Inkanyiso - latest Issue
Volume 8, Issue 1, 2016
Author Francis Israel MinimahSource: Inkanyiso 8, pp 1 –8 (2016)More Less
The emphasis of the rationalists on concept formation is traceable to the unfolding of the mind's innate powers in producing ideas within itself. The empiricists, on the other hand, beginning with the data of experience as the source of all our legitimate concepts and truths of the world, conceive the mind as contributing nothing to the knowing process - a position that had severe negative consequences for human knowledge. Immanuel Kant's response to his predecessors was to formulate a new theory of concept formation in which he conceives the crucial role our minds play in the determination of the forms of our knowledge. The key to the progression in this paper which shows its most important contribution is not only the attempt to analyze how Kant "sets out to discover and justify the principles underlying objective judgements" but also his arguments that the human mind brings 'something' transcendental to the object it experiences. This view, which is revolutionary, represents a turning point in Western philosophy and indicates the need for new conceptual schemes of the mind that became manifest at the beginning of the 19th century. This is tremendously evident in Heidegger's philosophy and in mentalistic psychology from Freud to Chomsky.
Author David A. OyedolaSource: Inkanyiso 8, pp 9 –20 (2016)More Less
Whether Africa is compared with other continents or it is considered on its own, much of Africa is in a precarious state. Africa is known to be lagging behind in development not only in the economy, but also in philosophy, science, politics, technology, etc. This precarious state has made many scholars cynical about the contributions philosophyhas made towards the development of the continent. In this study, however, it is argued that such a cynical attitude is due to a myopic conception of "development", which excludes growth in education, the economy, politics, science, the mental aspect of culture, and/or the unawareness of the fact that Africans (including the colonial and neo-colonial interferences) led the continent to a precarious state, not because of the inability on the part of the philosophers to proffer solutions, but owing to the unwillingness and failure on the part of African leaders in their un-philosophical or unrefined political, educational, economic, and scientific policies to adopt the solutions proffered.
The suppression of political opposition and the extent of violating civil liberties in the erstwhile Ciskei and Transkei bantustans, 1960-1989Author Maxwell Z. ShamaseSource: Inkanyiso 8, pp 21 –33 (2016)More Less
This paper aims at interrogating the nature of political suppression and the extent to which civil liberties were violated in the erstwhile Ciskei and Transkei. Whatever the South African government's reasons, publicly stated or hidden, for encouraging bantustan independence, by the time of Ciskei's independence ceremonies in December 1981 it was clear that the bantustans were also to be used as a more brutal instrument for suppressing opposition. Both Transkei and Ciskei used additional emergency-style laws to silence opposition in the run-up to both self-government and later independence. By the mid-1980s a clear pattern of brutal suppression of opposition had emerged in both bantustans, with South Africa frequently washing its hands of the situation on the grounds that these were 'independent' countries. Both bantustans borrowed repressive South African legislation initially and, in addition, backed this up with emergency-style regulations passed with South African assistance before independence (Proclamation 400 and 413 in Transkei which operated from 1960 until 1977, and Proclamation R252 in Ciskei which operated from 1977 until 1982). The emergency Proclamations 400, 413 and R252 appear to have been retained in the Transkei case and introduced in the Ciskei in order to suppress legal opposition at the time of attainment of self-government status. Police in the bantustans (initially SAP and later the Transkei and Ciskei Police) targeted political opponents rather than criminals, as the SAP did in South Africa.
Source: Inkanyiso 8, pp 34 –43 (2016)More Less
Although a well implemented performance management system (PMS) can have immense benefits, it has been reduced in many organisations to a mechanical, end of the year requirement for information. Consequently, in many organisations, PMSs are viewed with much trepidation and scepticism. It is therefore germane to understand factors that could cause PMS to be embraced and accepted by individuals in organisations. Effective leadership in the organisation could be critical in the successful implementation of performance management. However, empirical investigation of this relationship is lacking. The objectives of this study were: (1) To assess the effect of transactional and transformational leadership on the adoption of a performance management framework and (2) To assess the perceptions of various demographic groups in an organisation on the effects of leadership style on the implementation of a performance management system. The study was undertaken at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), Kenya. An explanatory descriptive design was used. The target population for the study comprised all the 2,040 members of staff at the hospital. A stratified random sampling was used to select the 510 respondents. The study found that leadership style (transactional and transformational leadership) has a strong and positive influence on the implementation of performance management framework (B = 0.677, SE = 0.027, p< 0.0001; R2 = 0.72). Support for the relationship between leadership and PMS was found to be stronger amongst males, less educated and older employees. The study recommends that organisations should adopt more strategic leadership style if they are to successfully deliver the contiguous stages required in PMS.
Outsourcing information communication technology services in selected public university libraries in KenyaSource: Inkanyiso 8, pp 44 –56 (2016)More Less
Outsourcing is a management strategy that is gradually proving its worth in library and information science. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outsourcing of ICT services in selected public university libraries in Kenya in order to establish the challenges facing libraries in outsourcing ICT services. The study adopted a multi-case study strategy in four selected public university libraries in Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to identify respondents. Data collection was done using a semi-structured interview schedule. The findings reveal that public university libraries in Kenya outsource ICT services such as Internet, e-resources and derive benefits such as cost cutting, knowledge and skills acquisition and economies of scale. The study noted that ICT policies and procurement laws are inadequate in guiding the outsourcing processes. The study found that ICT service processes had various challenges such as high cost and loss of control of the services due to relying heavily on the vendors. The study concluded that there was a need for the library management to be conversant with outsourcing procedures, such as negotiation of contracts, to gain more from outsourced ICT services. The study recommended that the university libraries develop, review and implement ICT outsourcing policies. The university management should involve librarians in the outsourcing process and implementation.
Author Ephraim MudaveSource: Inkanyiso 8, pp 57 –68 (2016)More Less
This paper is a review of extant literature on information literacy. The study reports literature on IL learning experiences in institutions across the globe. It also discusses the spectrum of literacy to give information literacy a context. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of IL learning initiatives in academic environments in developed and in developing countries, and concludes that there are more IL activities in most developed countries except parts of Europe as compared to developing countries. In Africa, despite infrastructural, technological and personnel challenges, many countries have significant IL learning initiatives at individual university levels, except in South Africa where there are several initiatives that are national and regional. The paper demonstrates that although IL is gaining attention in universities in Africa as a critical aspect of higher education learning, a lot needs to be done to expedite the process in terms of policy guidelines and resources to ensure adequate equipment and trained personnel. The study is important in informing trends of information literacy development and implementation in academic environments in both the developed and developing countries for comparison.
Author Oluwaseun BamideleSource: Inkanyiso 8, pp 69 –78 (2016)More Less
The issue of regionalism is today present throughout the international system, and regional organisations are widelyconsidered to play an important role in relation to regional and sub-regional security. With the sub-regionalorganisations increasingly overburdened, such regional organisations have emerged as one possible solution toproblems associated with state fragility and violence perpetrated by non-state actors. Relative to other regionalorganisations, the AU has received little attention in the literature and it is not generally considered to have muchimpact on the prevention of conflicts in the African region like sub-regional organisations. This paper, however,argues that the AU does matter and that rules and norms do make a difference in peace and security moregenerally. The AU, despite its problems, has played important roles that have helped avert violent conflict in anumber of cases in Africa.
Source: Inkanyiso 8, pp 79 –87 (2016)More Less
The process of bringing forth a constitution is as crucial and important as the constitution itself. However, while this ideal has been institutionalized in many liberal democracies, it is yet to be fully embraced in many illiberal countries. In Nigeria, the focus of this discourse, the process of constitution-making is as old as the country itself but such processes had always followed the same pattern: elite-engineered, paternalistically-driven and above all, devoid of citizens' imprints via a referendum. It is against this backdrop that this article, in a retrospective and analytical manner, examines and offers a democratic critique of Nigeria's most recent attempt at Nigeria's constitutional engineering, the Jonathan's Constitutional Conference (JCC) of 2014. It observes that President Jonathan-initiated Constitutional Conference mimicked the paternalistic character of the previous attempts at constitution-making and as such the process is not markedly different from the old. It submits that as long as the state elites, acting on behalf of the hegemonic faction of the dominant class, continue to see constitution-making as their exclusive reserve and are always willing to defend even a bad constitution, the search for a people's constitution would continue.