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Volume 38, Issue 3, 2016
Author Siroos AhmadiSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 1 –13 (2016)More Less
The influence of success and failure in international sporting competitions on the psycho-social life of citizens has been under-researched. This one-group pre-post-test design aimed to investigate the influence of the results of Iran's national football team in the 2015 AFC Asian Cup on the happiness in Iranian citizens. The study was conducted in three stages: 1) before the start of the competitions; 2) after the qualifying rounds; and 3) after the team's knockout loss in the quarter-finals. A sample of 320 respondents was drawn by means of the multistage sampling method from the citizens of Yasouj in Iran (age range=18 to 50 years). The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) was used for collecting data. The results show that happiness significantly increased in the qualifying round, however, happiness plummeted after the team's loss against Iraq in the quarter-finals. The present study concludes that the results of national football teams in international competitions can affect the happiness of citizens.
Author Cora BurnettSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 15 –26 (2016)More Less
The phasing out of physical education (PE) in South African public schools in the 1980s has left a void relating to the relative inability to deliver on strategic outcomes of government departments. Contemporary Life Orientation (LO) and PE curricula and practices in public schools (especially those in impoverished communities) rely on external implementing agencies for delivery. Global agencies, such as the International Olympic Committee and international sport federations deliver on mega sport event legacy programmes, often through school-based programmes. Current sport-for-development and Olympic-related educational practices in search of a meaningful PE model based on a human justice framework that will foster optimal physical activity participation opportunities for all in different settings is examined. A Foucauldian lens of governmentality provides a conceptual framework for a multi-agency model of good governance, and illuminates crucial insights in terms of how sport, as a dominant paradigm, perpetuates a persuasive framework for neoliberal thinking and practices. Many such practices are entrenched in competitive sport and are perpetuated by the sport ethic. Some key questions remain since they relate to the necessity for constructing relevant PE curricula and models that can leverage global content and mega sport event legacies in an integrated and sustainable way.
Combined associations of television viewing and physical activity with overweight/obesity in Taiwanese elderly adultsSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 27 –35 (2016)More Less
This study investigated the combined association of TV viewing and physical activity (PA) with overweight/obesity in Taiwanese elderly adults. A telephone-based survey was conducted in 2013. Self-reported data (height, weight, TV viewing time, and PA time), were collected from a nationally representative sample of 1031 adults aged >55 years. Unadjusted and adjusted binary logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of overweight/obesity (BMI≥25kg/m2) according to four combined TV (2h/day) and PA (150min/week) categories. In total, 60.4% of the sample was overweight/obese. After adjustment for potential confounders, significantly higher ORs of overweight/obesity were observed in the high TV/sufficient PA (OR=1.96; 95% CI=1.31-2.95) and high TV/insufficient PA (OR=1.93; 95% CI=1.34-2.78), categories compared with the low TV/sufficient PA category. Consistent with those in high-income countries, Taiwanese elderly adults, who engage in more than two hours of TV viewing per day, are at a higher risk of being overweight/obese, regardless of whether they meet PA recommendations. Additional studies are required to identify at-risk populations and the associated correlates of prolonged TV viewing to design effective interventions.
Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : case studiesSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 37 –49 (2016)More Less
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder display a range of challenging difficulties in all aspects of their daily living routines. Due to these challenges, parents look for various interventions that will improve the quality of life of their children. The objective of this study was to determine whether an Equine-Assisted Therapy (EAT) intervention would result in an improvement of balance, upper-limb coordination and strength. Two case studies were conducted, where one female (9 years and 4 months) and one male (8 years and 7 months) participated in a 10-week EAT intervention. Motor proficiency was evaluated by means of a pre-post-test research design using selected composites of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). Individual changes were observed in balance, upper-limb coordination and strength. EAT interventions could provide a suitable alternative approach for children on this spectrum who experience impairments in low muscle tone, repetitive motor movements, poor motor planning, postural instability, difficulty sequencing a task, as well as poor gross motor performance. Larger studies involving more participants are suggested to ascertain if these findings can be generalised.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 51 –59 (2016)More Less
This paper provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of innovative sport technology brought about by cross-disciplinary research in sport, engineering, medical and material sciences. Sport technology has subsequently contributed greatly to the enhancement of epidemiology, prevention and management of injuries, management of non-communicable diseases, physical activity and sport performance. The debate raging between sport scientists and academics pertaining to the greater amount of attention paid to sport technology and cross-disciplinary research in sport and the diminished quality and quantity of subject matter is highlighted. The paper also raises the following ethical question: Should only affluent elite athletes have the opportunity to capitalise on this technology? Is this jeopardising the success of less affluent athletes?
Effect of ten weeks of combined exercise on growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-2 and myostatin levels in elderly Korean womenSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 61 –67 (2016)More Less
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks of combined exercise on growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and myostatin levels in elderly Korean women. Subjects were randomly assigned to the combined exercise group (CEG; n=17) or the control group (CG; n=17). The CEG performed 80 minutes of exercise, 5 days per week for 10 weeks. Each exercise session included four phases: a 10-minute warm-up; a 30-minute resistance exercises (10 to 15 repetitions maximum); a 30-minute aerobics exercise (60 to 80% of heart rate reserve); and a 20-minute cool-down. The interaction effect (time x group) on the levels of GH (F=6.934, p=0.013) and IGF-2 (F=8.592, p=0.006), increased significantly more in the CEG than in the CG, whereas the interaction effect for the myostatin levels (F=13.544, p<0.001) decreased significantly more in the CEG than in the CG. The 10 weeks of supervised combined exercise was effective for increasing GH and IGF-2 levels and decreasing myostatin levels in elderly Korean women.
Participation of divorced single parents and their children in outdoor activities to improve attitudes and relationshipsSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 69 –79 (2016)More Less
Divorce is one of the most stressful events a child or adult might ever experience. Enhancing family functioning is a key intended outcome in designing family leisure programmes aimed at developing life-enhancing attitudes and relationships. Nonetheless, the actual effects on families participating in such programmes, specifically single-parent families, have not yet been reported. Two divorced single-parent families headed by the mother with adolescent children participated in this small scale four-day adventure intervention programme including a high-ropes course, equine-assisted therapy, mountain-biking treasure hunt, hiking, abseiling and rock-climbing. Qualitative data collected from semi-structured one-on-one interviews, field notes and participant observation were analysed rendering two main themes, namely attitudes and relationships, each with its own set of subthemes: attitudes, comprising self-esteem and motivation; and relationships, comprising communication, problem solving, respect and trust. The leisure intervention programme played a positive role in improving attitudes and the relationships between the divorced single-parent mothers and their children.
Anthropometrical, physical, motor and sport psychological profile of adolescent males with sprinting potentialSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 81 –93 (2016)More Less
This study determined whether anthropometrical, physical, motor and sport psychological differences exist between a group of male adolescents who show talent for sprinting and their less talented counterparts. Grade 8 boys (N=89; mean age: 13.25±0.46 years), from a high school in Potchefstroom voluntarily participated in the study. A general talent identification (TID) protocol and a sport psychological questionnaire were completed. The 40m-sprint test was used to categorise the subjects into two groups. Those in the top 10% were assigned to the talented group (TG) (n=8, mean age=13.79), and the remaining subjects were assigned to the less talented group (LTG) (n=72, mean age=13.55). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied with stature as the covariate to adjust for variations in growth status between the two groups. The practical significance of differences between the two groups was determined by means of effect sizes (ES). The level of significance was set at p≤0.05. Significant differences with the potentially talented sprinters, who obtained better scores in upper and lower body explosive power, acceleration, maximal speed, aerobic endurance and in goal setting were found.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 95 –111 (2016)More Less
Mountain biking forms part of cycle tourism and is a growing segment in sport tourism. Yet, information about the underlying motives of those who participate in mountain bike events, while a tourist at the same time, appears to be scant. The purpose of this research was to determine the motives of mountain bikers and what drives their intentions based on samples from German (n=205) and South African (n=205) cycling events. Five motives were identified using exploratory factor analysis. These were enjoyment, health and fitness, event status and team, social interaction, relaxation, and dedication. Participants in the two events significantly differed based on the importance of the motives. The motives dedication, enjoyment, and health and fitness were identified as drivers of intention for return participation. While the motive dedication and the variable, country, significantly influenced intention to return visits. Marketers should target their promotional activities based on the different motives in relation to behavioural outcomes.
Exploring direction between cohesion and collective efficacy and relationships with performance of football teamsSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 113 –126 (2016)More Less
The direction between cohesion and collective efficacy measured at the beginning and the end of a season and their association with team performance as measured by final classification was examined. The sample comprised 146 soccer players, aged between 15 and 18 years (mean=16.96±0.76). The Spanish version of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) and the Football Collective Efficacy Questionnaire (FCEQ) were used to assess cohesion and collective efficacy. Performance was evaluated by the average between final position in the classification table and satisfaction with team performance perceived by the players. Results showed that in the first six months of competition, team cohesion had greater power to predict collective efficacy at the end of the league. However, collective efficacy did not predict team cohesion significantly. Collective efficacy was more closely related to team performance than group cohesion by the end of the season. It was concluded that during pre-season and at the start of the season, team sport coaches should focus on social and task aspects, both individually and at a group level. This would improve the perception of collective team efficacy and lead to better team performance.
Morphological and skill-related fitness components as potential predictors of injuries in elite female field hockey playersSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 127 –141 (2016)More Less
This study investigated whether morphological or skill-related factors measured pre-season can predict injuries sustained in-season by field hockey players. In this cohort-analytical study, 30 female South African national field hockey players underwent pre-season testing including anthropometry, balance, flexibility, explosive power, upper and lower body strength, core strength, speed, agility and isokinetic testing of the ankle. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, elite-level experience, playing surface, footwear and injury history. Injuries in training and matches were recorded during the subsequent season using an injury profile sheet completed by injured players. Eighty-seven injuries, mostly involving ligaments and muscles of the ankles, hamstrings and lower back, were recorded. Univariate analyses showed that ankle dorsiflexion strength was a strong predictor of ankle injuries (p=0.0002), while ankle dorsiflexion deficit (p=0.0267) and eversion deficit (p=0.0035) were significant predictors. Balance indices (anterior/posterior, p=0.0465; medial/lateral, p<0.0001; and overall, p<0.0001) were pre-season performance measures significantly predicting potential ankle injury. For lower leg injuries, univariate associations were found with ankle inversion deficit (p=0.0253), eversion deficit (p=0.0379), and anterior/posterior balance index (p=0.0441).
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 143 –161 (2016)More Less
One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship for batting coaches is to teach junior cricketers to play using a straight bat. This requires the bat to be lifted directly towards the stumps with the bat face facing downwards. No study has yet examined whether there are differences in the batting back lift techniques (BTT) of coached cricketers (CC) and uncoached cricketers (UC). With the study sample, CC comprised of both adolescent (n=30) and amateur (n=10) cricketers, whereas the UC comprised of only young cricketers (n=40). Various types of deliveries were bowled to the participants utilising a bowling machine. Biomechanical and video analyses were performed on both participant groups. Classifiers were utilised to identify the type of BTT employed by all batsmen. More than 70% of uncoached cricketers adopted a lateral BTT, whereas more than 70% of CC adopted the straight BTT. Coaching implications from this study suggest that if players are not coached, they automatically hit the ball using a lateral BTT, which indirectly suggests that coaching emphasising traditional techniques could be disadvantageous to the young cricketer.
Socio-economic factors and psycho-physical well-being as predictors of sauna use among male university studentsSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 163 –176 (2016)More Less
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socio-economic factors and psycho-physical well-being on the popularity of sauna usage among male university students. The research was conducted in 2012 on 550 first-year male university students aged 19 to 20 years (20.23±0.83years). The participants were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire in which they described their frequency of sauna usage and their psycho-physical well-being on the day of use and on the following day. Firstly, the findings revealed that these students rarely used the sauna and that most of the evaluated socio-economic factors, including place of permanent residence, mother's educational background, the monthly budget of the student and the type of secondary education, had no significant influence on sauna usage. However, two factors did contribute significantly to the frequency of sauna usage, namely the father's educational background and the location of secondary school. Secondly, psycho-physical well-being (impressions on the day of sauna usage and on the following day), significantly influenced the sauna usage and had a significant positive influence on the respondents' well-being.
Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy : a critical reviewSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 177 –193 (2016)More Less
This critical review article describes the exercise performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and Google Scholar databases from the earliest possible date to December 2014. Large impairments in exercise performance have been reported in individuals with CP, as well as large improvements following the implementation of training interventions. The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP were also reviewed, and grouped into categories, namely: motor impairments, central impairment, skeletal muscle morphology and physical inactivity. Although much research exists on individuals with CP, there is conflicting evidence for the benefits of exercise training in these individuals. This is due to the use of sedentary, paediatric populations and varied methodologies. Investigating individuals who have undergone high-volume exercise training from a young age might result in a better understanding of functional and physical performance in individuals with CP.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 195 –206 (2016)More Less
Medals are the maximum exponent of successful sporting events. One of the most relevant of these sporting events is the Olympic Games, which gathers major athletes and teams from across the world every four years. Predicting the distribution of the medals at these Games is nothing new. As a matter of fact, this practice gained considerable popularity just before the latest edition of the London-2012 Games. After the games were over, this study took a look at the results and the predictions made at the time to determine which of these predictions had been the most accurate. This information was then used to carry out an estimation exercise to predict the medal distribution for the upcoming edition of the Games in Rio-2016. To guarantee a greater predictive success, several predictions were carried out in ranges for the main Olympic delegations. The final estimation provides a ranking of medals per country. This classification is consistent with former rankings, especially those of leading countries.
Relationships among residence environment and individual levels of exercise in the Republic of KoreaSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 207 –214 (2016)More Less
The present study explored the relationship among urban and rural residence living and level of exercise in the Republic of Korea. The study analysed the data from the 2012 Korean Survey of Citizens' Sports Participation project with a total of 4,479 males and 4,521 females participating. The sampling method used the square root of the proportional allocation design with clustering and stratifications in such way that the survey sampled represented all the people of the Republic of Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to examine whether residence was related to frequency, intensity, time and duration of exercise, adjusting for the covariate age. The results show that Korean women in rural areas had lower levels of exercise than their urban counterparts in terms of frequency, time, duration and intensity of the exercise. However, there was little or no relationship among exercise levels and place of residence among Korean men. In addition, Korean men and women in rural areas had lower levels of access to "systematic fitness management", such as fitness instructors and exercise facilities.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 215 –228 (2016)More Less
Physical Education (PE) in South Africa has been on the receiving end of curriculum reform with far-reaching consequences. Prior to 1994, PE existed as a stand-alone school subject. In 1997, PE was reduced to a learning outcome of a new learning area titled, Life Orientation, within the new curriculum, Curriculum 2005. Shortly thereafter, a Revised National Curriculum Statement (R-NCS) was established. A second revision of the curriculum followed in 2009, resulting in Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements for each subject. The purpose of this article is to outline the historical development of Physical Education as subject/partial-subject in South Africa from before 1994 until the present, with regard to the content, state and status and teacher training. The actual implementation, as well as the proposed reinstatement of PE as a stand-alone subject, are addressed, in order to attempt elucidation of the question: "Have we come full circle?"
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 229 –241 (2016)More Less
Students with physical disabilities at higher education institutions are often excluded from recreational activities due to lack of appropriate inclusive integration programmes. This study systematically reviewed literature that identified recreational patterns and preferences of students with physical disabilities to provide recommendations for their recreational programmes. Articles were reviewed using Ebscohost (Medline, CINAHL, PsyArticles, Academic Search Complete), LANCET, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Project Muse, BioMed Central Journal, JSTOR, Google Scholar and Sports Discus databases for the period 1997 to 2014. Articles extracted comprised qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies that met level three on the JBI level of evidence scale. Articles that were favourably rated for methodological quality by two reviewers were included. The articles were methodologically appraised using a modified CASP instrument. A total number of 426 821 articles were identified, of which 90 were selected for further investigation whilst 69 were excluded after the first review and a further three following evaluation of methodological quality. Thus, 18 articles were included. There was a lack of recreational programmes available for students with physical disabilities. Opportunities for recreation for disabled students should be provided. There was a need for suitable holistic campus recreational programmes at universities.
Acute effect of a physical exercise session on cognitive functioning : moderately active sportspersons versus sedentary individualsSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 243 –258 (2016)More Less
In sport, physical activity (PA) and life in general, cognitive functioning plays a very important role in decision-making and performance. This study investigated whether the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive performance was beneficial and if there was a difference in this relationship between moderately active individuals and sedentary individuals. The acute effect of exercise on cognitive function was measured by means of the Stroop Test. The male participants (N=30; Age= MEAN±SD & range=18-25years) completed: (1) a trial Stroop Test; (2) a baseline Stroop Test; (3) a repeated sprint test; and (4) a final Stroop Test. The moderately active sportspersons were significantly (p<0.05) fitter than the sedentary group as they covered a greater distance during the Repeated Sprint test. There were significant differences (p<0.05) within and between groups, regarding pre- and post-Stroop Test performance. The moderately active sportspersons performed significantly (p<0.05) better in reaction time (RT) and in accuracy compared to the sedentary group. There was a beneficial relationship between acute exercise and cognitive performance and this relationship differed between moderately active sportspersons and sedentary individuals.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 259 –269 (2016)More Less
Whiplash associated disorder (WAD) is a common and costly condition, and recommended management includes advice to "act as usual" and exercise. Providing this treatment through a telephonic intervention may help to improve access to care, and reduce costs. This pilot study assessed: (1) the effectiveness of a telephonic intervention for low grade WAD injuries; and (2) the comparison between this intervention and standard manual therapy. A quasi-experimental study design was implemented. Eighty-two (n=82) participants received the telephone remote intervention (RI), which included an exercise booklet and telephonic support every seven to 10 days for a period of 12 weeks. Forty-five (n=45) participants received standard manual therapy treatment (SMT). Outcome measures included pain rating, subjective range of movement and activities of daily living. Post-intervention follow-up outcomes were assessed telephonically for both groups at the end of the 12-week intervention period. A statistically significant improvement was found in all outcome measures in both the RI and SMT groups in the short term. No significant difference was found between the two interventions.