Journal of Public Administration - Special issue 1, November 2002
Volumes & issues
Special issue 1, November 2002
Building and utilizing African brain power to advance NEPAD - a proactive approach : keynote addressAuthor S.T. DogonyaroSource: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 284 –291 (2002)More Less
I am greatly honoured and privileged to be among you today. Let me share with you the story of a farmer who took his mule to the famous Kentucky Derby, similar to the derby here in South Africa. Everywhere he turned at the derby, people looked curiously at him and his mule, to obviously remind him that it was a derby. He knew too well that is was a derby, yet he took his mule there. He told those who cared to ask him, that he did not expect his mule to win, but he brought his mule to the derby anyway. He said he felt sure that it was good for his mule to be among the thorough-breds, to have the exposure. This is how I feel today, standing before this eminent gathering of some of the finest scholars, business people, politicians and policy makers. I am indeed, among the thorough-breds.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 292 –305 (2002)More Less
The advancement of Africa and NEPAD depends entirely on the emergence in this millennium of an African leadership for development. Issues of leadership and operational citizenship are examined and analyzed. The article uses Othello to dramatize and analyze the challenges of African leadership. The scramble to save Africa from within and external is presented. The consequences of globalization are examined. The article demonstrates that NEPAD is not a given for this continent because certain conditions must be met which are succinctly outlined in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the Monterrey consensus and the United Nations Development Programme; Evaluation Office. The article raises questions of shifting goal posts.
In the final analysis, the research examines the importance of leadership if NEPAD was to succeed. Given the history of the African continent, is NEPAD a myth or reality of development? Will future generations be able to account why NEPAD did take off or did not? Answers to these questions can be presented only if leadership for NEPAD is defined broadly and the exogenous factors are also brought into the analysis.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 306 –326 (2002)More Less
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) represents a new vision for Africa premised on core principles such as democracy, human rights and the rule of law. It has at its epicentre the reduction and eradication of poverty and the implementation of national strategies for sustainable development in order to halt the marginalisation of Africa.
This long-term vision is dependent on investment that will provide an impetus for Africa's development. The required investment and funding needed to achieve these objectives can only be secured if the commitment, credibility and resolve of African leaders are clearly demonstrated. NEPAD represents such an articulation, though generally formulated. It contains the seminal seeds for the regeneration of the African continent that has been ravaged for long by wars, famine and other innumerable scourges. The task ahead is to concretise the goals and objectives of NEPAD in a way that will ensure its credibility and popularity.
In order to achieve these objectives, Africa must strive to create conditions that are conducive to attracting investment both from outside the continent and inside the continent. NEPAD identifies peace, security, democracy and political governance as core components of such a vision. This paper seeks to build on these elements by focusing on two core components, namely the role NEPAD can play in the mobilisation of investment and trade. Globalisation is characterised by increasingly intensified cross-border trade and increasing financial and foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. Though it has helped world growth and wealth in recent years, it has not done so equally for all countries or continents. Potential investors discount the African continent as a location for investment because of the negative image of the region as a whole. A worsening of imbalances between developed and developing countries had impeded development and aggravated poverty. The marginalisation of African countries is reflected in their small share of world trade, that was barely two percent in 2000 with FDI under one percent.
In order to reverse this trend, Africa must, through NEPAD, create conditions to attract investment into prioritised sectors. Small highly fragmented markets further hamper the attractiveness of Africa as an investment destination, apart from factors such as political instability and armed conflict. Africa simply does not compare favourably as regards a number of basic determinants of foreign investment.
NEPAD must influence policy on a range of issues by creating conditions that foster inter alia faster sustainable growth and poverty reduction; improvement in living standards and most importantly - to gain international confidence in Africa as a whole. The focus should be on building civic social capital, addressing the lack of trade openness, lack of capacity and deficient public service; and also mitigating the high aid dependency of African countries. These are all issues where NEPAD is well positioned to influence policy both on a national and continent wide scale.
A greater proportion of foreign capital flows into Africa consists of FDI and portfolio flows, while ODA has decreased since the 1980s. This dynamic indicates the importance in multinational corporations as major investors through FDI. Tariff liberalisation within the context of the WTO has had a marked impact on international trade flows.
Africa's part of international trade has dwindled in the last 25 years. Though Africa has had preferential access the European market through the Lomè Conventions, it has not been able to expand its capacity in this regard. Intra-Africa trade is very low, evidenced by the fact that African countries trade much more with the outside world than with themselves. In this regard it is worrying to see the imbalance between trade with South Africa, where the latter's exports are four and a half times its imports from the rest of Africa.
Recent years have seen the emergence of regional economic communities (RECs) with the objective to increase market size and the removal of internal obstacles to African trade. Many of these REC's have progressively moved or are moving to greater liberalisation and integration of their respective economies. Due to different levels of economic development, benefits of integration invariably accrue to the most developed member. No mechanisms exist to address these adverse effects of economic integration, especially where LDCs are concerned. NEPAD is perfectly positioned to address some of the shortcomings in current RECs. Compensation mechanisms to offset such losses may be devised, impact studies in conjunction with UNECA and the African Development Bank (AFDB) may further concretise modalities of integration while also building capacity. Overlapping membership and duplication of functions with RECs may also be addressed under the overarching objectives of NEPAD.
As a political draw-card, the timing of NEPAD may also come to influence the upcoming negotiations between the EU and the ACP on programming for EPAs with the Cotonou Agreement. The political credibility of NEPAD may direct greater synchronicity between the respective RECs vis-a-vis a more harmonised approach with the EU, possibly a single negotiating position. A harmonised approach on this front may yield greater results on especially issues like rules of origin and accumulation and market access. Further, the EPA negotiations also present an opportunity aligning regional outcomes with the multilateral rules of the WTO. Other agreements like AGOA, may similarly be influenced by NEPAD. At the moment, AGOA is not a negotiated agreement, but a unilateral act of Congress that may be amended at any time at the will of the American Congress. This is an unhealthy condition under which the African nations are positioning themselves by adjusting production capacity according to the huge increased demand in areas like textiles. NEPAD is well placed to expand America to commit to greater institutionalisation of AGOA and more security for Africa, not only in terms of access to the American market but also e.g. product coverage, investment issues, technology transfer, technical assistance.
Author Ernie HeathSource: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 327 –353 (2002)More Less
The tourism environment is becoming increasingly competitive, dynamic and impacted by various global issues. Key factors such as changing consumer preferences, the increasing involvement of host communities, safety and health concerns, globalisation of the airline industry, technological innovation and environmental pressures are changing the face of international tourism and by implication are posing new challenges to tourism destinations in Africa.
Against this background, this article focuses on the changing shape and direction of international tourism; Africa's current and future tourism position and potential; the key role of tourism in addressing Africa's key challenges, including poverty alleviation; and then proposes a sustainable destination competitiveness model that can be used as a frame of reference to enhance Africa's tourism competitiveness.
The competitiveness model that is proposed is based on an analysis of leading international tourism destination development and marketing strategies so as to determine key "best practice" trends and destination competitiveness success indicators. Furthermore, key destination competitiveness models, including recent models developed by Crouch & Ritchie (2000), Kim (2000) and Dwyer (2001) were evaluated, and where appropriate, elements of these models were also included in the proposed competitiveness model.
The longer-term benefits of the development and further refinement of this model along with an associated set of indicators that enables identification of the relative strengths and weaknesses of different tourism destinations, is that it could be used by Governments and industry at large to increase tourism numbers, expenditure and positive social, economic and environmental impacts.
Author N.J. SchoemanSource: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 354 –363 (2002)More Less
The slowing growth throughout the world over the past number of quarters has been uncomfortable for advanced countries, but a real source of hardship to many developing countries and a real setback to the fight against world poverty. These developments underscore the need for an integrated concept for answering critical questions about globalisation and the difficulties of specifically African countries to share in the concomitant generation of wealth. NEPAD has to do just that. Success in the fight against poverty is the key to stability and peace in the twenty first century and nowhere is the battle lines clearer than in Africa. This process will require innovative thought from both government and the private sector. Economic growth does not simply equate human progress. Hence the long and central debate as to what, seemingly in conflict, contributes to economic efficiency and what to distributive justice. This debate confounds national economic policy response to our vast poverty and all too common human degradation. It appears as if the latter problem is missing in the core economic assumptions on which the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) rests. The country cannot afford to have unrest caused by growing tension between the demands of the constitution that defines human dignity as the prime task of the state, and the need for disciplined economic policies that would ensure foreign direct investment and competitiveness in the foreign markets.
The embarkation on this high road faces many constraints, mostly on the supply side of the economy. The economy responds growth-wise more favorably to policy approaches that directly address supply-side constraints (e.g. decreases in unskilled real wages, improvements in education, and human development levels and FDI), than to demand-side expansions. The demand-driven policy approaches (such as increases in government expenditure and exports), seem to encounter supply constraints at the four to five percent growth level. There against increased investment in human skills and foreign direct investment, easily raise economic growth to levels above six per cent. Thus, a balanced approach is necessary with well-targeted government expenditures aimed at increasing investment in human capital, research and development, and productivity. In what follows a number of macro issues that require urgent attention are discussed.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 364 –391 (2002)More Less
The spectacular developments that have taken place in electronics, computers, telecommunications, and broadcasting have ushered in the most significant period of social change since the invention of the printing press. Access to information and use of communication tools in Africa have until recently been largely in the hands of state monopolies. But now that the trend towards open democracy and more liberal market oriented policies has become established on the African continent, there is a marked improvement in the availability and diversity of information and communication channels. The article provides a comprehensive overview of global context and trends of Information Communication Technology (ICT), challenges and rising ICT in Africa, and the contribution of the M-Cell / MTN Group in bridging the digital divide in Africa. The M-Cell / MTN Group is a diversified multi-national corporation capable of delivering the full value chain of communication services : from fixed, mobile to satellite, with Internet companies, and multi-media content through barriers and mobile solutions. The M-Cell / MTN Group does not see its social responsibility as conflicting with its business objectives; rather, it sees its role as a good corporate citizen in helping to build a stronger business while contributing to the African Renaissance by improving the quality of life of the communities within which the company operates.
Author Yasukuni EnokiSource: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 392 –397 (2002)More Less
One of the features of NEPAD is to accord high priority to the role of private investment and trade. With regard to private investment, NEPAD stipulates the following;
- NEPAD focuses on debt reduction and Official Development Assistance (ODA) as complementary external resources required in the short to medium term, and addresses private capital flows as a longer-term concern.
- The basic principle of improved governance is a requirement for increased capital flows, so that participation in the Economic and Political Governance Initiatives is a prerequisite for participation in the Capital Flows Initiative.
Author Tom FraserSource: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 398 –404 (2002)More Less
Murray & Roberts is currently celebrating it's 100TH year of Heritage and Innovation as an African organisation based in Africa. Murray & Roberts, like Africa, is also in a process of transition, a process known as "Rebuilding Murray & Roberts"
Looking at the transformation needs and challenges of Africa, NEPAD is seen as the vision, blueprint and catalyst for Africa's transformation, designed to ultimately position Africa in its rightful place in the world economy as an equal global partner.
Murray and Roberts, Africa and NEPAD are in transition together, and have many commonalities. All are African based, have a common destiny and a common framework of values, being good corporate governance, transparency, responsible and involved corporate citizenship, passion, and most importantly, support the principles of sustainable development and value creation.
Author M.E. MkwanaziSource: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 405 –411 (2002)More Less
The key challenge for NEPAD is to normalize the fundamental relationship between Africa and the developed world. The abnormal relationship of dependency needs to be changed in such a way that Africa can interact with the developed world as equals.
The viewpoint will focus on transport infrastructure development in support of NEPAD, from a Transnet perspective. The infrastructure includes seaports, railways and telecommunication. The viewpoint will highlight macro environment forces, background on Transnet, Transnet's strategic business involvement in Africa, and key strategic issues.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 37, pp 412 –416 (2002)More Less
For Africa to achieve its objective of sustainable growth and development, the private sector needs to make a significant contribution. Business advisory firm Ernst & Young's Structured Finance Division and South African based consulting engineering group, Stewart Scott, propose the establishment of the Millennium Africa Feasibility Fund. The Fund would be dedicated to financing feasibility studies of selected large-scale African-based projects. The Fund inter alia needs to be sustainable and correctly managed.