TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore - latest Issue
Volume 9, Issue 1, 2016
Death divination within a non-delusional myth : The Procession of the Dead from the Alps to Himalayas... When a theoria of "Phantom-Bodies" meets its neural veridiction theorySource: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 1 –28 (2016)More Less
One of the avatars of the Return of the Dead occurs in Europe as their Procession. It is attributed to the so-called Birth of the Purgatory in the 12th-13th centuries, which reinvested older cohorts of "Phantom-Bodies", say the Wild Hunt. Related to this "theoria", motif D1825.7.1. Person sees phantom funeral procession some time before the actual procession takes place, is endowed with D1825.6.: Magic power to "see" who will die during coming year. In spite of their disbelief in the Purgatory, Protestant countries, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Germany, England, etc., currently meet this Procession of the Dead (compare Totenprozession, in Enzyklopädie des Märchens, 13, 820, which forgot more Southern Romance Processions). As precursors of the Reformation (since the 12th-13th century), Waldensians were more efficient in wiping out revenants from their Refuge in the Piedmont Alps. As for India, except an indexing by Thompson and Balys (1958) for a pair of narratives, there was nothing else available. Present fieldwork in Hindu and shamanisic Nepal elicited new data, including ones with death divination. And the least surprising was not that Tibeto-Burman Newar tradition made of the five Hindu male Pandavas a cultural melting "theoria" of five malevolent female spirits, the Panchabhāya, which meets Tibetan Dākinīs. All these Phantom-Bodies' Processions were not considered as deliration, but as non-delusional reports, as neurally real as phantom limbs. The BRAINCUBUS model framework offers an interface between Folkloristics and Neuroscience, a theory allowing the grounding of such over-intuitive experience-centered narratives, giving fair prevalence, worldwide, to the "4th brain state" diagnosed as sleep paralysis.
Author Alina BakoSource: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 29 –39 (2016)More Less
Myth and medicine in the prose of Mircea Eliade. The parallel between the history of real medicine and the one of real literature embraces the linking point of the two fundamental fields, existing in both directions, by the relation they establish with humankind's historical evolution. The first level we are considering in the analysis of the novel - case study - for the narrative forms at the intersection of the two kinds of reality where knowledge is constructed from the identification of the diseases that touch the human being and their relationship with the myth in which the individual is included. Eliade's novel becomes a way of finding an explanation for this intersection between myth, narcotics and dream.
Author Gabriela ChiciudeanSource: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 40 –57 (2016)More Less
Electra's myth as seen by the poets of antiquity. This paper is the first part of a larger study that depicts the transformation of Electra's myth in theatre plays, from its origins to modernity, its continuous accommodation to different epochs and mentalities, to historical contexts, aesthetical tendencies, new literary genres and subgenres and, last but not least, the author's personality. The paper focuses on Electra's myth in antique poetry and offers a general view on the tragedy, its origin and structure, elements, action and characters, with concrete examples from Aeschylus' Orestia, Sophocles' Electra and Euripides' Electra. Considering the myth as a major instance of the imagination, interesting in its syntax (formal structures) and semantics (symbolism), we underline the constant constants met in the abovementioned tragedies, e.g. revenge and redemption and other invariable elements. The transformations suffered by the myth are very well reflected by the Greek tragedies. Sophocles and Euripides get their inspiration from Aeschylus but they modify the structure of the tragedy and the tragic character of the hero. If Aeschylus insists on the power of gods over human beings, for Sophocles the human being becomes more important. Euripides' works are considered more innovative both on the level of content and construction. His characters are devoid of greatness, they are common human beings obliged to earn their living, old men and women, frightened prisoners and cowards. Thus, myth as a common source of inspiration, especially the cycle of the Atreidai, namely the episode of Clytemnestra's killing by Orestes, is to be met in the three poets' works in different interpretations. Our goal is to follow the mythical invariants met in the three tragedies (the abovementioned revenge and redemption), as well as constant elements such as recognition, choice of characters, the importance of the choir, the messenger, the judgement, etc.
Source: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 58 –74 (2016)More Less
The axes of the creation and birth of the imaginary as a mythical language. Our research follows the relationships of the concepts that are taking into account creation on the double axis of verticality and horizontality. We highlight those symbolic elements which would later constitute the mythical language about the sacred space-temporality. Inside this space-temporality a rich spectrum of mythical images develops; images capable of explaining the relationships of the creation plans. Without a religious perception of the temporality, the conceptualization of the axis would remain a philosophical approach. Through our point of view, the two are born simultaneously. Thanks to them, creation can be imagined. The first "frozen" formula of the mystical human spirit can be thought, brought to a palpable reality, expressed in an oral and then a written form. Studied together, temporality (sacred or not) and space are permanently imagined together. For example, a loss of mundane temporality in the secret ecstasy that offers to the soul an ascending direction does not mean getting out of universal temporality, but of its mundane section. In the sacred space the soul relates to time. Even the gods are submitted by the sacred, Aeon sometimes being synonymous to destiny. The universal creator seems to evade every touch, but not consistently, only when he avoids the descent into its created worlds. In sacredness, time and space seem or become confused, both expressing the same reality, by the immediate swing from thinking to deed. The mythical imagery conceives the displacement in the primary space-temporality by the spoken word. So, for something to appear and live, the spoken word is required. Even the divine dream appears as a pre-word of a creator's thought. The thought follows the spoken word, the spoken word follows the gestures which finally indicate the meanings of the creative act, controlling the rhythm of the creation days. These three will later be adapted through imitation in rite. We are now situated at the limit of the physical world, a real challenge for the mythical imagery. The general feature of the mythical expression on the creation of the material world is the state of the divinity's exhaustion, most often conceptualized by sacrifice or divine fatigue. The world geography identifies with the anatomy of a self-gutted god. Practically, material creation is most likely the complete revelation of God's body autopsy. As each body decomposes, everything in it is an illusion. An axial approach of the phenomenon exists in all religious systems. The created element's origin is exterior, with or without a pre-existing matter, by a god's sacrifice or only because it has to be that way. This is the starting point of the discussion on the symbolism of axiality as a reason for the constitution of the language of creation, capable of retelling the imaginary construction of myth in an oral and then written form.
Author Sonia ElvireanuSource: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 75 –87 (2016)More Less
Myths in Dumitru Tsepeneag's novel : an expression of his cultural identity. The paper's aim is to follow the metamorphosis of Romanian myths, mainly the myth of Mioritza, in the novels of Dumitru Tsepeneag, a Romanian writer exiled in France after WW II. It is important to see to which extent the source culture is reflected in his writings as an expression of cultural identity through myths in their quality as transmitters of cultural significance, talking about the Romanian soul, about a simple, pastoral lifestyle. From the Romanian folklore underlining the old myths to classical literature, the pastoral myth suffered modifications, mainly in the works of writers of the 19th and 20th centuries, and Dumitru Tsepeneag is one of them. A nonconformist writer, theorist of aesthetic oneirism in Romanian literature, this author has given proof of a permanent desire of literary renewal even under a totalitarian regime which undermined all literary experience surpassing the official canon, the one of socialist realism, which Tsepeneag tried to avoid. Being a precursor of postmodernism in Romania in the 1970s, through his textualist literary texts illustrating aesthetic oneirism, Tsepeneag's creation is an expression of the nostalgia of origins - through the deconstruction of the Mioritza myth in a postmodernist manner, as a parody, constantly superposed on other myths, on differences, diversity, alterity, all discovered in exile.
The Stars, Mildew, Rust and The Waste Land in The Story of the Grail, Trictrac, 8 2015, pp. 81-92 : erratumAuthor Philippe WalterSource: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 81 –92 (2016)More Less
Source: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 88 –97 (2016)More Less
One of the existential anxieties met in the novel The Forbidden Forest by Mircea Eliade is that of time. The characters of the novel become carriers of messages, and the place of their action becomes a real labyrinth under the division between the sacred and the profane. Ştefan Viziru's belief that historical events conceal profound spiritual significances refers to a period in the author's life, the period of his European exile, an initiation quest, an attempt to decode the lines of his destiny. Through interpreting some contemporary national events, one can discover in Mircea Eliade's novel new symbolic meanings, a philosophy of the relationship between personal destiny and the history of the Romanian people. Through the complexity of its theme and its obsessive quest for the sacred in a modern desacralized world, the novel becomes a challenge. It helps us find answers related to the meaning of human existence.
Author Julie PridmoreSource: TricTrac: Journal of World Mythology and Folklore 9, pp 98 –110 (2016)More Less
JRR Tolkien's traumatic First World War experiences have been perceived as central to the literary development of his fantasy works, particularly The Lord of the Rings (1954-1956). Tolkien scholars have also provided a wider context for the effects of the First World War on his writing and a significant debate on Tolkien's place within the context of twentieth-century modernism and modernity has developed in recent years. Peter Jackson's film trilogy of The Lord of the Rings (2001-2003) has provoked a discussion on the philosophy of Tolkien's experience and literary explorations of war. Central to the debate are the issues of 'relative' sacrifice and heroism embodied in Tolkien's two major narratives The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings as well as the potentialities for the extension of narrative heroism offered by the recent film trilogy of The Hobbit (2012-2014).