Journal of Public Administration - Special issue 1, June 2010
Volumes & issues
Special issue 1, June 2010
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 75 –76 (2010)More Less
The Journal of Public Administration is proud of its achievements over the past 45 years. In particular it started publishing special issues since November 2002. Counting the current one, a total of 16 special issues had been published apart from the normal four per annum, bringing the total number printed since 1999 at 54. This is certainly a major achievement for any academic journal. It not only proves the status of the Journal in academic circles, but also amongst authors submitting high quality scientific articles for publication contributing to its listing on the IBSS.
Author M.H. MaserumuleSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 77 –94 (2010)More Less
Usage of the word ipsedixitism in the topic and content of this article is deliberate. The intention is to engender a sense of curiosity. For, being curious is to be in a state of thinking. The search for knowledge is by its nature driven by curiosity. To the Public Administration community of scholarship ipsedixitism may sound alien in the mainstream parlance of the discipline. This may also be the case in the current lingua franca. So, the question is, what does ipsedixitism mean?
This question is, for reasons of contextualisation of the discourse, very important. It is at the outset answered in a comprehensive manner. This is followed by the attempt to determine the impact of ipsedixitism on Public Administration scholarship in its endeavour to create intellectual capital for a developmental state, which is the strategic transformation focus of the South African government in this second decade of democracy.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 95 –110 (2010)More Less
Public Administration has reluctantly been accepted as a science by some of its sister disciplines in the Social Sciences. This may be ascribed to the eclectic nature of the Discipline and its reliance on related disciplines to explain, direct and inform study and practice. Public Administration studies human beings engaged in administrative and managerial duties in organs of state. Therefore, any study should consider the behaviour and actions of human beings in an organisational setting operating in a political environment.
Sciences depend on theory to investigate, explain and predict the phenomena being studied. A science has to be founded on justifiable laws or acceptable theories to develop new knowledge and influence practice. Public Administration is in the unenviable position that it studies social phenomena subjected to continuous change due to societal values and political changes. Thus it has to be able to adopt theories providing for universal truths, but accommodating the new domain of study, e.g. the development of public-private-partnerships and the evolution of the developmental state.
Various theories related to Public Administration will be investigated in this article to establish their relevance. This will be used as a foundation to enter into a discourse regarding the identification of the requirements against which Public Administration theory should be tested. With this as a point of departure the possible development of Public Administration related theories will be discussed.
Author S.B. KomaSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 111 –120 (2010)More Less
The impetus that informs the drive for a developmental state that promotes growth and development hinges on the capacity of the local sphere of government to effectively discharge its responsibilities. The thrust of this article is to examine the current state of local government in respect to its developmental mandate, service delivery and institutional capacity. Further, the article reflects on the cardinal elements integral for the viability, sustenance and excellence pertinent to the local sphere of government in South Africa.
The assertion adopted in this article is that local government is expected to effectively attain its mandatory mission of delivering services that are adequate and responsive to the needs of the community. Hence, the point of departure is that the local sphere of government should successfully shift from mediocrity to excellence in as far as service delivery is concerned. Thus, salient strategies needed to fulfill this mammoth task are elucidated.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 121 –132 (2010)More Less
Whilst many developing countries engage in sound policy processes on macro level as far as economic and social development are concerned, the day-to-day victual needs of impoverished communities also depend on sound policies as well as appropriate arrangements, which take effect in the municipal sphere. Such needs, as food security, is dependant on the establishment of effective partnership agreements among all stakeholders, including local councils, district councils as well as metropolitan councils; the actual entities that are responsible to create the enabling environment in which food security could be enhanced.
In this article, issues relating to food security, partnership models, the enabling environment, and community involvement in this partnership process, are discussed briefly. Public administration practitioners should ensure they contributively involve themselves in this debate. The article concludes by emphasising the need for a proper and structured approach to be followed, of a food security policy is due to be operationalised in practice.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 133 –144 (2010)More Less
The economic recession is, in public administration, recognised as an environmental condition that emanates from the external economic environment within which government institutions operate. Its impact is felt by business, government and communities. The typical impact of the recession on business holds negative implications for government, in particular municipalities and communities. Despite the existing, though limited general research on recession in public administration as a field of study, the recession's impact on communities and the reverse implications such impact has on municipalities remain unacknowledged. In South Africa, much debate, often outlining unclear and questionable strategies, about the recession is evident at the national sphere of government. Notwithstanding the increasing pace of the debate, municipalities have maintained a deafening silence, which leads one to assume that they imagine they are immune. Not a single municipality has acknowledged the impact of the recession on communities or the reverse implications such impact has for them, and therefore they have not developed strategies indicative of their readiness to circumvent it. This silence depicts municipalities not only as dependant extensions of national spheres of government, but also as closed systems that are unresponsive to environmental changes. The impact of the recession is felt in local communities where municipalities have a significant developmental role to play. The recession necessitates local government's power of influence, adaptation processes and sustenance.
Local government and sustainable post-settlement support for restitution : in search of efficient governance objectives in Public AdministrationSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 145 –161 (2010)More Less
Restitution has to be made in a highly political environment, making the planning and design of restitution programmes in rural, peri-urban and urban areas extremely complex. The development of governance structures for restitution programmes is influenced by policy instruments that have to consider taxation effects and their impact on economic behaviour, as well as predict outcomes that transcend the objective functions. The complexity is exacerbated by limited scientific evidence and the absence of evidence-based policy-making, culminating in policy neglect and inadequate service delivery outcomes for land reform and restitution.
The article explores progress made with the implementation of the Nkumbuleni Land Claim (Kwa-Zulu Natal) and examines what prevents the restitution support programme from implementing its policy objectives (guided by the Restitution of Lands Rights Act, Act 22 of 1994). The authors conclude that the attainment of sustainable outcomes in post-settlement restitution support continues to be a challenge to policy-makers, as claims remain unsustainable. Poor communication between stakeholders, the narrow role municipalities play in restitution and conflicting governance structures between "traditional councils versus municipal councils" are seen as the main drivers of programme failure.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 162 –174 (2010)More Less
This article explains the role of the Royal Bafokeng Administration in the promotion of municipal service delivery. The article lists the governing, administrative and management processes which are relevant to the promotion of municipal service delivery. It also examines the traditional system of the Royal Bafokeng, municipal services and infrastructure development. The article outlines a comprehensive explanation of how the Royal Bafokeng Administration has shifted from being a traditional institution embracing the Bafokeng customs, traditions and value system to operating as a corporate entity delivering municipal services. The Royal Bafokeng Administration is future-oriented and has expanded its horizons and aligned its traditional approach to a corporate approach. The article concludes with a synergy between the Royal Bafokeng Administration and the Greater Rustenburg Municipality.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 175 –189 (2010)More Less
On-the-job training, the inculcation and development of skills of employees at the workplace, is a sine qua non for increased productivity and morale. These latter attendant attributes are the bedrock of the broader human resource management strategy, to enable municipalities to improve governance systems. The government has created an enabling environment through the enactment of legislations such as the Skills Development Act, 1998 (Act 97 of 1998) and the White Paper on Public Service Training and Education (Notice 422 of 1997) amongst others, to ensure that municipalities are able to realise this mandate. The ultimate objective is to establish a clear vision and policy framework to guide the introduction and implementation of new policies, procedures and legislation aimed at transforming public service training and education into a dynamic, needs-based and pro-active instrument. Against this background, the role of the training department of the municipality becomes central in enabling the council to counteract employee poor performance levels and poor service delivery by the municipality. This article employs the case study approach at the Emfuleni Local Municipality (ELM), as well as literature review on training and postulates that sustainable human resource management in public service institutions and the ELM in particular, are inextricably linked with the capacity of the municipality to provide on-the-job training to its employees. This is a basic requirement to enable a municipality to provide effective and efficient service delivery.
Author P.A. BrynardSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 190 –201 (2010)More Less
The policy implementation research literature has identified several variables that influence implementation. This article will mainly focus on sense-making in the implementation process. What a policy means for the implementers is constituted in the interaction of their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes with the situation. The understanding of the policy message is influenced by individual cognition, situated cognition and the role of the implementing agents. The implementing agents sometimes reject or fundamentally revise national policy proposals. To take a stand against a certain policy, implementers must first know what it is that the directive is asking them to do. The understanding of directives requires cognitive skills and processes of interpretation. What implementers' make of new information has much to do with prior knowledge, expertise, values, beliefs, and experiences. The article reviews the contribution of cognitive frames to implementation and attempt to make additional contributions.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 202 –217 (2010)More Less
Since the advent of the Employment Equity Act (EEA) in 1999, with the aim, to eliminate unfair discrimination and promote affirmative action in the workplace, implementation has been less than satisfactory. The Act (EEA), a public policy, demands of employers, both public and private, to meet partcular equity targets within their workplaces. The Act further requires that employers should report on progress achieved in meeting these targets. Such targets include, inter alia, the employment of designated persons, disabled persons, etc. Institutions of Higher Learning are no exception.
The article aims at determining the extent of compliance with the Employment Equity Act (EEA) (1998) by two institutions of higher learning, namely the universities of Venda and of Pretoria. In essence, the main aim of the article are two-fold : firstly exploratory, to determine the extent to which the two universities comply with the employment equity legislation, and secondly how these universities have adopted and implemented measures to transform their internal environments, specifically the academic environments, as well as removing barriers to equity.
The various positive steps and measures adopted and implemented by the two universities to eliminate unfair discrimination in the workplace and advance previously disadvantaged groups were investigated, and problems identified in the implementation process are identified. Particular attention was given to employment equity in South Africa and the role of the two universities in the implementation of employment equity.
Planning economic diversification : a local economic development strategy towards economic-base restructuringAuthor S.R. MalefaneSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 218 –235 (2010)More Less
Municipalities in South Africa have undergone rigorous change that has not only manifested in terms of structural adjustments, but included expansion of roles to respond to the changing expectations of roles to respond to the changing expectations of communities. Municipalities have had to engender massive development interventions to respond to their domestic legislative obligations and a plethora of international treaties. Recent legislative obligations not only necessitate municipal philosophies of integration, development, people-centredness, transparency and accountability, but catalysts that conduct business in an unusual way. Local economic development (LED) is among the municipal drivers to facilitate growth. Municipal LED initiatives would be ineffective if they failed to incorporate economic diversification which is deemed a useful tool for local economic-base restructuring. Although the article refers to a South African municipality as a research focus area, the findings of the research apply to municipalities with a rural nature country-wide.
The effects of HIV / AIDS on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan AfricaSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 236 –260 (2010)More Less
The primary means of HIV transmission - sexual intercourse - has been known for over two decades, but that information does not prevent thousands of men and women from contracting the virus every day. The AIDS epidemic creates a high and ongoing mortality in the economic and social active sector of populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemic is being driven by inequities and uneven development, exacerbating existing poverty and human misery. In hard-hit countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS epidemic sets back development with human development figures as low as it was in the 1950s. The epidemic has a severe impact on women as caregivers and on children, the most vulnerable sector of society. All eight Millennium Development Goals are directly linked to the impact of the AIDS epidemic. This article discusses the affect that HIV / AIDS has on the achievement of the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis shows that because the HIV / AIDS targets in the region will not be achieved, most of the other MDGs targets will also not be achieved.
Author J.O. KuyeSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 261 –282 (2010)More Less
This article predicates the leadership dilemmas and progress made by many African countries since independence of individual nation states. The concept, leadership has evolved over decades with several authors attempting to have one universally accepted definition, even though this is difficult. Put simply, leadership is the ability to have influence over people towards the effective achievements of goals and shared vision. Further elucidation will depend on the institution and the context, which in this article, is leadership in the African context as well as those in the Western arena. The comparison of countries exhibiting exceptional leadership accomplishments on the one hand and countries in dire straits on the other hand will further provide an understanding of the importance and benefits of real or perceived good leadership. The article will suggest the adoption of a leadership model most suited for the continent, as it contains the elements that are appropriate for a leadership paradigm that could work in Africa. This article further interrogates the assumption that, decision-making and policy analysis in the public sector realm can be 'rational', against the inherent messiness of politics in the developing world. In this article a thorough examination of the role of different conventional players in the policy process is made, in respect of their capacities to rationalise policy outcomes.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 283 –294 (2010)More Less
Does the current intergovernmental relations system in South Africa add value to integrated developmental planning in the local sphere of government? This question directs the discourse of this article. It is asked in the context of a myriad of arguments and research findings in the contemporary body of knowledge on local government, indicating that most municipalities in South Africa are unable to develop credible IDPs.
The intergovernmental relations variable in this article is explored to essentially establish any possible correlation with the [poor] quality of IDPs in most municipalities. Based on the analysis of official data, theoretical insights and empirical data obtained from the municipal officials, councillors and ward committee members, the article finds that the current intergovernmental relations system in South Africa does not add value to the integrated developmental planning in the local sphere of government in South Africa.
The role and importance of whistle-blowing in building organisational integrity in the public sector : a theoretical expositionAuthor A.J. DialeSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 295 –305 (2010)More Less
Constant media exposure of organisational wrong-doing; unethical dealings and illegal practices have come to dominate the discussions on corporate governance. Such exposures are normally brought about by, among others, stake-holder activism and organisational employees. Usually, in such cases, employees have had prior knowledge about the organisational misdeeds, but chose not to, or were afraid to speak out. If they did speak out, then organisational retaliation would befall the individual whistle-blower without any attention to the issues raised; which tends to bring the organisational integrity into question. Numerous case studies and research initiatives have demonstrated that whistle-blowing can and does play a positive role in strengthening accountability mechanisms in organisations, and, by extension, helps build organisational integrity (Jos, 1991:105-118; Johnson & Kraft, 1990:849-874).
The aim of this article is to explore theoretically the nature of whistle-blowing as it transcends across legal, ethical / moral and social fields. This will be demonstrated using documented South African cases of organisational misfortunes. This exploration will be used to highlight aspects to be considered for a framework in building whistle-blower infrastructure as an integral component of the organisational integrity, both in public and private organisations.
The state of transformation in the South African public service : a case study of the national Department of AgricultureSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 306 –319 (2010)More Less
The exclusion of Africans, women and the disabled from employment and active participation in the economy, has until recent years been a defining characteristic of the South African private and public sectors. As far back as the founding of the Union of South Africa in 1910, laws were passed to improve the lot of the White minority at the expense of other population groups. Blacks, women and the disabled were considered second class citizens not deserving equal and fair treatment in employment or any other vital aspect of life. The post-1994 democratically elected government inherited the negative legacy of apartheid and thus found itself responsible for correcting the many societal injustices and imbalances of the past.
This article investigates the progress made by the post-apartheid government, if any, in promulgating and implementing policies to address the imbalances of the past. More specifically, the focus of the article is on assessing the effectiveness with which the Employment Equity Act, 1998 (no. 55 of 1998) is being implemented in the public service. The study demonstrates that progress has been made in employing Blacks and women, but not in employing the disabled. Possible causes and remedies to address the poor representation of disabled persons in the public service were also addressed. The former National Department of Agriculture is used as a practical case study to add empirical evidence in support of literature survey and anecdotal data.
Towards a review of South Africa's research on corruption in the public sector, 1994 to 2009 : trends, gaps and implications for public policyAuthor K. KondloSource: Journal of Public Administration 45, pp 320 –330 (2010)More Less
The article provides a snapshot examination of what it considers to be 'standard' research on corruption conducted by researchers in South African research institutions. These include the Institute for Security Studies, Public Service Accountability Monitor, Human Sciences Research Council and the University of the Witwatersrand. The article argues that, generally, the studies on corruption in South Africa are short-term, lack a longitudinal research perspective, often fragmented initiative of various institutions, donor driven and do not take full advantage of multi-disciplinarity and institutional collaborations. Hence the conceptualisations of corruption in existing research are inadequate. The normative, legalistic and moralistic premise of the state's definition of corruption is not problematised but is assumed, to be the national understanding of corruption. The article also argues that existing research fails to examine corruption in all its historical complexity and detail in order to expose how various forms of corruption evolved over time. This is important in order to widen the knowledge base and insights of public policy. The lack of innovation in how researchers feed their findings into local and national policy arenas is also highlighted. The articles emphasises the case for better co-ordination of research initiatives and orientation towards long-term research projects, as well as innovative research dissemination strategies to better inform public policy.