Journal of Public Administration - Oct 2005
Volumes & issues
South African Association of Public Administration and Management (SAAPAM) 6th Annual Conference
Theme : Making government stronger : Building partnerships and networks : forewordAuthor Gerda Van WijkSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 1 –2 (2005)More Less
SAAPAM is an academic, independent, professional and non-profit association established in 1999 and registered with the Department of Social Development (Registration number 039-162NPO). At the time, the founders of the Association placed their faith in the future potential of the academics and practitioners of Public Administration and Management and the South African Public Service, sharing a common belief and vision of a high performing and leading edge, people-valued government in the provision of quality public service to all.
Author M. CrousSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 3 –9 (2005)More Less
The customer care or service approach is designed to improve relationships with and ways of handling customers, that is to realign organisational strategies and processes towards satisfying customers' needs.
The best customer care programmes go further than a simple concentration on the (external) customer and recognise the fact that, especially in large organisations, intermediate departments or sections involved in the supply of a service are themselves customers of one another. There is a front line in which staff have direct contact with the final receivers of the service, and then a series of interfaces within the organisation where one member of staff (or a team) provides an internal service to another. There is thus a customer chain which stretches back from the end (external) customer to the point at which a product or service is designed and specified.
Genuine customer care is thus a by-product of internal relationships and culture, which renders it a leadership issue that should be part of an overall organisational strategy. Customer care has to start at the top, with leadership, as the way customers are treated is closely allied to the way staff feel about their jobs and the situation in which they do them. Customer care is unlikely to happen by chance and the effective leader ensures that it is never left to chance.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 10 –19 (2005)More Less
Disclosure of wrongdoing, which manifests itself in the form of impropriety, graft and maladministration, take individuals of exceptional courage and resolve. In the quest for a just and accountable system of governance, documented case studies indicate that those who publicly disclose acts of wrongdoing face the prospects of reprisals and victimization of unprecedented proportions of getting both their careers tarnished, and family lives destroyed. Governments in response have recently become involved by devising protective measures in the form of Protected Disclosure/Whistleblower Protection legislation. As to whether these efforts are succeeding, this paper seeks to evaluate this aspect by looking into the South Africa's Protected Disclosure Act of 2000 (Act 26 of 2000). Some comparison will be done by reflecting on the international trends as espoused in the USA's Whistleblower Protection Act, the UK's Public Interest Disclosure Act and the Queensland's Whistleblower Protection Act. This paper will further identify the deficiencies as they are currently in the South Africa's legislation, the implications this legislation has for management in both private and public organizations and, where appropriate and applicable, practical recommendations will be advanced.
Author D.J. FourieSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 20 –28 (2005)More Less
A guiding principle for the South African public service is that of service to people. In terms of Section 11.1 of the White Paper on the Transformation of the Public Service meeting basic needs through service delivery should be addressed by providing the necessary infrastructural support to open up previously suppressed economic and human potential in both urban and rural areas. This in turn will lead to community empowerment and increased outputs in all the sectors of the economy.
The Batho Pele White Paper requires that all users of public services be consulted regarding their needs, priorities and standard of services required. This means that public managers will have to transform their management functions to accommodate the requirements of the Batho Pele White Paper. The members of the public should be accepted as customers, meaning that a position in the public service implies that the occupant is a public servant, rather than merely a public official.
This paper will provide an overview of the methods to increase employee commitment and productivity through the identification of the barriers towards effective information flow. This paper will conclude with a management model depicting the methods and processes involved in ensuring a transformed work ethic.
Public-private partnerships - a mechanism towards fiscal responsibility. An overview of issues, trends and options for HIV / Aids intervention strategies in South AfricaSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 29 –39 (2005)More Less
Public-Private Partnerships are seen as mechanisms that offer the promise to strengthen government's policy implementation capacity and its ability to deliver services efficiently, effectively, economically and equitably (4Es) to communities. HIV / AIDS-related problems add to the complexities associated with building partnerships and networks as it demands a shift towards horizontal and broader based policy issues that show no respect to boundaries or do not fit neatly into areas of jurisdiction. Traditional models that described public and private relations have become obsolete, forcing governments to revisit their role and the type of outcomes they want to achieve. The symbiotic relationship between the economy, society, political philosophy and public finances increase the difficulty of finding a balance between the relative sizes of public and private health sectors steered by supply and demand functions, against a background of political performance which focus on finding the correct inputs for political, governmental and administrative systems to deliver quality outputs.
In this presentation the authors take a critical look at the key issues necessary to ensure that accountable and fiscal responsible measures are in place when PPP networks are built in the health care sector. Their views are supported by the outcomes of a comparative research study that investigates PPP as a mechanism for public finance management in the macro- and micro-economic planning through the application of four international case studies. These case studies are benchmarked against the national situation to identify the best practices and find a best value for money approach to address the core issues, trends and options available to HIV / AIDS intervention strategies in South Africa.
Author B. HanyaneSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 40 –48 (2005)More Less
Research in Public Administration requires a pragmatic approach in an attempt to address epistemological, methodological and discipline-oriented problems. This paper argues for a philosophy of Public Administration to provide basic values needed if we are to address some of these problems, and meet the challenges of organizational renewal, change and technology. Philosophy (of common sense) is treated in this paper as a practical issue, both in the training and performance of public managers. As a process it encompasses the notion of recognition, doubt, critical reasoning, the element of human inquiry and research output.
From a scholarly perspective the need to improve research undertakings in Public Administration cannot be ignored. Alternative methods of knowledge creation and research initiative(s) should be encouraged. In addition to painting a practical picture of conducting research in Public Administration, problems associated with this endeavour are highlighted. The role of the researcher and his or her obligations are also discussed. These obligations are divided into functional areas and specific functions that researchers in Public Administration should consider.
Author K. HaycockSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 49 –60 (2005)More Less
During the previous dispensation in South Africa, black South Africans were viewed as temporary sojourners in urban areas and therefore the rendering of municipal services was perceptibly free (being incorporated into the nominal rental payable for the government-owned houses people rented). Both infra-structural and social development in the black townships was a central government function and funds provided for in budget allocations from Parliament. Today that situation no longer exists as both infrastructure and social development is the direct responsibility of local government, which ultimately has to raise the bulk of its funding from the services it provides.
Municipalities countrywide have outstanding municipal debt in excess of R30 billion arising from unpaid user payments for essential services. The struggle to balance income and expenditure means that cost efficiency is an important element of successful financial management. Municipal reliance on own revenue also means that municipalities need to grow their own new revenue base.
Mogale City is one such local municipality with an outstanding debt of R105 704 602.
The Municipality therefore embarked on a Revenue Management Enhancement Strategy of which the Community Liaison Programme is the first in a series of implementation phases. The Communication / Community Liaison process should ensure "buy-in" from the targeted communities/customers and acceptance of the processes becomes a critically important milestone to be achieved before any other programmes can proceeds.
The objective of the Communication / Community Liaison Programme is to address issues of non-payment for Municipal Services and Unaccounted Water (UAW) Usage to ensure the continuation of Municipal Services provision to the targeted communities on a financially sustainable basis. In order to reinforce the relationship between community benefit and payment for services, it is essential for the proposed communication strategy to reflect identified community priorities.
As a first step in the process a community survey was conducted to determine, in broad terms, the current attitudes and perceptions held by a representative sample of residents of Mogale towards the payment of services, so that an appropriate communications strategy can be designed to address the main issues which hinder payment.
Ultimately peer pressure must play a key role in motivating the community to pay for their services. It must not only be "the right thing to do", but in the final analysis it is the only way that development will become sustainable and therefore payment by everybody is essential. Defaulting should therefore be perceived as defaulters effectively "stealing" from the broader community. It is thus imperative to know to what extent this concept presently exists in the community. In addition councillors have reported that they constantly receive complaints from their constituents that they are presented with an amount to pay without any indication as to how that amount is made up. This is creating a negative attitude towards the concept of paying for services rendered by the Council.
This paper seeks to provide the outcome of the survey and recommending appropriate communication interventions by indicating perceptions and attitudes held by a representative sample of Mogale City residents relating to :
- The principle of paying for municipal services rendered by the municipality
- Whether respondents make a connection between payment for services and the on-going financial viability of the municipality and its essential role in maintenance, social- and infra-structural development,
- Respondents' attitudes towards payment and non-payment for services rendered by the municipality
- The attitudes of respondents who currently pay for their services vis a vis those who don't
- Attitudes of respondents towards the provision of services in Mogale City
- Whether people know what they are paying for or not
- Problems respondents have with the current billing system
Author M.H. KanyaneSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 61 –70 (2005)More Less
This paper was triggered by the concerns raised about the partnerships between public / public and public / private partnerships, which attract potential conflict of interest. In most cases, it becomes a problem rather than a solution to service delivery due to a revolving door problem. To say the least, the government is weakened by this problem instead of being strengthened. The issue of the revolving door is not a South African problem only, but also other international countries. The United Stated of America could also be cited here to unravel the issue of the revolving door. Selected case studies of this issue are identified and interrogated in this paper.
There are some dynamics involved and debates by scholars about conflict of interest as informed by the revolving door, whether to close the revolving door tight (as the new legislation which was passed to limit the public servants from entering into contract with the government through their corporations / companies promotes) or to leave it under partial control is an issue which this paper interrogates. The paper encourages the government and its service partners to come up with the best strategy or consultancy policies, guidelines and practices to curb and / or ease the ethical tension between the public and private interest informed by the revolving door.
Author H. KroukampSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 71 –82 (2005)More Less
Governments are looking for alternative ways of delivering high quality services to as many citizens as possible over a short period as possible and yet maintain viable systems in the medium and long-term. Traditionally, government programmes and services were for the most part delivered through government departmental organisations. However, this is no longer the case as governments are increasingly entering into partnerships with more independent agencies to deliver public goods and services to improve the general welfare of inhabitants. The aim of partnerships is to produce practices that improve the quality of life of citizens in public service delivery on all spheres of government. The questions of how citizens can be served better in local government, how the production of public services should be organized, how and by whom service delivery systems should be managed and conducted, are being posed as responses to the challenges of governance in contemporary public administration and management.
Alternatives and solutions are being considered in partnerships between local government, private organizations, and NGOs. The use of partnerships in public management has increased. Concurrently with this notion is the emphasis in recent years on the decentralization and devolution in public programmes. By decentralizing the decision-making and implementation processes from national and or regional to local government, new cooperative programmes were formalized.
Most governance concepts highlight the arrangements and collaborations in which public as well as private, and voluntary sectors aim at both solving societal problems and creating societal opportunities. In addition to this, participation of community groups such as NGOs and business organizations are emphasized, thus the inclusion of all stakeholders in the decision-making processes. Therefore, activating civil society is a key element of local governance. This will ensure that effective and democratic local governance ensures that a "social contract" between citizens, the government, NGOs, and the private sector interest can be achieved. It might mean that both private organizations and NGO's take a more active role in the production of services. However, a critical point will be as to how to develop civic engagement that supports the effectiveness of co-operative arrangements between partners from different sectors.
The aim of this paper is therefore inter alia to create an understanding of the role of partnerships as a local governance tool to improve service delivery, with special reference to the South African situation, and therefore to improve the general welfare of citizens in general.
The evolution and management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park : an international collaborative effortAuthor D. MelloSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 83 –89 (2005)More Less
South Africa has entered into a number of agreements with its neighboring states, which are members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) with a view to establish transfrontier parks. These agreements are also aimed at effective cross-border natural resources management. The Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park was the first Park to be established. Subsequent to the Kgalagadi, on 9 December 2002, the three heads of states (South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe) signed an international treaty to establish the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP). This agreement establishes a 35 000 square km transfrontier park comprising three national parks, one in each of the respective states, 27% of which is in South Africa. The establishment of the GLTP has far reaching implications for South Africa. For instance, fences that demarcate the borders of the three states have to be removed over a period of time.
The envisaged paper starts by tracing the origin of the concept transfrontier park and in particular the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. The Park is managed on the basis of the agreement entered into among the three countries. This agreement suggests the existence of international governmental relations. The paper analyses the structures that are responsible for the management of the GLTP. Lastly, the paper makes recommendations, which may hopefully contribute to the effective management of the GLTP.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 90 –101 (2005)More Less
Regional integration, which encompasses efforts by a group of countries to promote their political, economic, social and cultural integration and development, has been pursued in Africa since the early 1960s. However, there is near unanimous agreement that regionalization has failed in Africa to produce effective frameworks within which poverty and underdevelopment can be mitigated. While the resolution of a number of issues, such as, political instability and weak infrastructures is imperative, and holds prerequisite for the development of Africa, the focus of the paper is on institutional and administrative mechanisms that serve as the critical conduit through which the aforementioned issues must be addressed. The paper argues that effective implementation of regional programmes requires an institutional apparatus that is capable of dealing with the complexity of policy-making and implementation processes between a variety of state and societal actors at all levels of governance - supranational as well as national levels, which characterize regional integration.
A transformative African leadership and governance framework to improve public service delivery in South AfricaAuthor G. NaidooSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 102 –117 (2005)More Less
This paper firstly examines : service delivery performance by the South African public service? Secondly, it proposes a transformative African leadership and governance approach to improve public service delivery in South Africa. To this end the author conducted an intensive research study in 2004, to analyse service delivery performance in selected South African public service departments. The findings of the research suggests that although the South African public service has been successful in meeting its service delivery objectives, the current strategies and approaches are not very effective in rapidly improving and redressing service delivery, to the extent and at the pace that is currently needed in South Africa.
There are a number of interrelated variables which impact of service delivery performance. There are several parallel initiatives that should be undertaken to address challenges impacting on service delivery. The South African public service needs faster responses to the needs and demands of the South African society, better utilization of resources, improved policy implementation, monitoring, performance and a conducive work culture to maximize efforts by departments. It is advocated that the adoption of a hybrid leadership and governance framework by the South African public service should become intangible asset for rapidly improving and redressing service delivery. South Africa has its own unique comprise of different diversities, strategies and different political accommodations. There is a need for a unique semblance of a South African framework for the public service.
A uniquely South African leadership and governance framework will shape public administration positively within the context of South African public service. The purpose of developing a hybrid leadership and governance framework is not to replace the current framework adopted by the South African public service but to improve and strengthen it to meet the needs and demands of the South African public service. The leadership and governance framework developed by the author is flexible, as it can be applied to diverse settings and circumstances within the South African public service. This paper serves as a vehicle to advance a uniquely South African leadership and governance framework, which could be integrated meaningfully within the South African public service for the rapid improvement and redress of service delivery in South Africa.
"Public servants are meant to serve society in a positive way. The basic principle of government is to provide optimum service delivery in order to create a good quality of life for every citizen. Attempts should thus be made to improve the public service's performance and to minimize the negative consequences of actions. This implies that the public service's activities should be directed to satisfy the public's needs and to resolve the public's legitimate concern" (Naidoo 2004).
Source: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 118 –130 (2005)More Less
The concept of an employee assistance programme (EAP) as a workplace intervention is relatively new in the public sector. Originally it was established to assist employees with socio-economic problems. The stresses of the modern working environment, the many changes in the South African working situation and especially the advent of HIV / AIDS has changed the profile of the EAP in the public sector drastically. The EAP signifies a socially responsibility acceptance by the employer to assist the employee with certain problems The South African legislative framework provides for the protection of employees' rights in the workplace, both in the private and the public sector.
Buffalo City Municipality (BCM) in the Eastern Cape has initiated and developed and EAP for its employees. Starting off with a comprehensive HIV/AIDS programme, the full programme will be phased in over a three-year period. To set the scene for the EAP BCM engaged various service providers to assist with an HIV prevalence study and a Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) study amongst all employees of the Municipality. An HIV/AIDS strategy was developed and adopted out of which an action plan for 2004-2005 was developed. It was decided to engage the services of a service provider to manage the EAP, known as the Employee Wellness Centre, to ensure confidentiality and uptake.
The challenge of an EAP lies in where the employer's responsibilities starts and ends and it is therefore of the utmost importance that the aims and objectives of the EAP are clearly defined and communicated. The EAP should also be subjected to assessment in order to ensure an effective service.
Author K. PhagoSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 131 –138 (2005)More Less
The establishment and existence of Local Economic Development (LED) units, sections and divisions within municipal administration and management is a legislative requirement. Thus, an Integrated Development Plan (IDP) should explicitly specify LED plans and how activities would be coordinated within the entire municipality by different departments. Thus, principles of LED inter-departmental relations within a municipality are necessary to be established.
However, municipal LED in South Africa has not been fruitful or effectively functional. Communities in different provinces responded with mass demonstrations 'crying foul' over municipal lack of service delivery. The government responded by appointing the National Intelligence Agency (NIA) to probe the matter and look at possible political maneuverings ahead of municipal elections of December 2005. The government eventually adopted Project Consolidate. Project Consolidate is administered by various departments and is facilitated by the Department of Provincial and Local Government.
The paper undertakes conceptual and empirical aspects in order to locate the position of LED within municipal administration as a contemporary service delivery means. Furthermore, amongst others, general challenges hampering the effectiveness of LED such as incapacity, corruption and maladministration within municipalities are discussed.
Overview of required skills and expertise of councillors at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality in terms of the new developmental mandateSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 139 –148 (2005)More Less
The concept of developmental local government is at the core of local government transformation in South Africa and places implicit responsibilities on local authorities. In terms of prescriptions contained in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, legal and moral obligations are imposed on municipalities to function on a participatory basis with the intention that the broader community should have a more significant role to play in local government decision-making. Municipalities are now required to become agents for local economic development and the importance of public / private partnerships in terms of the new developmental mandate for local government, needs to be actively pursued by municipalities. Integrated development planning is one of the most important mechanisms through which municipalities can develop the strategic capacity to meet their existing responsibilities.
Municipal councillors now require a particular level of expertise and knowledge to enable them to perform their functions in the best interests of the communities they were elected or appointed to serve.
Within the context of the above, this paper will endeavour to review developmental obligations imposed on local government and in particular the skills and expertise that councillors require in order to function efficiently and effectively. The paper will provide an overview of the following :
- the new developmental mandate;
- the need for community participation;
- the establishment of ward committees;
- empirical survey of capacity building needs of councilors; and
Discussion of project management as applied in development type projects within a partnership environmentAuthor A.S. SchoemanSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 149 –159 (2005)More Less
The private sector has, on many occasions as part of their social responsibility drive, entered into partnerships with government institutions to do "good". Very few institutions look at the work that they are doing under the guise of a partnership as anything other than a form of marketing. Government, both provincial and local, is used to this kind of approach and do not expect anything else than a form of handout.
When an institution comes with a partnership model where there is equal participation with a clear delineation of responsibilities, a significant number of forces come into play. The local and the provincial government are driven by their own agendas, which focus on service delivery to their constituents. Conversely, the private company is driven by profit making in the final instance. The challenge in this kind of environment would be how to arrive at a common point of departure, given the different agendas of the institutions involved in the partnership, and to deliver a project that is ultimately of value to all the constituents including the three organizations.
The discussion will focus on one project where a multinational company, Hewlett Packard (HP), the Limpopo Provincial Government and the Municipality of Mokopane entered into a partnership in 2002 as a legacy of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The aim of the project is determine if Information and Communication Technology can be used to stimulate socio-economic development. To this end the project uses existing and new technologies in an innovative combination to arrive at its goal. The presentation will focus on: a description of the project, the management instruments of the project, the partnering instruments available to institutions, the lessons learnt in the project and the possible applications of the lessons learnt.
Promoting accountability as a tool of making government stronger and building partnerships and networksAuthor P.M. TengeniSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 160 –166 (2005)More Less
The state has changed in context, role and influence from the Westphalian model of 1648 that featured centralised authority and territorial confines sanctioned by the theory of sovereignty. This theory purports the supremacy of the government of the state over people, resources and all formations within state borders.
Globalisation coupled with the demise of statist models and the proliferation of democratic systems and greater decentralisation, among other developments, has reconfigured the state, civil society and the relationship between them.
These changes have had profound effects on the role and influence of governments and service delivery. It is acknowledged that the contemporary constellation of forces, capabilities and resources to deliver goods and services are not confined to governments alone. There is a myriad of non-state and non-governmental actors in the arena of civil society that governments must harness in order to provide for the needs of citizens. The demands placed on government have increased, are more complex and daunting. Increasingly, solutions for challenges that governments encounter lie beyond the institutions of government and territorial borders.
Author F.D. ThompsonSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 167 –175 (2005)More Less
Most governmental organisations run the risk of delivering inferior services due to their inherent monopolistic characteristics. The dangers are hidden in the lack of competition that breeds complacency and serves as impediments to delivering quality services to the public. Even those organisations that deliver superior service must take care to not lose their momentum. The drive that brought them to leadership positions in the public sector may not remain to sustain or enhance continuous improvement. Being a public service organisation that is provided for by legislation along with any past successes will not ensure a possible position in the sector.
Transformation Through Total Quality Management (TTTQM) involves enabling an organisation to meet and exceed the public needs, to understand and satisfy expectations, all while identifying services that may not be perceived relevant by the public. TTTQM, a comprehensive, systematic, and organisation (public sector)-wide approach can serve as a strategy for continually improving the processes that deliver services.
The paper and presentation will unpack and propose TTTQM as a viable strategy for reforming and transforming public administration and management. The TTTQM's principles are proposed as key strategic drivers to facilitate the delivery of superior service quality in the public sector. As with the private sector the principles can assist administrators and managers in the public sector in planning, improving and controlling quality in government.
TTTQM as a strategy overall objective is to assist all levels of government in improving service delivery. TTTQM's goals consist of, but are not limited to providing a framework and guidance (education, training, facilitation, coaching and mentoring) to assist South African government to actualise the "Batho Pele" principles.
Ultimately, the paper and presentation will compare and contrast the private and public sector illustrating that TTTQM is equally applicable regardless of the industry. TTTQM will be presented as congruent with and the means for implementing "Batho Pele."
Author C. ThornhillSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 176 –185 (2005)More Less
The roles of political office bearers and appointed officials have been studied and described since Woodrow Wilson's famous article was published in 1887. The relationship between a minister and the managerial cadre of a department is probably one of the most complex issues related to the public sector operations. The paper describes the effects of the political structures in a democratic country with special reference to South Africa. Thereafter attention is devoted to the influence of politics in governing a country with a diverse society having to eradicate legacies of the past. The administrative / managerial functions are briefly alluded to. This is necessary to identify the respective roles of the politicians and the appointed officials and to clarify the interface. It is argued that the interface is not present in only the public sector, but also in the corporate sector. Therefore, the Code of corporate practices and conduct proposed in the King Report should also be followed in the public sector. This recent developments also indicate that the clear distinction that used to be made between the public and the private sectors should be revisited. The result could be that the interface between the political office bearer in charge of a public institution and the senior managers of a department has to be reconsidered.
Author N.E. TshikwatambaSource: Journal of Public Administration 10, pp 186 –200 (2005)More Less
The discussion on leadership and management presented in this paper highlight the complementary and contradictory associations of competencies associated with these terms. Contradictory, the concepts are dichotomized to point out their distinctiveness in relation to activities, skills and applications. The concept leadership management has been coined to signify their complementary relationships and a mixture of respective competencies like salads within a dish, but in an organizational context. It is contended that when the activities, the manner of applying skills associated with each term are sorted; the concoction of different aspects forms a "salad" of some kind. The Emmanditsh Comprehensive Leadership and Management Model is designed to demonstrate the convergence "saladish" point. The model is more integrative than comprehensive in that the activities and the applications of skills are contended to be more incorporated from an integrated point of view. The dichotomisation of activities associated with leadership and management has been argued from the isolationist and disintegration context and from its somewhat distinctiveness.
The integrated leadership management model signals a shift from traditional approaches of managing and leading. The contemporary approach is influenced by active interaction between managers and leaders, and sharing of skills and applications within organizations. The traditional approaches to leading and managing are by no means obsolete. What is traditional, are the approaches and not necessarily the organizations. Traditional approaches may be used in contemporary organization and still produce expected results. In the same breath, the contemporary approach may achieve expected results in traditional organizations. The emergence of a contemporary approach in a particular context is determined by the maturity level of the organization and the wide spread of skills, human resources acquired over time. Leadership management is therefore contended to be a mixture of respective traditional approaches associated with each term, thereby contributing to the contended anatomy of salads within a dish, in an organizational context.