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Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies - latest Issue
Volume 7, Issue 5, 2016
The relationship between school burnout, gender and academic achievement amongst secondary school students in Kisumu East Subcounty KenyaSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 326 –331 (2016)More Less
School burnout reduces productivity and creativity and is related to low goal progress which subsequently leads to delay in studies and low educational aspirations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of school burnout and its relationship with gender and academic achievement The objectives of the study were to: Establish school burnout levels, determine gender differences in school burnout and Determine differences amongst high and low academic achievers in school burnout. The study was guided by Work Burnout theory. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study population consisted of 4500 students. A sample size of 450 was selected based on Nkpa’s formula. Stratified random sampling technique was used. Questionnaires and document analysis guide were used for data collection. Reliability was computed using Cronbach’s alpha: for school burnout, it was 0.8. Face and content validity were ascertained by experts in the Department of Educational Psychology the author respectively. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics. There were significant gender differences in cynicism with females reporting higher levels than males. Low achievers reported more school burnout. The study may be useful to teachers, counselors, administrators and parents who may be able to assist students reduce burnout. This research is also important for policy. The government may enforce school holidays devoid of tuition. It is recommended that programs be developed that create awareness and encourage students’ to reduce school burnout.
From predatory to developmental : appraising Nigeria’s policy environment under democratic governance (1999-2015)Author Kehinde Olayode OlusolaSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 332 –337 (2016)More Less
The question of transforming the Nigerian state from predatory to „developmental‟ bothers on the relevance, potentials, and capacity of the state as agent of development and partnership in the democratisation process. This in turn provokes some questions: What kind of reforms does the Nigerian state need to make it an agent of development? How is the Nigerian state in Africa to be reconstituted to serve as a bridge between democracy and development? What kind of partnership can exist between the state and civil society in the developmental project? The paper appraises Nigeria‟s policy environment as presently constituted under democratic governance. The paper argues that authoritarian characters and ethos of the colonial state, reinforced by successive military dictators have undermined the democratic credentials of the state and also weakened its capacity to promote good governance and economic developments. The apparatuses of the state, rather than being used for collective goods have been turned into instruments for advancing selfish and parochial interests of the minority ruling class. From the World Bank‟s ‘Doing Business Reports’, the Nigerian state provides unfriendly environment for doing business. Regulatory and security agencies of the state have equally become repressive tools in a „predatory and criminal‟ model. The paper appraises the policy environment under democratic governance in Nigeria since 1999. The paper is significant in that it examines the capacity of the state as presently constituted to promote democratic governance and economic development. The creation of an enabling atmosphere for promoting economic and political rights in Nigeria therefore cannot side-track the question of the re-legitimisation of the state and the enhancement of its capacity as a key partner in the developmental process.
Occupational safety and health in the school curriculum : diversity in school practices in the European UnionAuthor Antonio Burgos-GarciaSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 338 –348 (2016)More Less
Integration or “mainstream” of safety and health in the school curriculum is a priority for the European Union, specifically, from the publication of the Community Strategy on Occupational Safety and Health (2014-2020) published a document titled “How to adapt to the changes in society and in the world of work: a new community health and safety strategy” (Jansen, 2014). In this sense, fostering a culture of prevention in students, will develop responsible attitudes in both personal and professional life. This paper analyzes, in a comparative way, different strategies and processes of integration of safety and health in school curricula in European Union countries (United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Italy, Spain, etc.). The methodology is qualitative (content analysis) using the “AQUAD Five” software. The sample is the set of institutional campaigns, educational programs, etc. applied in the various European education systems. Finally, promote safety and health in the school curriculum with success and quality assurance in the education of our students must be made from three perspectives: 1) Towards a safe and healthy school: “holistic” approach; 2) Safety and health as a transversal subject at school: “curriculum” approach; 3) Transition from school to working life: “workplace” approach. Finally, our proposal is: To offer key guidelines to improve the educational and organizational performance in the process of teaching and learning (Primary and Secondary Education) and integrate safety and health at school (curriculum) in order to reduce accidents of our future workers.
Challenging culture through transformation : a case study of a University of Science and Technology in NamibiaSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 349 –359 (2016)More Less
Academic institutions exhibit complex relational structures with distinctive cultures and work climates. Transformation in these institutions is triggered by internal development, and adaptation because of changing environmental conditions. When culture is especially viewed as an internationalization posture, it requires a highly articulate leadership to carry the institution through the change process. Consequentially, the change process has to be supported by institutionalized strategic planning that is representative, in order to optimally utilize the environment within which it occurs (Mirvis, 1990). This paper explored factors that were employed by a Polytechnic to change to a more academically enhancing culture, of a University of Science and Technology (UST). It looks at the extent to which strategic planning and re-aligned faculty articulation accelerated cultural change. Using the first, second and third tares schematically, in which: classes are nested within departments, departments are nested within faculties and faculties nested in the institution, this paper suggests that an overall integration at a broader level is required to sustain superior performance during and after transition. Because institutions of higher learning exist as conglomeration of autonomous subunits with a high degree of specialization in disciplines (Becher 1981; Clark 1983; Dill &Sporn 1995b; Clark 1995), a highly spirited leadership is necessary to effect a landmark culture change. A greater purpose was to demonstrate that accelerated culture change is attainable in an academic institution. Whereas the significance of such change comes out of spirited leadership, a bigger potential impact is that academic institutions can learn and transform.
Strategies used by learners with Cerebral Palsy to acquire literacy skills in schools for the physically handicapped in KenyaSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 360 –370 (2016)More LessLearning to read and write is essential in the development and functioning of every child, with or without a disability including those with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Learners with CP experience limitations in Literacy Skills (LS) due to lack of speech, motor difficulties and/or use of inappropriate instructional strategies. These factors are likely to affect their overall academic work. In Kenya, learners with CP are enrolled in schools for children with Physical Handicap (PH) where they are expected to transit annually to the subsequent higher grade. However, information available in these schools shows that more than half (56% to 88%) of learners with CP repeated various classes between the years 2009 to 2011. This could be attributed to inadequate literacy skills that have affected their academic work and transition to higher grades. This study analyzes the strategies that learners with cerebral palsy use to acquire literacy skills under mediated instructional strategies. The study is based on the Vygotskian theory of zone of proximal development. Descriptive and embedded case study designs were used. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 18 learners with CP with speech difficulties from three schools for the PH in Kenya. Data was collected through observational guides and document analysis guides. The data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics for quantitative data using frequency counts and percentages and interpretational analysis for qualitative data where data was coded into categories and themes as the patterns emerged. Experts‟ opinion was used to determine both face and content validity of the instruments. Reliability of instruments was determined through the test re-test method. The results reveal that most learners 11 (61.1%) with CP use association of object/picture paired with experience. However, they over use this strategy which leads to over-dependence and subsequently hindering their independence in acquiring literacy skills. The results also indicate that this over-dependence is due to the fact that teachers do not fade out learner support during instruction. The findings of the study are important since they show that although learners with CP are able to use mediated strategies to acquire literacy skills, teachers are not encouraging the moderated use of scaffolding for independent reading. The findings of this study may enable teachers of literacy inculcate independence in learning to read and write and to help increase the transition rate of learners with CP to subsequent grades in school.
Degree of the teachers’ practice of their roles and knowledge economy concepts from their perspective in PalestineSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 371 –382 (2016)More LessThis study aims at identifying the degree to which teachers are practicing their roles and knowledge economy concepts from their perspective in Palestine. Which raises teachers’ efficiency and improves their performance by recognizing their roles. To achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire consisted of 35 items was developed. Also, an interview which was prepared to measure the teachers’ practice of knowledge economy concepts was applied in groups and individually. The sample of the study consisted of 250 male and female teachers in the Directorate of Education in Ramallah and Al-Bireh governorate. Results showed the degree to which the teachers are practicing their roles was high (planning, teaching implementation, self development, students’ learning). Results also revealed lack of differences between the means of the teachers’ degree of practicing their roles attributed to gender, specialization and scientific qualification variables, but there were differences in the means of the teachers’ degree of practicing their roles attributed to years of experience in favor of the (1-5 years) and the stage variable in favor of lower basic stage in addition to the supervision variable in favor of private schools. Moreover, the results of the interviews showed that some of the knowledge economy practiced by the teachers was heavily based on teaching strategies and teacher’s roles. Additionally, there were concept abandoned especially in the field of research, social media, the student’s role in producing knowledge and the authentic evaluation field. Based on the results, the study recommended the necessity of organizing training workshops on the procedural research and authentic evaluation in addition to carry other similar studies.