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n Journal of Public Administration - Towards a model to enhance Africa's sustainable tourism competitiveness
The tourism environment is becoming increasingly competitive, dynamic and impacted by various global issues. Key factors such as changing consumer preferences, the increasing involvement of host communities, safety and health concerns, globalisation of the airline industry, technological innovation and environmental pressures are changing the face of international tourism and by implication are posing new challenges to tourism destinations in Africa.
Against this background, this article focuses on the changing shape and direction of international tourism; Africa's current and future tourism position and potential; the key role of tourism in addressing Africa's key challenges, including poverty alleviation; and then proposes a sustainable destination competitiveness model that can be used as a frame of reference to enhance Africa's tourism competitiveness.
The competitiveness model that is proposed is based on an analysis of leading international tourism destination development and marketing strategies so as to determine key "best practice" trends and destination competitiveness success indicators. Furthermore, key destination competitiveness models, including recent models developed by Crouch & Ritchie (2000), Kim (2000) and Dwyer (2001) were evaluated, and where appropriate, elements of these models were also included in the proposed competitiveness model.
The longer-term benefits of the development and further refinement of this model along with an associated set of indicators that enables identification of the relative strengths and weaknesses of different tourism destinations, is that it could be used by Governments and industry at large to increase tourism numbers, expenditure and positive social, economic and environmental impacts.
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