality of life among South African patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in the Western Cape ProvinceSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 376 –389 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246315623237More Less
Compared to patients not receiving treatment, antiretroviral therapy users may experience a lower viral load, an increased CD4 count, slower disease progression, fewer opportunistic infections, and more rapid recovery time from HIV-related illnesses. As such, health-related quality of life is likely to be considerably greater for antiretroviral therapy users than for patients not receiving treatment. The dearth of quality of life research in sub-Saharan Africa brings into focus the need for and importance of documenting the various dimensions of well-being among people living with HIV. We administered the Functional Assessment of HIV Infection to a convenience sample of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in the Western Cape in South Africa. We used confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis to determine the factor structure of the Functional Assessment of HIV Infection. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed a poor model fit of the data. However, the exploratory factor analysis factor structure closely approximated the subscales of the measure, indicating the dimensions of physical, emotional, functional, and social well-being and cognitive functioning. We identified problematic items on the Functional Assessment of HIV Infection contributing to the poor model fit and argue that the measure is potentially useful in assessing quality of life among antiretroviral therapy users in South Africa.
Using narrative analysis to understand factors influencing career choice in a sample of distance learning students in South AfricaSource: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 390 –400 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246315623662More Less
The making of career choice is seen as an important decision in an individual's life. Research in South Africa suggests there is little yet growing empirical focus on the career development processes of individuals termed as 'previously disadvantaged' by the apartheid policy of racial separation. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors that influence distance learning students' career choices among a sample of previously disadvantaged distance learners in South Africa. Data were collected from 40 participants using unstructured interviews. Upon analysis, five themes emerged as influencing career choice: the influence of (a) significant others, (b) academic performance, (c) personal circumstances, (d) environmental forces, and (e) career interventions. Furthermore, each of these factors influencing the making of career choice was accompanied by difficulty en route to the enactment of choice. Based on the findings of this study, career counsellors can come up with interventions targeted at previously disadvantaged individuals. This can not only help in empowering career counsellors to understand their clients but also help in understanding the career development processes of such clients.
Source: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 401 –414 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246315617135More Less
This article uses in-depth, open-ended individual interviews and a 'contextualist method'-based thematic analysis to explicate the training experiences of eight research psychology post-interns. The experiences present internships within a specific training site as a messy and complex experience, as a process of professional socialisation, and as a space that evokes uncertainty about career identity, career opportunities, and financial independence. While there was some variability in how participants made sense of their unstructured transition into a trans-disciplinary professional space, their talk highlighted the troubling and affirming emotions inherent to the process of professional socialisation and the influences of life choices and financial considerations on professional decisions. Structured supervisory support may be crucial within life-oriented internship training.
Source: South African Journal of Psychology 46, pp 415 –426 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246315623106More Less
The religious perception among individuals in sub-Saharan Africa that the 'Big Five' personality dimensions and fatalism are predictors of drivers' behaviours and road accidents has received little scientific investigations. This paucity of research in the roles of psychological factors such as personality and fatalistic beliefs in shaping positive driver behaviour and attitudes has thus provided motivation for the conduct of this quantitative study. We collected data from 203 conveniently sampled taxi drivers in Gauteng province of South Africa by means of a structured questionnaire. Our analysis, using Structural Equation Modelling, found significant positive relationships between agreeableness and positive driver behaviour, conscientiousness and positive driver behaviour, fatalism and extraversion, as well as fatalism and positive driver behaviour. The results highlighted the dimensions of being methodical, organised, and risk aversive on the road, on the one hand, and being social, cooperative, and good-natured, on the other hand. Findings of the study further indicated that fatalistic beliefs are prevalent and indeed characteristic of individuals who are sociable, gregarious, and assertive. These individuals tend to uphold their religious and spiritual beliefs in the linkages between road accidents and destiny. Insights provided by this study could assist the Department of Transport and related Road Safety Authorities in designing road safety campaigns that addresses the erroneous beliefs by drivers that road accidents are pre-destined, and not as a result of individual's driving behaviour.