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Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies - latest Issue
Volume 7, Issue 4, 2016
Psychosocial effects of child sexual abuse on the academic performance of Grade Seven learners in Gweru Urban, ZimbabweSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 255 –263 (2016)More Less
This research examined the psychosocial effects of child sexual abuse on academic performance among grade seven learners in Gweru urban, Zimbabwe with the aim of suggesting sound preventive and protective measures to mitigate the problems of child sexual abuse. There has been documented rise in the cases of child sexual abuse at family, community, district and provincial levels in Zimbabwe. It is estimated that approximately one in three girls and two in seven boys are victims of sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. This research is informed by Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory. In this study, a qualitative phenomenological case study design was used with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions as data collection instruments to fifteen learners, six Grade seven teachers and one police officer who were purposively sampled from one primary school in Gweru. Findings from this study revealed that child sexual abuse affected the moral, physical, cognitive/intellectual, emotional, social and behavioural development which consequently impacts on academic performance. Cultural and religious practices, poverty and HIV/AIDS were also noted to exacerbate the problems of child sexual abuse among learners. This research recommended that there is need for the government to introduce strict laws on the perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Legal expertise should also be sought and hence the need to report all sexual abuse cases to the police. There is also need to educate communities and conscientise them on the dangers of child sexual abuse on the academic performance of learners.
Source: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 264 –270 (2016)More Less
Contact between Shona and English dates back to many decades ago during the colonial era. There are historical circumstances that influenced their contact and coexistence. Since then the English language has become dominant in most socio-cultural, historical, economic and educational contexts. Focus of the study is on the effects of code-mixing within Shona first language speaking homes. Previous researchers have tended to shy away from the fact that the community's attitude towards English and code-mixing is paving way for the use of English terms instead of the existing Shona terms, hence Shona first language learners are no longer acquiring pure Shona, but diluted with English terms. Shona, especially in urban middle to high class family homes is in decline in favour of English which is a language of wider communication. The type of Shona transmitted from generation to generation is slowly losing its originality as some Shona terms are no longer used in daily conversations as revealed by this study. Shona language is in danger of being swallowed by English as it is the language of instruction even used to teach Shona as a subject and most people take pride in using it. There is therefore need to come up with language revitalisation programmes to try and protect the Shona language. This paper is meant to make policy makers aware of the dangers of using English as a language of wider communication and gives suggestions on how to serve the local languages from losing their originality.
Towards acquisition of physics knowledge and overview of strategies on sustainable national development and disaster managementAuthor Thomas Ajibade AdebisiSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 271 –275 (2016)More Less
The study examines "towards acquisition of physics knowledge and overview of strategies on sustainable national development and disaster management." The entire universe is in the state of progression due to fact that science provides the knowledge of natural phenomenon which empowers man. However, science puts the global world on the route of development because it eradicates chaotic turbulence making life worth living. The contribution of science to technology is with inclusion of Physics knowledge. Physics knowledge is not isolated with other sciences to explain natural phenomenon on the planet earth. The method and the way Physics studied nature has contributed immensely to social and economic well being of people. The weight of Physics to economic growth is remarkable in Industry, Communication, Medicine, Engineering and Technology. The undertone of this is the application of Physics knowledge to life; this conscripts to national growth of any nation. Human development can be achieved through Physics skills in problem solving, creative thinking, objectivity and abhorrence to superstitions; these attributes have the way to promote national development. However, the sustainable national growth and development are often challenge by monstrous events of natural and man-made disasters. Therefore, this paper therefore discusses relevance of Physics education to national development and disaster management. Other strategies to curb disasters were also highlighted. Since Physics lies in the heart of science and technology, the paper concluded that educationist and science educator should ensure that the teaching of science is carried beyond recitation of laws and principle but to see to problem solving, critical thinking, and value judgment during physics class and that different teaching styles should be used to teach the subject. The study recommended appropriate methods through concise education, scientific literacy, physics skills, government agency and voluntary organization to boost national development and manage both natural and man-made disasters.
Learning through teaching : tutors' reflections and recommendations when facilitating student learning in case studies through peer tutoringSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 276 –282 (2016)More Less
Peer tutoring is an approach commonly used in learning and research on it will enable instructors to refine its use. The purpose of his study is to gain insight on tutor's experiences in the course of peer tutoring. Two groups of participants consisting of 10 advanced diploma in Financial Accounting students with mixed proficiency using peer tutoring to analyse two business case studies were observed. The peer-tutoring sessions were video-taped. Additionally, the researcher produced observation notes to record down significant incidents. Both tutors and tutees were interviewed and even produced journals to describe their experiences and their opinions on the sessions. Consequently, two categories of information regarding the tutors were obtained. They consist of firstly, their personal reflections and secondly, their recommendations on improving future peer-tutoring sessions. Detailed areas of information covered in this study range from the tutors' perceptions of requirements as tutors, insights on the process of peer tutoring and clear suggestions on carrying out effective peer tutoring in the classroom. There were suggestions from tutors on how to improve future peer tutoring sessions, too. The tutors' recommendations were allowing tutors to view videos of productive peer-tutoring sessions, conducting rehearsals for tutors, meeting regularly with instructors for debriefing purpose and providing sufficient time for peer tutoring.
Author P. MachengSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 283 –291 (2016)More Less
This paper examines teacher continuous professional development in junior secondary schools in Botswana. Teachers are central to the teaching and learning process, hence, their continuous professional development should be constantly nurtured to meet their ever demanding changes in school's physical and social environment, curriculum and educational policy. Teachers need to adapt to such changes to be effective to such a dynamic environment. The purpose of this discussion is to reflect on the importance of continuous professional development of teachers as a critical phenomenon to enable them to deal with the gaps in training due to time and changes. The paper is an extract of the main study that investigated the availability of structures or programmes that facilitate continuing professional development of teachers and factors that impede teacher development in seven (7) randomly selected Junior Secondary Schools in northern region of Botswana. The study was quantitative and qualitative in nature. Data were gathered using survey questionnaires and interviews. A computer aided statistical analysis (SPSS version 20) was used to analyse the quantitatively derived data. The analysis engaged both descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The findings indicated lack of structures or programmes in junior secondary schools to facilitate teacher development and growth. In conclusion, it is vital for the Ministry of Education and Skills Development to continuously develop teachers professionally to cope with the changes in their teaching and learning environment.
Lost in memorization : the case of science instruction in KSA schools and the argument for a promotion of science literacy based on formative assessment practicesSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 292 –301 (2016)More Less
This study focuses on the connection between teachers' assessment and students' achievement in science instruction in schools of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Specifically, data from TIMMS 2011 were analyzed to answer the question "What is the effect of KSA teacher assessment practices on grade 8 students' achievement in science?" Data were selected for their relevance to the question, including those on approaches to science-instruction as perceived by teachers themselves, data were analyzed with regard to standards set by international discourse, compared with the international average, and were internally weighted to maintain coherent patterns. Findings show a relation between the knowledge-focused approach to teaching and assessing students' achievement prevalent in KSA science instruction and the low achievement results of KSA students in TIMMS 2011. A look at assessment practices in KSA science instruction is called for: There should be a correlation between the extent to which continuous, formative assessment is practiced during instruction and students' achievement as stated by international studies. In our secondary analysis of TIMMS results, we found no traces of an application of formative assessment and indeed no clues as to whether the very concept is known to teachers at all. Professional development about formative assessment and more emphasis on the procedural side of science in KSA instruction are recommended.
Source: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 302 –309 (2016)More Less
The study examined the dynamic relationship between demand for university and polytechnic educations and the performance of the Nigerian economy for the period of 1985 to 2013. Time series econometrics (Granger Causality and Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model) was applied to test the causal, short run and long run relationship among the variables. The result of the Granger Causality test revealed that there is a unidirectional causality running from university enrolment to real gross domestic product. The test also shows that there is bidirectional causality between polytechnic enrolment and real gross domestic product. The bound test established the presence of a long run relationship among the series. Polytechnic enrollment constitutes a leakage to the Nigeria economy while University education has positive long run impact on the economy. The paper recommends that Government and other relevant stakeholders reviews the education system such that products of polytechnics are able to match up with Nigeria technological and labor market challenges and enhance their contributions towards national output in the bid to achieve sustainable development.
The effect of environmental factors in teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools in Edo State of NigeriaSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 310 –317 (2016)More Less
This paper x-rayed the importance of environmental factors in every human endeavor especially as it relates to the teaching and learning environment in Edo state primary and secondary schools. It examined environmental factors to determine the outcome of teaching and learning at all times and in all places. Environmental factors consist of external factors that impinge on the learner including people, objects, perceptions, climate, aesthetics, noise, flood, building, interactions, socio-economic status, laws etc. This paper presents flood as a natural occurrence which often leads to disasters as a result of human-created vulnerability, which is a consequence of human-environment interactions. This paper concludes that the more enriched the learning environments is, the greater and more widespread are the benefits for academic performance and other student outcomes. It was therefore recommended that since the Nigerian learning environment is deplorable at some levels with particular reference to secondary schools; the educational institutions that are in flood ravaged communities be given serious attention as regards flood disaster and early management by government and other stakeholders in the educational System, so as to encourage sustainability and development.
Analysis of capital structure and effectiveness of business enterprises for national sustainable development and disaster managementAuthor Babalola Yisau AbiodunSource: Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies 7, pp 318 –325 (2016)More Less
Managing capital structure is one of the most important and difficult problems to be solved in the process of funding, sourcing and providing finance for an enterprise. Instant response to changing external and internal environment requires significant update of many management functions in order to reduce their financial risk. The research aims to enhance the analysis of capital structure and effectiveness of business enterprises for national sustainable development and disaster management through the use of combinatorial methods for the analysis of 31 selected companies listed in the Nigeria Stock Exchange Bulletin from 1999 to 2013, certified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The method of analysis is the panel estimation technique where the study seeks to analysis both the short-run dynamics and long-run nexus between capital structure and the effectiveness of business enterprises. The results obtained are highly instructive as valuable conclusions were drawn; and policy suggestions, which are deemed to benefit the investors and shareholders, lenders and finally, academicians who will see new empirical evidence in the accounting literature emanating from an emerging economy like Nigeria were proffered.