Journal of Public Administration - Volume 46, Issue 1, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 46, Issue 1, 2011
Author M.J. MafunisaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 584 –586 (2011)More Less
The articles in this edition of the Journal of Public Administration are based on some papers presented at the 11th Annual Conference of the South African Association of Public Administration and Management (SAAPAM), which took place on 16-18 February 2011 in Pretoria. The theme of the Conference was Fostering Excellence, Innovation and Monitoring of Public Administration in a Developmental State. The said papers were selected on the basis of their theoretical and empirical rigour, originality in seeking to make scholarly contribution to the discourse in the field of Public Administration and Management, and also, more importantly, their relevance in informing policy on various aspects formulated to contextualise the theme of the conference, which, among others, included the question of contextualising a developmental state; governance and policy; network governance, innovation, monitoring and evaluation in public administration; leadership and human resource management; financial management; ethics and good governance; intergovernmental relations; and service delivery.
Citizen participation and engagement in local governance : a South African perspective, Journal of Public Administration 45(4) 2010 : pp 501
Employee motivation in the public service - a fad or reality?, Journal of Public Administration 45(4) 2010 : pp 520 : errataSource: Journal of Public Administration 46 (2011)More Less
Author M.O. DassahSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 588 –607 (2011)More Less
No continent is in greater need of sustained development than Africa. On the golden independence jubilee of most countries, and almost 54 years after Ghana - the first country on the African continent to achieve independence - sustained development remains elusive. Although not all state-led developmental efforts succeed, hardly any state has ever been successfully transformed through market mechanisms only. With economic development stagnating in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, coupled with the phenomenal success of strongly state-driven accelerated development and industrialisation in Japan and the newly industrialising or 'tiger' economies of East Asia, the role of the state in development is at the fore and has sparked debate on developmental states in Africa. In South Africa, the developmental state concept is attracting attention mainly because of possibilities it offers for tackling challenges associated with transformation and service delivery. The possibility of developmental states emerging in Africa is not far-fetched. Botswana is a developmental state based on its developmental success. The circumstances in which Botswana's developmental success was attained are not identical with those of the Asian 'tigers'. In fact, it is impossible for exactly the same conditions experienced by the Asian 'tigers' to exist in Africa for the Asian miracle to be replicated. This article examines why and how Japan and two of the original four Asian 'tigers', South Korea and Taiwan, became models of accelerated development and explains why most post-independent African countries are not as successful as their Asian counterparts. The article has a four-part structure. In the first, a critical examination of the concept of a developmental state is given. It is defined in political economy terms and distinguished from the regulatory state. It is argued that 'developmental state', as used by Johnson in 1982, merely described the Japanese development and industrialisation process; it was not a prescription of what Japan had to do in order to develop. The implication is that, for developmental states to emerge in Africa, conditions neither need to mirror those of Japan nor the Asian 'tigers' at their time. A discussion of some characteristics of a developmental state is undertaken. The second part offers a historical perspective on developmental states, touching on forerunners of modern developmental states in The Netherlands, England (later Britain) and Germany before focusing on factors which facilitated the emergence of developmental states in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The third part examines prospects for developmental states in Africa. With Botswana exemplifying developmental success, in spite of having little in common with Japan and the Asian 'tigers', the article argues that developmental states are not only possible in Africa, but imperative. The fourth and concluding part debunks the 'impossibility theorem' and argues that South Africa has the potential to become a developmental state if it tackles certain challenges and suggests democratic developmental states could emerge in Africa based on sound agrarian rural development policies.
The relevance of the developmental state model to South Africa's and Botswana's public services : a comparative perspectiveAuthor K.J. MaphunyeSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 608 –621 (2011)More Less
The concept of a developmental state (DS) is controversial, misunderstood and often presented as a panacea for Africa's development challenges; but seemingly reflects more hopes than practical solutions for such challenges. It appears that public servants, who have to implement the policies for building the DS, play a minimal role in articulating the vision or relevant approaches for such a state. South Africa and Botswana are frequently cited in the literature as African examples of a DS (see Maserumule, 2007; Mbabazi, 2005; Mkandawire, 2001; Naidoo, 2006; Osei-Hwedie, 2001 and Sindzingre, 2004). The defining characteristics of a DS are that it must have a professional public or civil service, a "strong bureaucracy" along with a cocktail of other requirements for building a DS; such as a prominent state role in the economy similar to what the "Asian Tigers" (Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea) experienced between 1960 and 1970. Asian Tigers generally symbolise a transition from low economic growth (as experienced by African countries) to high-level growth frequently associated with the developmental state model. Using Botswana and South Africa as case study examples, this article argues that public administration practitioners in these countries have not interrogated the implications of their countries' adoption or implementation of developmental policies; which their public services must apply. The article argues that African public servants and public administration academics must play a leading role in the debates and search for solutions to the continent's development problems if the DS as a model is to be relevant to their countries. Using an analytical, theoretical and comparative approach, the article examines the political-administrative interface in the two countries and what this means for their DS models. It concludes with a brief assessment of the performance of these countries' public services including lessons Africa might learn from them. Overall, the article highlights the deficiencies of the two countries' public bureaucracies in its assessment of the DS as an alternative development model.
Author N. NkunaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 622 –641 (2011)More Less
The notion of developmental local government has become part of the South African local government dispensation as from the year 2000. According to Smith and Vawda (2003:28) the idea of developmental local government (DLG) emerged from the fusion of the social interventionist goals of the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) and the market-driven economic strategies of the Growth Employment and Redistribution policy (GEAR); the two main national policies of the post-apartheid era for addressing economic growth and poverty eradication. The RDP and GEAR represented different visions for how to bring about equity and redistribution in a deeply divided state and economy. In itself South Africa as a state has 283 municipalities which are wall to wall in terms of demarcation. The notion of developmental local government becomes more complex if it has to be realised within what can be regarded as a developmental state. The idea of developmental state can be traced from a number of antecedent sources and histories.
In South Africa, the accounts of the developmental state are explicitly used in an attempt to elaborate it by specifying its preconditions, characteristics or constitutive elements. That eventually lead to simulating what other states elsewhere in the world have achieved as developmental states. It is presented in this article that the notion of developmental local government provided a unique policy framework for the local government sphere of government. The manner in which developmental local government is conceptualised in South Africa provides a realm for the shaping of a developmental state. The argument put forward is that for South Africa to contextualise its form of developmental state, it must be based on its contextualisation of developmental local government. The notion of developmental local government is presented as having attempted to reflect the characterisation of "developmental" within the South African context. The proposed paradigm or model will enable South Africa to contextualise its systems from the notion of a polycentric bottom up approach in contextualising a developmental state as it has been applied elsewhere in the world.
Incorporating population issues into integrated development plans of municipalities with specific reference to the Province of KwaZulu-NatalAuthor B.C. MubangiziSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 642 –653 (2011)More Less
South Africa's population policy, which is complementary to the country's national development plans, essentially adopts a holistic, multi-sectoral approach. It advocates that efforts to influence the population factors of fertility, mortality and migration are both a means to, and an outcome of, sustainable development. The policy primarily seeks to influence the country's population trends in such a way that these trends are consistent with the achievement of sustainable human development. Indeed the policy explicitly and implicitly responds to the majority of the Millennium Development Goals. While it is envisaged that the policy's implementation is the responsibility of government at all levels, the local government sphere through its Integrated Development Plans (IDPs), is best positioned to purposefully operationalise it.
It is over ten years since South Africa's population policy was implemented and this article discusses the findings of a quantitative and qualitative study conducted with a range of local government and provincial officials in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. The discussion explores the awareness levels of the policy among local government officials as well as the extent to which these officials are in position to incorporate population issues into municipal IDPs. The article concludes with a reflection on intergovernmental relations in operationalising the population policy in KwaZulu-Natal.
Prioritisation of the tourism industry as a local economic development sector approach for rural coastal areas in South Africa : the case of the Transkei Wild Coast communitySource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 654 –668 (2011)More Less
The predominantly rural area of the Transkei Wild Coast has a potential for local economic growth through tourism development. The area has been struggling to develop tourism because of a lack of visionary leadership, lack of resources, and effective strategies that prioritise tourism as central to economic development. This article argues for tourism as a key sector to sustainable economic development in the area. The Transkei Wild Coast and its local economy must be revived so that the quality of life of the people in the area can be improved in a sustainable manner. In this article, the Transkei Wild Coast is briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of Local Economic Development (LED), the local problems, and suggested strategies on how the tourism industry could be encouraged. It is concluded that LED cannot be realised if the local stakeholders are excluded from the process of tourism development.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 669 –682 (2011)More Less
This article examines the extent to which women were represented within senior management services (SMS) in the South African public service during 1999 to 2009. Statistics from quantitative research were used to determine whether women benefited from the equality and equity provided by the government. The results suggest that it will take considerable time for women to reach equality with men as top executives, since the government's target of 50% women's representation at SMS by 31 March 2009 was not achieved, although women comprise 52.76% of the working population of South Africa. The South African public service achieved 34.87% women's representation at SMS, which was a slowdown in women's advancement at a rate of 1.11% per year from 2005 to 2009. Women's representation would not only bring about substantive equality and equity in the South African public service, but would also permit women equal access to the government's decision-making processes. It is suggested that women be given more advancement opportunities, which would allow them to achieve representation and self-actualisation.
Professionalisation in the public service and academia : a scientific perspective from a house dividedSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 683 –696 (2011)More Less
The article focuses on the present debate between police practitioners [the South African Police Service (SAPS)] and academics, as well as among academics themselves within the broad criminal justice field in South Africa, as to whether a qualification in Police Service Management as developed by the Police Service of South Africa should be offered at tertiary level , or whether lecturers in Policing and Criminology should be regarded as professionals within their own right and with their own qualifications, functioning within their own Qualifications Board which will have, inter alia, its own ethical and disciplinary codes.
Based on scientific argument, this article concludes that the Police Service's management type qualification cannot be seen as a professional qualification and that Criminology and Policing, like many other social or behavioural sciences, do not qualify as professions either. To register members on a so-called professional register and then to discipline them in terms of a professional code, would therefore be inappropriate. The authors argue that although most working people would like to be called professional, the concept "professional" should rather be avoided when referring to police practitioners and criminologists, penologists, police scientists and victimologists.
Author O. NzewiSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 697 –708 (2011)More Less
The adaption of the philosophical and behavioural notion of intentionality and its application in ethics studies provides interesting knowledge avenues for the study of the relationships between leadership and institutional effectiveness. Weaknesses in regional institutions have been attributed to the low level of commitment of African leaders to regional projects and technical reasons such as lack of capacity and resources. This article examines the interrelationships between institutions and institution designers. It introduces an analytical angle which connects African regional institutions to the intentions of the designers who establish them. This approach is based on two theoretical perspectives. Firstly, on sociological discourses on functionalism which states that an institution's emergence is precipitated by function or need as determined by its designers. Secondly, on the ethical dimension of intentions which motivates for the responsibility of institutional designers for the institutions they create.
Author Z. MpehleSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 709 –719 (2011)More Less
Gauteng Online was a personal project initiated by the then Premier of Gauteng, Mbazhima Shilowa in 2001 to equip public schools with computers. The Gauteng Online Directorate in the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) was given the responsibility of managing the project to its completion. Later the project was handed over to Gauteng Shared Service Centre (GSSC). The aim was to build a computer network in 2 128 public schools throughout the province that would introduce learners to basic computer skills such as the use of email and Internet services for effective and efficient curriculum delivery, to improve the access to information by disabled learners, and ultimately to supply tertiary institutions and the job market with students who are computer skilled, which would improve the country's economic growth.
This article argues that while there has been significant progress made since the introduction of the Gauteng Online (GoL) project, there has been some unprecedented challenges in its implementation that have caused the GDE to not realise its goal. The challenges that contribute to the slow progress in the implementation of the project are, among others, alleged irregularities in the awarding of tenders, poor management, lack of ownership of the project by local communities, theft of installed computers at schools, and inadequate training provided to school-based educators in the use of computers. The article further argues that stakeholders involvement, particularly communities where schools are, is crucial for the success of any community project.
Mind the service delivery gap : the application of Area-Based Management and Development (ABMD) model at Cato Manor in E-ThekwiniAuthor N. TshishongaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 720 –735 (2011)More Less
Despite various state and civil society interventions in the area especially through the Cato Manor Development Association (CMDA) and Area-based Management and Development (ABMD), Cato Manor is still one of the most vulnerable communities. Cato Manor's situation is further aggravated by the prevalence of growing poverty and unemployment more particularly among young people and by HIV/AIDS. It is against this background that the article is aimed at examining the impact and application of the ABMD model especially in facilitating development, expediting service delivery and promoting local democracy. The triangulation methodology such as interviews, observations and secondary data was used in order to collect relevant data for this article. The article revealed that although a lot of finance was poured into Cato Manor there is limited development in terms of job creation, economic opportunities, service delivery and institutional development and empowerment. Due to the complexity of the area and the influx of people caused by rural to urban migration, for development intervention to be sustainable concerted effort that employs the convergence of grassroots (bottom-up) and government (top-down) approaches to development and development planning are imperative.
"Providing the political space is not enough. Human development depends on the extent to which citizens are able to make use of that space." (De Villiers, 2001:36)