Journal of Public Administration - Volume 42, Issue 3, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 42, Issue 3, 2007
Author C. ThornhillSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 161 –162 (2007)More Less
The state acts in many respects like a living organism. It is created, develops, matures and in some cases even ceases to exist. Like an organism, a state comprises various components with different functions. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 even defines an organ of state in section 239. However, it is important to note that the organs of government are established, in most cases through the relevant constitution. Functions and powers are assigned to each organ and checks and balances are established to ensure that each organ performs in accordance with the constitution. In the case of South Africa, chapter 10 of the Constitution establishes a number of bodies to guarantee that democracy is promoted and to ensure that the Preamble to the Constitution is honoured. Political office bearers and appointed officials responsible for the governing and the administrative functions are assigned duties to acknowledge society's value system.
Author S.M. MadueSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 163 –178 (2007)More Less
The production of research output has become a complex and competitive pursuit. Basic, experimental and strategic research compete more for scarce state and donor funding. In South Africa, research output is recognised through government subsidy-earnings guided by the policy for the measurement of research output of public higher education institutions. In this context, the management of research output at higher education institutions has become a highly professional task that requires the ability to understand and translate national policies and directives at the institutional level into opportunities for individual researchers and postgraduate students to pursue their interests and achieve their potential. A study on how a leading university and its faculties respond to the new policy on the measurement of research output in relation to the New Public Management might assist other institutions of higher learning to manage and improve their research output.
Author E.O. IjeomaSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 179 –194 (2007)More Less
The history of Pan-Africanism is a subject that has attracted considerable interest among scholars and practitioners in African development issues. Pan- Africanism is associated with the quest for political independence by the early African leaders and freedom fighters alike. Soon after Ghana, obtained independence in 1958 (the third country to do so after the Second World War), Kwame Nkrumah warned the African continent that without serious commitment to a people-centered development process and mutual reliance, and without political unity at the continental level, neocolonialism would continue to balkanize Africa and poverty will be perpetuated. The focus of this article is not simply to give coherence to a shared ideology of Nkrumah and other frontline African leaders, but also to critique the Pan-Africanist ideology, revealing its myths, falsifications and lacunae, reinforcing its strong points and identifying its new sources of energy and new challenges facing the African continent in dealing with integration and other common issues. Links were made between the notions of nationalism; ethnicity and other related issues that could impact on Africa's efforts towards achieving its much-needed economic integration. Conclusions were drawn on the premises of the new Pan-Africanist ideology, and its quest for African socio-economic growth and development. It is argued that the African Union/NEPAD strategies, if well applied, would result in the realisation of the Pan-African ideological goals and objectives in the new millennium.
The developmental state and conceptual interpolations : a comparative policy-targeting for South Africa within a global contextSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 195 –210 (2007)More Less
This article sets out to explore arguments for the developmental state in Africa and South Africa in particular. A fundamental case for the developmental state is the pursuit of interventionist economic policies as against absolute neo-liberalist and even protectionist policies. However, in a highly globalised and utilitarian world, the gains of the developmental state examples of the Asian Tigers are considered as difficult to replicate in other developing regions like Africa by public governance scholars and global economic policy watchers. Thus, the development arena is pervaded with Western prescribed conditions for aid such as a free market economy and democracy. The developmental state is not a new concept in South African governance. The pro-poor stance of local economic development policies, government infrastructural expansion programmes, social welfare grant policies, as well as employment and business equity policies show a level of government intervention in the redistribution of wealth and social justice. Whether these policies have translated into measurable strides in terms of development indicators are yet to be established. Nevertheless, this article will explore the character of the developmental state as extracted from some recent successes and try to isolate core issues that can be factored into African policy and development environment.
Author M.H. MaserumuleSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 211 –219 (2007)More Less
The article reflects on the progress the South African government is making in realising the imperatives of a developmental state. It examines contemporary engagements on the issue of a developmental state. At the outset, the article unpacks the theoretical antecedents of a developmental state to develop a framework for analysis. In the context of this framework, the article argues that a developmental state is premised on two dimensions, namely social and economic. These dimensions are used as a framework to understand how South Africa fares as a developmental state. In engaging with this question, the article makes an observation that, notwithstanding service delivery challenges in the country, the government is seemingly making significant strides in its attempts to realise the social imperatives of a developmental state. On the economic front, a similar deduction is difficult to make as debates in this regard are so polarised. The article recommends that research on Black Economic Empowerment and its impact in maximising citizen participation in the mainstream economy should be undertaken.
Author T. MoyoSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 220 –230 (2007)More Less
Local Economic Development (LED) has become one of the South African Government's strategies for the creation of robust and sustainable local economies which can help combat the scourge of unemployment and poverty in the country. Important as the concept may be, its implementation has met with mixed success and it has faced many challenges. The article reviews the problems and argues that fundamentally, they are a manifestation of the absence of visionary leadership for the development of local communities. Visionary leadership and management are defined in the context of people-centred, sustainable and transformational development. Visionary leaders, in the words of Davidson and McLaughlin (1999:1) are "innovative whole system thinkers who go beyond the limits of conventional thought in their efforts to truly serve the common good". It calls for the building of capacity at the local sphere, the need to create a critical mass of visionary leaders within municipalities. A pool of leaders should be established to the driving force for comprehensive, pro-poor, community-driven and transformational local economic development.
Author N. NkunaSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 231 –240 (2007)More Less
The South African public service will be judged by its effectiveness in delivering services which meet the basic needs of all South African citizens. As provided for in the White Paper on Transforming Public Service Delivery (Batho Pele White Paper), the matter is not about which services are to be provided, but the decisions about what services should be delivered need to be improved through a participatory public administration. To give effect to the principle of participatory public administration, leaders are present in various public entities. Such leadership is also subjected to the guideline of public accountability which in essence brings in the media as the role player in public service delivery. The involvement of media also ensures adherence to democratic values. The nature of interaction with leaders and the media will have a bearing concerning how the principle of public participation is realised. This strengthens the notion that leaders in the public service need the media in as much as the media needs leaders to realise their objectives. Depending on how leaders view the media in relation to their source of authority, the media will remain an indispensable tool to obtain public participation and ensuring answerability in service delivery. This article intends to reflect the need for the media in inspiring leaders commitment in service delivery and ensuring public accountability. This will depend on the environment created which will require a careful balance of situational theory depending on the nature of leadership in terms of the power source. Leaders will either take advantage of media reporting to sharpen their alertness regarding the situation they are taking care of. The media will then be a force multiplier and will enhance proper adherence to the principle of public participation in service delivery.
Author M.D.J. MatshabaphalaSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 241 –249 (2007)More Less
This article proposes to reflect on the patterns of service delivery in South Africa and the attendant leadership challenges that go with these trends. This article further argues that, contrary to popularly held beliefs, leadership is possible at all levels of the organisation. In addition, this article posits that there is a need for a strategic orientation of leadership in so far as service delivery is concerned. Local government in South Africa has in the recent past been embattled, in several ways. The strategic leadership orientation postulates that leadership needs to be always alive to the needs of the people on the ground, rather than imposition of interventions for political expediency. This article is an invitation to the strategic leadership imperatives for effectiveness and efficiency in service delivery in South Africa. This entails a perpetual analysis of both the internal and external contexts of the organisations, with a view to being on top of how well things are running in service delivery.
Public accountability and citizen demands : considerations for politicians and public officials in South AfricaAuthor R. KalemaSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 250 –259 (2007)More Less
The article deals with the concept of accountability in public administration in relation to the needs of the community. It argues that the community needs not only to understand but also be involved in the process of accountability. It proposes that while community members need not become auditors in a technical or financial sense, they should be involved at various stages of accountability. This is especially so with regard to setting programme goals, discipline and other processes in which laypersons can bring valuable insights into the process of accountability. The article concludes by cautioning that public accountability can only be effective if there is evolution of a democratic culture in the political community.
Author M.J. MafunisaSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 260 –270 (2007)More Less
This article addresses the subject of corruption and how it impacts on effective service delivery with specific reference to the Limpopo Provincial Government. The primary reason for concern about corruption is that it reduces public trust and confidence in the integrity and impartiality of elected representatives (political office bearers and public officials). The different categories of corruption identified and explained are those related to conflicts of interest which include using inside knowledge and influence, self-dealing, misusing government property, outside employment, post employment, gift-giving traditions, entertainment and personal conduct. The identification and determination of the measures for combating corruption ensure that public functionaries serve members of the public in an equitable and impartial manner. Measures for combating corruption include the Office of the Auditor-General, the Public Service Commission, the Public Protector, the Internal Audit Services (Limpopo Province) and the Fraud and Corruption Unit (Limpopo Province). To effectively combat unethical conduct such as corruption, government should implement the recommendations of these oversight bodies. Failure to implement their recommendations damages the image of government as the promoter of ethical values.
Author S. DzengwaSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 271 –283 (2007)More Less
Donor assistance by developed countries to developing countries is an important feature of international relations. Since the Second World War, Overseas Development Assistance has been a vital instrument used by developed countries to promote their geopolitical and socio-economic interests within the developing nations. Literature abounds with evidence indicating that the process of aid giving and receiving is fraught with contradictions and inconsistencies. Though aid is primarily intended to achieve specific objectives and assist developing countries develop according to the gap theory, developmental theorists have pointed to the systematic effects of the very same aid, which undermines the development of these countries. Thus, the history of aid seems to indicate that it is not necessarily a panacea and a magic wand for development. There are cases where it has succeeded and where it has failed. How the issue of foreign aid is managed and understood within the South African developmental context is a subject for constant debates and policy studies.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 284 –297 (2007)More Less
The transformation of the Republic of South Africa as a result of the 1994 democratic elections included fundamental changes in a number of areas. One such area is the restitution of land rights which, is part of government's attempt on land reform. Restitution of land rights is a process meant to restore land to persons and communities which were forcefully removed from their land after 19 June 1913. The Makuleke Community is one of the first communities in South Africa to regain their ancestral land. The significance of the successful land claim is not only about ownership, it is more about the management and the sustainable use of natural resource found on such land for the benefit of the community.
Author A. RahimSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 298 –316 (2007)More Less
Local politics is intertwined with local development. And democratic decentralisation can only promote such development by transforming procedural democracy into an ecumenical democracy. Based on empirical evidence from Kerala, West Bengal and Porto Alegre, this article argues that the success of democratic decentralisation, by and large, hinges on cultivating politics with a human face through ideological interpellation.
Author M.H. KanyaneSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 317 –323 (2007)More Less
Municipal leaders (municipal managers and council members) are at loggerheads with traditional leaders to a certain extent despite the provisions of Municipal Structures Act,1998 and Municipal Systems Act, 2000 vis-à-vis traditional leadership and Governance Framework Act, 2003. The two structures have one locale and focus. They have a common home ground focusing on serving one clientele being the citizenry in their jurisdiction and their paradox is a cause for concern, as it frustrates and compromises service delivery. This article raises critical issues affecting both local government and traditional leaders. The subject was triggered by research surveys and a number of training workshops facilitated by the author. To a certain extent, the operation of the traditional leaders is not completely part of a whole local sphere of government in terms of the planning and practice. The current locale of traditional leaders under the judicial jurisdiction and management of the Office of the Premier in the Province is misplaced and lost in the loop of government leverage. Municipalities' tendency to dictate project planning and implementation without consulting traditional leaders spark tensions between the two. This article attempts to provide a possible synthesis between municipalities and traditional authorities. It also contributes in improving the literature on traditional leaders not only in Limpopo, but South Africa as a whole.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 324 –346 (2007)More Less
Informal trading is a phenomenon prevalent throughout the world, but nowhere more visible and contributively to local economies than in the developing world. South Africa faces similar challenges as any other emerging economy, which demonstrates a duality insofar as its formal and informal arrangements are concerned. In addition, poverty and unemployment, HIV/AIDS and concomitant social problems all form part of the Country's current socio-economic landscape. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 provides local government with a mandate to govern, provide service and to promote development within their areas of jurisdiction. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 stipulates in Section 153 that local government must structure and manage its administration, budgeting and planning processes to give priority to the needs of the community and promote the social and economic development of the community. The concept of developmental local government is extensively elaborated upon in policy documents and legislation, which impress the obligation of local government to apply technologies to further its developmental objectives. The Metropolitan Trading Company (MTC) in the City of Johannesburg is mandated to manage trading within the area of its jurisdiction by acting as a conduit and facilitator to economic activities associated with bottom end trading. This function poses significant challenges, especially if taken into account the extent of poverty and different forms of disenfranchisement, which traders currently experience. Location in terms of finding appropriate trading venues, abiding with the regulatory framework imposed by the authorities (especially the municipal authorities) and access to support mechanisms to enhance their prospects of success (including finance, skills development and product/market options etc.) are all contributive factors to limiting the success and growth that is needed by such traders. On the one hand, a proper system within which orderly trading is assured (such as a regulatory framework that limits trading in particular areas and registration) is necessary and highly desirable. Yet, on the other hand it should be noted that the trading community would remain and possibly even grow. It should be noted furthermore that the trading community would continue to expand even if general local economic growth is significantly improved. Global trends in countries, which demonstrate similar socio-economic characteristics as South Africa, testify to this. Urgent support mechanisms are needed to improve this state of affairs. The fundamental role of these mechanisms is to transform the informal sector and trade into a contributing channel of entrepreneurial performance and job creation. This article endeavours to assess the issues faced by local government in this process and offer some solutions within the frame of a case study.
Author D. FourieSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 347 –356 (2007)More Less
In the process to survive, organisations are dependent on what happens in their environment in which they operate. There are a number of critical components in the changing role of organisations that are, creating a decision-making culture, the aspects of co-ordination and integration, leadership style element, service delivery element, human resource development and personal dedication. The complexity of change will increase and will ultimately influence every organisation. The manager of the future will have to be skilled in managing change in an ever-changing environment. A future-orientated focus and mentality are required to enable a manager to meet the challenges in an active way instead of a passive way by simply reacting to change.
Author P.A. BrynardSource: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 357 –365 (2007)More Less
The mere existence of good policies does not automatically result in successful implementation. Problems with policies often lie in the implementation thereof, thus forming a policy gap. The policy gap pertains not only to practice but also to research in the field of policy implementation. The policy gap can vary, as do the variables involved with failed policy implementation. Policy implementation can therefore be regarded as the missing link of policy. This article draws attention to the policy gap in South Africa and highlights some critical aspects of policy implementation. Policy implementation is merely the expected outcomes versus the results actually achieved. Stumbling blocks in the implementation of policy are not unique to South Africa.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 42, pp 366 –373 (2007)More Less
While carrying out responsibilities there is no doubt that Corruption impacts on service delivery. The impact is very real and damaging. Without having to provide empirical evidence, there is no doubt that service delivery is either inefficient or there is a lack of quality service delivery. If this occurs the poorest of the poor targeted for government programmes are the main victims of corrupt activities.